MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 7 Equilibrium

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 7 Equilibrium → Equilibrium : Dynamic state in which velocities of forward reaction and backward reaction are equal. → Physical equilibrium : Equilibrium related to physical reactions. → Reversible reaction : The reaction which proceeds in forward and backward directions. → Chemical equilibrium : The state of a revesible reaction at which velocities of forward and backward reactions are same. → Law of mass action: The rate of reaction of any substance is proportional to its active mass at constant temperature. The rate of chemical reaction is proportional to the product of active masses of reactants. → Equilibrium constant Kc = → Relation between Kc and Kp : Kp = Kc (RT)Δn → Le-Chatelier’s principle : At equilibrium, when temperature, pressure or concentration of any system- is changed, the equilibrium* * shifts in the direction, so that effect of change is minimized. → Degree of ionisation: Ratio of number of molecules dissociated and total number of molecules. → Weak electrolyte : Electrolyte whose ionisation is less. → Ostwald’s dilution law: Degree of dissociations of weak electrolyte is proportional to square root of dilution. Kα = Kα = Cα2 or α = or α…

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 9 Hydrogen

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 2 Structure of Atom → Hydrogen : Represents similarity with both alkali metals of I-group and halogens of VH-group. → Hydrogen has three isotopes : (1) Protium (1H1), (2) Deuterium ((1H2), (3) Tritium (1H3). → Ortho hydrogen : Nuclei of both hydrogen atoms of hydrogen molecule spin in the same direction. → Para hydrogen : Nuclei of both hydrogen atoms of hydrogen molecule spin in the opposite direction. → Water : Exist in three states on earth : (1) Solid, (2) Liquid, (3) Vapour. → Structure of water molecule : Angular V-shape, H – O – H bond angle is 104°27′. Density of ice less than water and maximum density of water is at 4°C. → Hardness of water: Hardness of water is of two types : (1) Temporary hardness, (2) Permanent hardness. → Temporary hardness : Due to soluble bicarbonates of Ca and Mg. → Permanent hardness : Due to soluble chlorides and sulphates of Ca and Mg. → Hard water : Produce less lather slowly with soap. → Heavy water : D20, as a neutron moderator. → Ionic hydrides are also known as Saline hydrides. → Tritium (1H3) is radioactive in…

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 2 Structure of Atom → General electronic configuration of j-block elements is ns1-2. → IA group elements are called Alkaline earth metals. Its general electronic configuration is ns1. → Order of basicity of oxides : Li2O < Na2O, K2O < Rb2O < Cs2O. → Order of stability of carbonate : Li2CO3 < Na2CO3< K2CO3 < Rb2CO3 < Cs2CO3. → s-block elements are metals and strongly electropositive. → 2nd group elements are known as Alkaline earth metals. Their general electronic configuration is ns2. Oxidation number of Alkali metals is +1 and oxidation number of Alkaline earth metals is +2. → s-block elements are strongly reducing. → Li represents diagonal relationship with Mg and Be with Al. → Carbonates of Alkali metals are soluble in water whereas Alkaline earth metals are insoluble in water. → Alkali metals combine with halogens to form halides, these are ionic crystalline solids. Sodium is a highly reactive metal, it is stored in kerosene oil. → Alkali metals are paramagnetic but their compounds are diamagnetic. → Magnesium sulphate is known as Epsom salt. → Calcium sulphate is known as Gypsum salt. → Order of stability of metal hydroxides is as…

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements → General electronic configuration of group-13 (Boron family) is ns2np1. → Boron is a non-metal whereas other members of this group are metals. → Aluminium exists in maximum amount in earth’s crust. → Boron represents abnormal behaviour than other members of the group. → Boiling and melting point of Boron is higher than the other members of the group. → Oxides and hydroxides of Boron represent acidic behaviour whereas A1 represents amphoteric nature and other oxides are basic. → Boron forms covalent compounds whereas other members of the group show ionic behaviour. → Except Boron, other members of the group exhibit +1 and +3 oxidation state. → Due to inert pair effect, on moving down the group, stability of +3 oxidation state decreases but stability of+1 oxidation state increases. → Boron forms more than one type of hydrides. Mainly there are two series of hydrides whose general formula is BnHn+4 and B„Hn+6. → Halides of Boron act as strong Lewis acids. → Aluminium chloride acts as a dimer. → Boron is the hardest element after diamond. → Borazine is known as inorganic benzene. → In diborane, a two electron-three…

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques → Isomerism : Two or more compounds which are different in their properties but have same molecular formula, are called isomers and this phenomenon is called isomerism. →  Types: Chain isomerism : When difference exists in chain of carbon atoms. Position isomerism : When functional group is attached in different positions in same chain. Functional isomerism : When functional groups are different. Metamerism : Functional group is same but alkyl groups attached with it are different. Tautomerism : Special type of functional group isomerism in which both the isomers of a compound are in dynamic equilibrium. Ring chain isomerism : Structure of compound is open chain or cyclic. Optical: Formation of enantiomers of different optical properties by chiral molecules, (viii) Geometrical: Formation of cis-trans isomers due to restricted rotation in compounds of C = C double bond. Conformation : Formation of various spatial arrangements due to free rotation around C—C single bond. → Alkane : Saturated hydrocarbon, paraffin (less reactive) general formula C„H2)1+2, regular tetrahedral structure, H—C—H bond angle 109°28′ and sp3 hybridization in C-atom. → Conformation in ethane : Two forms (i) Eclipsed :…

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons Main methods of preparation of alkanes : → Main methods of preparation of alkenes : → Main methods of preparation of alkynes: → Physical properties of alkanes : Boiling point increases with increase in molecular mass, b.p. of branched chain compounds are lower than that of straight chain compounds. Melting points also increases with increasing molecular mass. Compounds having odd number of carbon atoms have lower value of m.p. Insoluble in water or polar solvents but soluble in non-polar solvents like ether, benzene, etc. Generally, density increases with increasing molecular mass. → Chemical properties of hydrocarbons; Combustion: Exothermic reactions, give CO2 and water vapours. Alkenes and alkynes decolorize alcoholic KMnO4 solution. Alkyl benzene oxidize into benzoic acid. Unsaturated hydrocarbons give addition reactions (H2, Cl2, HCI, etc.). Addition of HX in unsaturated hydrocarbons is according to MarkownikofFs rule but opposite in presence of peroxide. Alkenes, alkynes and arenes ozonolyze and form carbonyl compounds. Polymerization: (a) Ethylene → polyethylene, (b) Propylene → polypropylene, (c) Isoprene → polyisoprene, (d) Vinyl chloride → polyvinyl chloride (PVC), (e) Styrene → polystyrene, (f) Tetrafluoroethene → teflon (PTFE). (x) Substitution reactions: (a) In alkanes substitution of all hydrogen…

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 14 Environmental Chemistry

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 14 Environmental Chemistry → Substances produced by natural causes or by human activities which cause harmful effect on the environment are called pollutant. → Such substances which when present in the environment pollute it, they are called contaminant. → Air pollutants are maximum in Troposphere. → Ozone layer situated in stratosphere prevent us from ultraviolet rays. → Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur cause acid rain. → CFC is the main cause of depletion of ozone layer. → The heat radiations (IR rays) coming from the sun are reflected from the earth’s surface and absorbed by gases like CO2. This increases the temperature and is called green house effect. → Along with CO2 CFC also cause green house effect. → 111 effect of green house effect is Globa! warming. → Pollutants are of two types : Degradable pollutants : Pollutants which can easily break down by micro-organisms. Example : Discarded vegetables, cow dung. Non-degradable pollutants : Pollutants which do not break down by micro-organisms. Example : DDT, plastic, heavy metals, chemicals etc. → Tropospheric pollution : It occurs due to presence of undesirable solid or gaseous particles in air. Gaseous air pollutants are oxides…

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Important Questions Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques 

MP Board Class 11th Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles and Techniques Class 11 Important Questions Very Short Answer Type Question 1. What are the hybridisation state of each carbon atom in the following com-pounds : (i) CH2 = C = O, (ii) CH3CH = CH2, (iii) (CH3)2CO, (iv) CH2 = CHCN, (V) C6H6. Answer: (i) (ii)  (iii)  (iv) (v) Question 2. Identify the reagents shown in underline in the following equations as nu-cleophiles or electrophiles: (a) CH3COOH + HO– → CH3COO–+H2O (b) CH3COCH3 + CN– → (CH3)2C(CN)(OH) (c) C6H5–+CH3CO → C6H5COCH3. Answer: (a) HO– is nucleophile, (b) CN– is nucleophile, (c) CH3 img is electrophile. Question 3. Classify the following reactions : (a) CH3CH2Br + HS– → CH3CH2SH+ Br– (b) (CH3)2C = CH2 +HCl → (CH3)2CCl-CH3 (c) CH3CH2Br + HO– → CH2 = CH2+H2O + Br– (d) (CH3)3 C- CH2OH + HBr → (CH3)2CBrCH2CH3 +H2O. Answer: (a) Nucleophilic substitution reaction. Nucleophile (Br–) is substituted by other nucleophiles (HS–). (b) Electrophilic addition reaction. (c) β -Elimination reaction. (d) Nucleophilic substitution reaction along with rearrangement. Question 4. What is Isomerism? Explain with example. Answer: Compound with same molecular formula but different structural formula…

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 6 Thermodynamics

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 6 Thermodynamics → Energy : Capacity to do work is Energy. → Chemical energetics : Branch of chemistry which deals with the energy changes associated with chemical reaction is called chemical energetics. → In chemical reaction energy is used in breaking the bonds of reactant compounds whereas energy is released in the making of new bonds in product compounds. → Exothermic reactions : Reactions in which energy is released. A + B → C + D,+ Q or – ΔH → Endothermic reactions : Reactions in which energy is absorbed. A + B → C + D,- Q or + Δ H → Internal energy is the sum of various types of energies of molecules of a substance. It is a state function. → Internal energy change (Δ E): Heat given to a system at constant temperature and constant volume is equal to increase in its Internal Energy (ΔE = qv). → Enthalpy (H) : Enthalpy of any system is the sum of internal energy and product of pressure and volume, i.e., H = E + PV. → Enthalpy change (ΔH) : Enthalpy change is the difference of enthalpies of products and reactants…

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 5 States of Matter

MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 5 States of Matter → Three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. These states are interconvertible by the effect of temperature and pressure. → Attractive force between the molecules is known as intermolecular force. → In crystalline solid, molecules are arranged in a definite order. → Molecules in gas are arranged in an indefinite order. → At STP/NTP, T = 273.15 K, P = 1 atm = 101.325 kPa, V = 22.4 L mol-1. → 1 Pascal (pa) = 1 Nm-2, 1 atmospheres (atm) = 101325 x 105 Nm-2. → Boyle’s law : At constant tçmperature, the volume of definite mass of gas is inversely proportional to pressure (P). V ∝ or PV = Constant (At constant T) or P1V1 = P2V2 → Charles’ law: At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of a gas is directly proportional to absolute temperature. (At constant P) → Gay Lussac’s law : Whenever gases combine, they combine in simple ratio of their volumes, if the products are in gaseous state, then their volume is also in simple ratio of the reacting gases. P ∝ T (At Constant V) → Avogadro’s law :…