MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction

MP Board Class 8th Science Friction NCERT Textbook Exercises

Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 12 Question 1.
Fill in the blanks:
(a) Friction opposes the …………. between the surfaces in contact with each other.
(b) Fraction depends on the …………… of surfaces.
(c) Friction produces …………….. .
(d) Sprinkling of powder on the carrom board …………. friction.
(e) Sliding friction is ……………. than the static friction.
Answer:
(a) relative motion
(b) nature
(c) heat
(d) reduces
(e) less.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 12 Question 2.
Four children were asked to arrange forces due to rolling, static and sliding frictions in a decreasing order. Their arrangements are given below. Choose the correct arrangement.
(a) Rolling, static, sliding.
(b) Rolling, sliding, static
(c) Static, sliding, rolling
(d) Sliding, static, rolling.
Answer:
(c) Static, sliding, rolling

Class 8 Science Chapter 12 Mp Board Question 3.
Alida runs her toy car on dry marble floor, wet marble floor, newspaper and towel spread on the floor. The force of friction acting on the car on different surfaces in increasing order will be:
(a) Wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel.
(b) Newspaper, towel, dry marble floor, wet marble floor.
(c) Towel, newspaper, dry marble floor, wet marble floor.
(d) Wet marble floor, dry marble floor, towel, newspaper.
Answer:
(a) Wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Solution Chapter 12 Question 4.
Suppose your writing desk is tilted a little. A book kept on it starts sliding down. Show the direction of frictional force acting on it.
Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 12
Answer:
The frictional force will act parallel to the inclined surface, opposite to the direction of the sliding of book.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Chapter 12 Question 5.
You spill a bucket of soapy water on a marble floor accidentally. Would it make it easier or more difficult for you to walk on the floor? Why?
Answer:
It is difficult to walk on a soapy floor because layer of soap makes floor smooth. The coating of soap reduces the friction and the foot cannot make a proper grip on the floor and it starts getting to slip on the floor.

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Science Chapter 12 Question 6.
Explain why sportsmen use shoes with spikes?
Answer:
Sportsmen use shoes with spikes to increase the friction so that their shoes do not slip while they run or play.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 11 Question 7.
Iqbal has to push a lighter box and Seema has to push a similar heavier box on the same floor. Who will have to apply a larger force and why?
Answer:
Seema will experience more frictional force because the heavy object will be pressed hard against the opposite surface and produces more friction.

Class 8 Science Chapter 12 Question Answer Question 8.
Explain why sliding friction is less than the static friction.
Answer:
When the box starts sliding, the contact points on the surface of the box do not get enough time to lock into the contact points of the floor. Hence, the sliding friction is slightly less than the static friction. This is why the sliding friction is always less than the static friction.

Class 8 Science Chapter 12 Question 9.
Give examples to show that friction is both a friend and a foe.
Answer:
Friction is a friend because:

  1. We cannot imagine to be able to walk without friction.
  2. We cannot write with pen or pencil in absence of friction.
  3. The automobiles could not be started or stopped or turned to change the direction of motion if there were no friction between the tyres of the vehicle and the surface of the road.
  4. We cannot fix a nail in the wall or tie a knot if there is no friction.
  5. No building could be constructed without friction.

Friction is a foe because:

  1. It wears out the materials such as shoes, screws and ball bearings.
  2. Friction causes heat. When a machine. is operated, heat generated causes much wastage of energy. Thus, Friction acts as a friend as well as a foe. Also, friction is a necessary evil.

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Question 10.
Explain why objects moving in fluids must have special shapes.
Answer:
When objects move through fluids, they have to overcome the friction acting on them. Efforts are therefore made to minimize the friction so objects are given special shapes. Idea of such shapes come from the body structure of birds and fishes which have to move about in fluids all the time. Such shapes are called streamlined. Giving such shapes to the ships, planes and cars is called streamlining.

MP Board Class 8th Science Friction NCERT Extended Learning – Activities and Projects

Question 1.
What role does friction play in the sport of your choice? Collect some pictures of that sport in action where friction is either supporting it or opposing it. Display these pictures with proper captions on the bulletin board of your classroom.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 2.
Imagine that friction suddenly vanishes. How would the life be affected. List ten such situations.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 3.
Visit a shop which sells sports shoes. Observe the soles of shoes meant for various sports. Describe your observations.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 4.
A toy to play with:
Take an empty matchbox. Take out its tray. Cut a used refill of a ball pen of the same width as the tray as shown in the figure below. Fix the refill with two pins on the top of the tray as shown in Fig. 12.2. Make two holes on the opposite sides of the tray. Make sure that the holes are large enough to allow a thread to pass through them easily. Take a thread about a metre long and pass it through the holes as shown. Fix beads at the two ends of the thread so that it does not come out. Insert the tray in the outer cover of the matchbox. Suspend the match box by the thread. Leave the thread loose. The match box will start falling down due to gravity. Tighten the thread now and observe what happens. Explain your observation. Can you relate it to friction?
MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Friction 2
Answer:
Do yourself.

MP Board Class 8th Science Friction NCERT Additional Important Questions

A. Short Answer Type Questions

Question l.
What is friction?
Answer:
The force acting equal and opposite surfaces? Does it depend on the smoothness to the relative motion of two objects in of the surface?
contact is known as friction.

Question 2.
How is friction caused? the surfaces. Yes, it depends on the
Answer:
Friction is caused by the irregularities smoothness of the surface. It is the least on the two surfaces in contact. the smoothest surface.

Question 3.
In which direction does friction work? Smooth surfaces provide less friction, whereas
Answer:
Frictions works opposite to the motion, rough surfaces provide more friction.

Question 4.
Is the friction the same for all the
Answer:
No, friction is not the same for all

B. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 5.
Why does the friction between two
Answer:
Since the friction is due to the interlocking of irregularities in the two surfaces which slide with respect to each other, it is obvious that the force of friction will increase if the two surfaces are pressed harder. One can experience it by dragging a mat when nobody is sitting on it and when a person is sitting on it.

Question 6.
What would happen if there were no force of friction? Imagine and describe in your own words.
Answer:
If there were no friction, many problems could have been arise. One cannot able to walk if there were no friction at all. One could not write with pen or pencil, if there were no friction. When one is writing with chalk on the blackboard, its rough surface rubs off some chalk particles. So, we can se the writing on the black board. If any object just started moving, it would never stop. Had there been no friction between the tyres of the automobiles and the road, they could not be started or stopped or turned to change the direction of motion. One could not fix a nail in the wall or knot. Also, without friction no building could so constructed.

Question 7.
It is easy to move an object on a sliding surface than the plane surface. Why?
Answer:
Every surface has some irregularities on it. On a plane surface these irregularities get interlocked easily and it becomes a little hard for the object to move. In case of sliding surfaces, the irregularities do not get enough time to interlock, so the object moves easily on the sliding surface.

Question 8.
Why is friction called an evil?
Answer:
Friction is an evil. It causes a lot of problems for us. It wears out the objects or materials on which it acts. The soles of our shoes get worn due to friction. The floors, machines, their parts, clothes, metals etc., get weared due to the friction they bear. Friction spoils the parts of the machines. They are, therefore, regularly lubricated to minimise friction. Friction produces heat, which further damages the objects on which it is exerted. The grooves of the tyres are finished due to regular friction they bear, which is offered by their regular motion on roads. Except this wear and tear, friction utilize a large amount of energy spent to overcome it.

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 3 Synthetic Fibres and Plastics

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 3 Synthetic Fibres and Plastics

MP Board Class 8th Science Synthetic Fibres and Plastics NCERT Textbook Exercises

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 3 Question 1.
Explain why some fibres are called synthetic.
Answer:
All fibres are not natural. Some fibres are man-made. The fibres made artificially are called synthetic fibres.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 3 Question 2.
Mark (√) the correct answer:
Rayon is different from synthetic fibres because
(a) it has a silk-like appearance.
(b) it is obtained from wood pulp.
(c) its fibres can also be woven like those of natural fibres.
Answer:
(b) it is obtained from wood pulp.

Class 8 Science Chapter 3 Mp Board Question 3.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
(a) Synthetic fibres are also called or fibres.
(b) Synthetic fibres are synthesised from raw material called
(c) Like synthetic fibres, plastic is also
Answer:
(a) artificial, man-made
(b) petrochemicals
(c) polymer

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Question 4.
Give examples which indicate that nylon fibres are very strong.
Answer:
Nylon fibres are used to make ropes for rock climbing and for parachutes.

Mp Board Class 8th Science Solution Question 5.
Explain why plastic containers are favoured for storing food.
Answer:
The main advantages of using plastic containers for storing food are:

  1. plastic has light weight.
  2. lower price
  3. good strength and
  4. are easy to handle.

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Science Question 6.
Explain the difference between the thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics.
Answer:
Difference between Thermoplastic and Thermosetting plastics:
Mp Board Class 8th Science Solution

Mp Board 8th Class Science Solutions Question 7.
Explain why the following are made of thermosetting plastics.
(a) Saucepan handles
(b) Electric plugs/switches/plug boards.
Answer:
(a) Thermosetting plastic does not soften on heating. Also it is a bad conductor of heat. This is why saucepan handles are made of bakelite which is a thermosetting plastic.

(b) Thermosetting plastic cannot be softened on heating. It is a bad conductor of heat as well as electricity. This is why electric plugs/switches/plug boards are made of backelite which is a thermosetting plastics.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Solution Chapter 3 Question 8.
Categorise the materials of the following products into can be recycled and Cannot be recycled:
Telephone instruments, plastic toys, cooker handles, carry bags, ball point pens, plastic bowls, plastic covering on electrical wires, plastic chairs, electrical switches.
Answer:
Materials can be recycled: Telephone instruments, plastic toys, ball point pens, plastic bowls. (As these are thermoplastics, so these can be recycled).
Materials cannot be recycled: Cooker handles, carry bags, plastics, covering; on electric wire, plastic chairs, etc. (As these are thermosetting, so cannot be recycled.)

Class 8 Science Solution Mp Board Question 9.
Rana wants to buy shirts for summer. Should he buy cotton shirts or shirts made from synthetic material? Advise Rana, a giving your reason.
Answer:
I will advise Rana to wear cotton clothes. Synthetic fibres do not absorb water or sweat. They stick to the body in summer and do not allow ventilation of air. Thus, they made us uncomfortable during summer. Cotton clothes which are natural fabric, do not contain heat, instead they reflect out heat. Besides, they also provide aeration. So, during summer, we prefer cotton clothes and not the synthetic clothes.

Class 8 Science Chapter 3 Question Answer Question 10.
Give examples to show that plastics are noncorrosive in nature.
Answer:
The plastics are non-corrosive, that is, they do not react or do not have chemical reaction with the materials contained in it. That is why containers like bucket, mug, water bottles and food containers are made up of plastics.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution English Medium Question 11.
Should the handle and bristles of a tooth brush be made of the same material? Explain your answer.
Answer:
Handle and bristles of a tooth brush should be made of different materials because they have different uses and require different properties in the material, for example, bristles should be much more flexible than the handle.

Mp Board Solution Science Class 8 Question 12.
Avoid plastics as far as possible’. Comment on this advice.
Answer:
Plastic takes several years to decompose. So it is not environment friendly. Burning of plastic releases lots of poisonous gases which cause pollution to the atmosphere. The burning process of plastics is quite slow and it is not burnt completely. Therefore, use of plastics should be avoided as far as possible.

Class 8 Science Mp Board Solution Question 13.
Match the terms of column A correctly with the phrases given in column B.

A B
(i) Polyester (a) Prepared by using wood pulp
(ii) Teflon (b) Used for making parachutes and stockings
(iii) Rayon (c) Used to make non-stick cookwares
(iv) Nylon (d) Fabrics do not wrinkle easily.

Answer:

A B
(i) Polyester (d) Fabrics do not wrinkle easily.
(ii) Teflon (c) Used to make non-stick cookwares
(iii) Rayon (a) Prepared by using wood pulp
(iv) Nylon b) Used for making parachutes and stockings

MP Board Class 8th Science Synthetic Fibres and Plastics NCERT Intext and Activities Projects

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Subject Science Question 14.
‘Manufacturing synthetic fibres is actually helping conservation of forests’. Comment.
Answer:
Synthetic fibres like nylon, rayon and polyesters are good substitutes for natural fibres like cotton, silk and jute. Thus, we do not require more lands for the cultivation of cotton and jute crops. In this way, manufacturing synthetic fibres is actually helping conservation of forests.

Class 8 Mp Board Solution Science Question 15.
Describe an activity to show that thermosetting is a poor conductor of electricity.
Answer:
If we make an experimental set up using copper wire, a thermoplastic object, a bulb and a cell, as shown in the figure given below, the bulb does not glow.
Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 3

However, if the thermoplastic object is removed from the circuit, the bulb glows up. This shows that thermoplastic objects are bad conductor of electricity.

Table 3.1
Make a list of some common articles made from fibres. Try to separate them into those made from natural fibres and those made from artificial fibres.
Answer:
Natural and Artificial Fibres
Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 3

Activity 3.1

Take an iron stand with a clamp. Take a cotton thread of about 60 cm length. Tie it to the clamp so that it hangs freely from it as shown in Fig. 3.2. At the free end suspend a pan so that weight can be placed in it. Add weights one by one till die thread breaks. Note down the total weight required to break the thread. This weight indicates the strength of the fiber. Repeat the same activity with threads of wool, polyester, silk and nylon. Tabulate the data as shown in Table. Arrange the threads in order of their increasing strength.
Class 8 Science Chapter 3 Mp Board
Answer:
Observation Table 3.2

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution
You may use a hook or a nail on the wall for hanging the fibres and a polythene bag at the other end. In place of weights you may use marbles (or pebbles) of similar size.

MP Board Class 8th Science Synthetic Fibres and Plastics NCERT Extended Learning – Activities and Projects

Question 1.
Have you heard of the campaign: “Say No To Plastics.” Coin a few more slogans of this kind. There are certain governmental and non-governmental organisations who educate the general public on how to make wise use of plastics and develop environment friendly habits. Find out organisations in your area which are carrying out awareness programmes. If there is none, form one.
Answer:
Do yourself

Question 2.
Organise a debate in the School. Children may be given an option to role play as manufacturers of synthetic fabrics or those of fabrics from natural sources, They can then debate on the topic ‘My Fabric is Superior.’
Answer:
Organise the debate under the supervision of your teacher.

Question 3.
Visit five families in your neighborhood and enquire about the kind of clothes they use, the reason for their choice and advantages of using them in terms of cost, durability and maintenance. Make a short report and submit it to your teacher.
Answer:
People generally use cotton clothes. They also use clothes made of polyester, nylon and acrylic, etc.

Question 4.
Devise an activity to show that organic waste is biodegradable while plastic is not.
Answer:
Do the activity yourself.

MP Board Class 8th Science Synthetic Fibres and Plastics NCERT Additional Important Questions

A. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name some natural fibers.
Answer:
Cotton, wool, silk are natural fibers.

Question 2.
Name two natural and two man – made polymers.
Answer:
Natural polymers: Silk and wool.
Man-made polymers: Nylon and polythene.

Question 3.
What is plasticity?
Answer:
Upon being heated glasses can easily be moulded into sheets or drawn into fibres. This property is called plasticity. The materials which possess this property are called plastics. Clay is another mouldable material that occurs in nature.

Question 4.
Disposal of plastic is a major problem. Why?
Answer:
This is because plastics cannot be decomposed easily through natural processes, such as action of bacteria, etc. Thus, it causes environmental pollution.

Question 5.
Write in short the role of plastic in healthcare industry.
Answer:
We find entensive use of plastics in the healthcare industry. Packaging of medicines, threads used for stitching wounds, syringes, gloves, a number of medical instruments, etc. are some examples.

Question 6.
What is 4R principle for environment friendly?
Answer:
The 4R principle is Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recover. We should develop habits which are environment friendly.

B. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 7.
Give one application each of polystyrene, nylon, acrylic and Teflon.
Answer:
Polystyrene: It is used as packaging material for securing delicate and fragile objects.
Nylon: It is used in making fishing nets and ropes.
Acrylic: It is used as substitute for glass.
Teflon: It is used as an excellent engineering material.

Question 8.
Write advantages that a plastic material has over natural materials.
Answer:
Advantages are as follows:

  1. Plastic is light weight, so it can be easily transported.
  2. Plastic costs very less, so can be made on a large scale.
  3. It is also unbreakable, corrosion-free, tough and flexible.
  4. It can be easily moulded into various shapes.

Question 9.
How can the environmental pollution due to plastic be solved?
Answer:
We must adopt the following to deal with the environmental pollution due to plastics:

  1. We must avoid the use of plastic as far as possible.
  2. We must use bags made of cotton or jute.
  3. Biodegradable and non-biodegra- dable wastes should be collected and disposed off separately.
  4. We must not threw out biscuit wrappers, left out food, vegetable and fruit peels anywhere. They should always be kept in dustbins.

Question 10.
What are biodegradable and non- biodegradable materials?
Answer:
A material which gets decomposed through natural processes, such as action by bacteria, is called biodegradable.
Examples: Peels of vegetables and fruits, leftover food stuff, paper, cotton cloth, wood, woollen clothes, etc.
A material which is not easily decomposed by natural processes is termed non-biodegradable.
Examples: Tin, aluminium, plastic bags.

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Miscellaneous Questions 1

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Miscellaneous Questions 1

Write the correct options to the following questions:

(i) Under whose leadership English fleet reached India.
(a) Duplex
(b) Robert Clive
(c) Captain Hokins
(d) Charles IInd
Answer:
(c) Captain Hokins

Miscellaneous Questions 1 Class 8 Question 2.
The ban on the import of Indian clothes was slapped an act in England in:
(a) 1700
(b) 1813
(c) 1793
(d) 1716
Answer:
(a) 1700

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Social Science Question 3.
Which book has mention of Sanyase Revolt against British:
(a) Geet Govind
(b) Anand Math
(c) Kamayani
(d) Ein-e-Akbari
Answer”
(b) Anand Math

Mp Board Solution Social Science Class 8 Question 4.
The Varna system in ancient times was based on:
(a) Religion
(b) Karma
(c) Yagna
(d) Caste
Answer:
(b) Karma

Social Science Class 8 Mp Board Solution Question 5.
Who said, ‘Democracy is the govt, of the people, by the people and for the people:
(a) Abraham Lincon
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Karl Marx
Answer:
(c) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

Mp Board Solution Class 8th Social Science Question 6.
What is called the upper layer of the earth?
(a) Earth crust
(b) Rocks
(c) Hydrosphere
(d) Atmosphere
Answer:
(a) Earth crust.

Class 8 Mp Board Solution Social Science Question 7.
Narmada River makes shapes at its mouth-
(a) Estuary
(b) V-shaped valley
(c) Waterfall
(d) Oxbow
Answer:
(a) Estuary

Fill in the Blanks:

  1. Alivardi Khan was made Nawab of Bengal in ……………
  2. The Act in 1843 was passed to check …………… custom.
  3. The khadi revolt was led under the leadership of ………….
  4. …………. is easy and useful to impart education.
  5. In our country as per constitution …………. form of governance is established.
  6. The 80 percent area of earth is covered by ………….. rocks.
  7. Bhedaghat ……………… in Jabalpur is worth watching.

Answer:

  1. 1740
  2. Slavery
  3. King Tirahsing
  4. Mother-tongue
  5. Democratic
  6. Sedimentary
  7. Gorge

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Miscellaneous Questions 1 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Class 8 Sst Mp Board Solution Question 1.
On which ground Dalhousie made Avadh province a part of the British government?
Answer:
In 1856 Nawab of Avadh was accused of having misgoverning his state and thus it was annexed to British rule by Dalhousie.

Social Science Class 8th Mp Board Question 2.
When and who established the Asiatic Society?
Answer:
In 1784 Sir Villiam Jones founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Efforts were made to study Indian History and Culture through this society.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Solution Question 3.
Who opposed use of new cartridges at Barrackpore?
Answer:
In Barrackpore Mangal Pandey had stood against the introduction of the new Cartridges and he had been executed.

Class 8 Social Science Mp Board Solution Question 4.
Which are our National festivals?
Answer:
26th January (Republic day), 15th August (Independent day) and 2nd Oct. (Gandhi Jayanti) are our national festivals.

Class 8th Sst Mp Board Solution Question 5.
Which is called ‘Fourth Estate’ of democracy?
Answer:
Free press is the fourth estate of democracy.

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Subject Social Science Question 6.
What is called the originating site of earthquake?
Answer:
The place, where earthquake originates, is called earthquake epicenter.

Class 8 Mp Board Solution Question 7.
What is Loess?
Answer:
Fine particles of sand suspended in wind are called Loess. They are carried over long distances much away and deposited there as Loess. The most important Loess region of the world is in north China.

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Miscellaneous Questions 1  Short Answer Type Questions

Class 8th Social Science Mp Board Question 1.
Mention any one of the reasons of English success in India?
Answer:
There are many reasons of English success. But their policy of Divide and Rule was one of them.

Meaning of the policy of Divide and Rule:
The policy of Divide and Rule’ means to create differences among the people on the basis of caste, region, religion etc. it aims at creating disunity among the natives. The British Government wanted to keep its hold over the conquered people i.e. Indians by dividing them. The main features of the British policy of “divide and rule’ were can be given as below:

  1. They divided India into two parts, viz. the British India and the Indian States. They provided more facilities to the people of the British India in comparison to the people living in the Indian States. This created differences among the people.
  2. They followed a systematic policy of dividing – the Hindus and the Muslims, favouring one section against another at one time.
  3. The British provided opportunities of employment to the sons of the Zamindars and land-lords. It created unrest among the middle class people.
  4. They practiced the policy of‘Divide and Rule’ in military administration also. The troops were organised on the basis of region, caste, tribes, etc.

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Question 2.
What was the Ryotwari System?
Answer:
Ryotwari System: A system of land revenue introduced in Madras and Bombay
Presidencies. The cultivator in this case would pay fifty percent of his produce to the govern¬ment every year.

Mp Board Class 8th Social Science Solution In English Question 3.
Describe about Ramosi Revolt?
Answer:
The Ramosi tribe in the Western Ghats under the leadership of Sardar Chitar Singh revolted against British Rule in 1822. They plundered the region nearby Satara.

Class 8th Mp Board Social Science Question 4.
Define the role of tourism in national integration?
Answer:
Tourism right from the start had been the important factor of National integration. Tourism helps sense of unity and offers opportunity to know our vast country. Tourism brings us very close. People know the problems of each other and this build equal feelings and equal outlook among the people. It is also helpful to know the development in culture, economy and industry. Thus tourism is a means of national integration.

Question 5.
What do you mean by Non-Alignment?
Answer:
(a) Non – alignment – Non – alignment means keeping away from aligning with any other group or power bloc. Pt. Nehru with some other government premier developed Non – alignment as a global movement.

Question 6.
Why the plains are called Cradle of Civilization?
Answer:
Plain-The smooth wide and low lying having low height is the area known as plain. The plains are suitable place for human habitat because people fulfill their needs of food, clothes, housing and other necessities. Hence, all the civilizations of the world originated in plain areas. Thus, the plains are known as ‘Cradle of civilization’.

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Miscellaneous Questions 1 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the battle of Buxar?
Answer:
The English had brought Mir Qasim as the Nawab of Bengal in place of Mir Jafar, thinking that Mir Qasim would as a better puppet. But the English were disappointed Mir Qasim attempted to become independent of the English. In the process, he dismissed the officials loyal to the Company and withdrew the trade concessions granted to the British. This annoyed the English. This also led to the battle between the English in the one hand, and the Nawabs of Bengal and Awadh as also the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam on the other. This battle is called the battle of Buxar. (1764)

The following were the consequences of the battle of Buxar:

  • The English defeated the natives and this paved the way for the English to became the virtual ruler of India.
  • The English East India Company secured the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
  • The Mughal Emperor though got the areas of Allahabad and Kora, but lived himself under the protection of the Company.
  • The Company promised to pay Rs. 26 lacs every year, but soon after stopped paying it.
  • Mir Jafar was again appointed as the Nawab of Bengal and in the meantime the Company amassed huge money.
  • The Nawab of Awadh became dependent on the Company as the letter’s troops were stationed in Awash to protect the Nawab.

Question 2.
Describe the law and order system of British Rule in India.
Answer:
In 1774, the Supreme Court was established at Calcutta. For sometime, the English judges of this court tried to apply English law because they knew no other law. But the Indians did not like it. So an Act 1781 restricted the application of English law to Englishmen only.

But as conditions changed, the need for definite codes applicable to the Indian subjects were keenly felt. The Bengal Regulation of 1793 was passed. It bound the courts to take decisions on the rights of persons and property of the Indians.

The court applied the principles of justice, equality and goods conscience. The laws were printed and published in English and Indian languages. In 1883, the government appointed the Indian Law Commission. The courts were reorganized. Every district came to have a civil and criminal Court. There were Courts of Appeal. The Indians were made to feel that the “rule of law” was being established, which implied that everybody was equal in the eyes of law.

The establishment of law and order was necessary for a peaceful living. This was the purpose for which the police force was organised in India by the company. It was during Cornwalli’s period that the police was given a regular shape in 1791. A superintendent of Police was appointed at Calcutta and soon, such officials were appointed in other cities.

The districts were divided into thanas and each thana was put under the charge of Daroga. Though the police was to maintain law and order, it never became popular. It soon earned much notoriety far its corruption and harassment of the common people.

Question 3.
Write about the status of farmers and artisans of India before 1857?
Answer:

1. The introduction of land laws by the British had a vary bad effect on the economic life of the farmers. They were doomed. They had to mortgage or sell their land because they could not pay the revenue in time. The ownership of lands was inequitable.

2. Land became a saleable property. The new land laws introduced the use of cash currency in the field of agriculture.

3. Cash crops and plantation products became commodities for sale in markets. So land laws helped in an indirect way the Indian agriculture production. Poppy cultivation was encouraged. Cotton, jute, tea and coffee and other cash crops were grown in abundance for profitable export trade. The merchants and Zamindars earned huge profits, but the benefits did not reach the cultivators. Some of the main points that affected the indigenous industries by the Industrial policy of the British Government are as under:

  • The British officials did not patronize the Indian goods.
  •  Restrictions were imposed on the entry of Indian textile products by laws passed in Britain 1700 A.D. and 1720 A.D. Steps were taken in India and in Britain to serve the interest of the British traders and manufactures at the cost of the Indian industries.
  • The company’s agents in India forced the , products or goods or charge 20 to 40
    percent less than the market price.
  • They manipulate the prices of raw cotton. This almost wiped out the cotton textile industry in India.
  • The British goods coming to India were exempted from duties, but the Indian exports of Britain were subjected to high import duty. The free trade policy proved ruinous to Indian industries.
    The Indian artisans were ruined by this policy. They lost their job and they became poorer.

Question 4.
Communal-ism is a threat for unity of Country. How?
Answer:
Communal-ism is a force that has played a negative role in our country. It has divided the country into two parts. It has led to communal riots. At times, these forces of communal-ism result in conflicts among the different communities. These conflicts eat away the vitality of our country and strike at our unity and integrity. To cover up the evil of communal-ism, we must respect each other’s religion.

Question 5.
W rite about the important of voting in democracy?
Ans. In a democracy, the people of the country elect the government. Only the citizens of the country have the right to vote. They elect their representatives who for the legislature. To choose a right kind of representative there is a great importance of voting. We should vote who possess the following qualities:

A voter should keep in mind the following considerations before voting:

  • He should vote only for a person who can serve the cause of the people with devotion and dedication. He should be well abreast with the qualities of the candidate.
  • He should cast his vote in favor of able, honest, selfless candidates.
  • He should not vote under any kind of threat or temptation whatsoever because the efficiency of the government depends mainly upon his judicious exercise of vote.
  • At the time of voting, he should rise above caste, creed or provincial and linguistic feelings because such considerations weaken the very spirit of democracy. Such considerations strike at the root of national unity and pollutes the social atmosphere.
  • He should not vote for such candidates who defect their party after elections. Defection corrupts the political life of the country, brings self-interest to the fore and throws people’s interest into the background.
    In a democracy voting plays a important role.

Question 6.
Describe the types of Volcanoes.
Answer:
Volcano is an opening on the earth crust, in the form of lava which emits molten magma, rock pieces, gases and steam on the surface of the earth usually with great noise and thunder. The lava and other material comes out through deep tissues in the crust. Sometimes, this material gets deposited around the opening of volcano called vent and forms a conical volcanic mountain.

There are mainly three kinds of volcanoes:
1. Active Volcano:
There are volcanoes which keep on erupting frequently. Mount Etna Sicily and Barren Island in the Andaman Nicobar Island in India are examples of active volcano.

2. Dormant Volcano:
Volcanoes which have not erupted for quite a long time but there is possibility that they may erupt any time. Such volcanoes are called sleeping volcano or dormant. The Visuvious near Naples in Italy is an example of Dormant Volcano.

3. Extinct Volcano:
Volcanoes which had erupted a long time before but have not erupted for the last four years are known as extinct volcano. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania in East Africa is an example of extinct volcano.

Question 7.
Mention the land forms made by the erosion of rivers.
Answer:
The work of river in upper course. The river is powerful agent of gradation. In order to understand the work of river as running water it is divided into 3 parts each part depicting its work from origin to the final destination i.e. sea. Upper part is described as childhood of the river, middle course as youth and lower courses as the old age.

Upper course. When the river originates from glaciers, it flows very swiftly down the slope. The river takes along the stones and rock material etc. with its strong current. Thus the water,, boulders, moving along with the river cause deepening of the bed and also widening of the banks. The river in its upper course is busy in erosion and transportation of material which results into formation of many peculiar land forms.

Some of them are as follows:
Gorge. The river flows through an area which is made up of hard rocks. It cuts constantly the floor of the river (called river bed) and forms a deep and narrow valley which looks like I letter of English. Thus a gorge is formed.

V-shaped Valley:
V-shaped valley is formed when the river passes through an area having heavy rainfall and its bank made up of soft material. The river banks due to rain get widening and the river bed goes on deepening. Thus, giving rise to a valley working, the shape of English alphabet ‘V’.

Waterfall:
Waterfall, is a sudden descent of water over a big vertical step formed in a river bed. It is generally formed at the edge of river, hard rock over laing a soft one. The waterfall, the river water falls down almost vertically along its course.

Rapids:
When the waterfall instead of falling straight downwards falls through the rock by hoping suipping and leaping some ladder by the land form is made it is called rapid.

Cascades:
A series of rapids are called cascades. Alluvial fans. Is a semicircular inform and points up streams. It is broader than alluvial cone but its height is less. The Himalayas, Rockies and Anders form alluvial fans. Oxbow lake, Natural lever and flood plains, delta and Estuary are formed by the erosion of rivers.

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions

MP Board Class 8th General English Solutions Chapter 4 Trees: Our Saviours

Guys who are planning to learn the fundamentals of English can avail the handy study material using MP Board Solutions for Class 8 General English Solutions Chapter 4 Trees: Our Saviours Questions and Answers. You Can Download MP Board Class 8 English Solutions Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary, Guide, Pdf. Refer to the Madhya Pradesh State Board Solutions for English PDF available and score better grades. Simply click on the quick links available for MP Board Solutions for Class 8 General English Solutions Chapter 4 Trees: Our Saviours Questions and Answers and prepare all the concepts in it effectively. Take your preparation to the next level by availing the Madhya Pradesh State Board Solutions for Class 8 English prepared by subject experts.

MP Board Class 8th General English Solutions Chapter 4 Trees: Our Saviours

Do you feel the concept of English is difficult to understand? Not anymore with our MP Board Solutions for Class 8 General English Solutions Chapter 4 Trees: Our Saviours Questions and Answers. All the Solutions are given to you with detailed explanation and you can enhance your subject knowledge. Use the Madhya Pradesh State Board Solutions for Class 8 English PDF for free of cost and prepare whenever you want.

Trees: Our Saviours Textual Exercise

Read and Learn
(पढ़ो और याद करो):
Do Yourself.

Word Power
(शब्द सामर्थ्य):

(A) The letters ‘dis’ and ‘un’ before a word often mean ‘not’. Make new words by. adding the correct prefixes.
(किसी भी शब्द के आगे अक्षर “dis” और “un” अक्सर नहीं (नकारात्मक) अर्थ देते हैं। सही प्रत्यय लगाकर नये शब्द बनाएँ।)

  1. happy
  2. continue
  3. agree
  4. fair
  5. kind
  6. approve.

Answer:

  1. unhappy
  2. discontinue
  3. disagree
  4. unfair
  5. unkind
  6. disapprove.

(B) Fill the right word in the right place:
(उचित स्थान से रिक्त शब्द भरो:)
Answer:

  1. Clothes are made of cloth.
  2. My elder brother obviously is older than me.
  3. My grandfather is old and is child-like, but my uncle often behaves in a childish manner which I don’t like.
  4. We can adapt to western ways of living but not adopt them.

(C) Match the words given in the two-boxes to make compound words:
(दो खानों में दिये शब्दों का संयुक्त शब्द बनाने के लिए मिलान करें:)
Answer:
blackboard; toothbrush; newspaper; teapot; notebook; raincoat; farmhouse forehead, suitcase; bargraph.

Comprehension
(बोध प्रश्न):

(A) Answer the following questions:
(नीचे दिये प्रश्नों का उत्तर दें:)

Trees Were Being Saved By The Contractors Question 1.
Why did the workers from a factory come to the village of Gopeshwar ?
(व्हाय डिड द वर्कर्स फ्रॉम अ फैक्ट्री कम टु द विलेज ऑफ गोपेश्वर ?)
फैक्ट्री के कर्मचारी गोपेश्वर गाँव क्यों आए ?
Answer:
The workers from a factory had come to the village of Gopeshwar to cut the ash trees to make sleepers for the railways.
(द वर्कर्स फ्रॉम अ फैक्ट्री हैड कम टु द विलेज ऑफ गोपेश्वर टु कट द ऐश ट्रीज टु मेक स्लीपर्स फॉर द रेलवेज।)
फैक्ट्री के कर्मचारी रेलगाड़ी के स्लीपर बनाने के लिए पेड़ काटने गोपेश्वर आए थे।

Mp Board Class 8 English Chapter 4 Question 2.
What did the villagers decide when the axe men refused to return ?
(व्हॉट डिड द विलेजर्स डिसाइड व्हेन द ऐक्समेन रिफ्यूज्ड टु रिटर्न ?)
गाँववासियों ने क्या निर्णय लिया जब कुल्हाड़ी धारियों ने लौटने से इन्कार कर दिया ?
Answer:
The villagers decided that they would not let the axes touch the trees at any cost.
(द विलेजर्स डिसाइडिड दैट दे वुड नॉट लैट द ऐक्सिज टच द ट्रीज ऐट ऐनी कॉस्ट।)
गाँववासियों ने यह तय किया कि वे किसी भी कीमत पर पेड़ों पर कुल्हाड़ी नहीं लगने देंगे।

Class 8 English Chapter 4 Mp Board Question 3.
What did the axe men do when the villagers hugged the trees and shouted “chipko, chipko”?
(व्हॉट डिड द ऐक्समेन डु व्हेन द विलेजर्स हग्ड द ट्रीज एण्ड शाउटिड “चिपको चिपको” ?)
कुल्हाड़ीधारियों ने क्या किया जब गाँववासियों ने पेड़ों को गले लगा लिया और “चिपको, चिपको” चिल्लाए ?
Answer:
The axe men were frightened and they ran away.
(द ऐक्समेन वर फ्राइटन्ड एण्ड दे रैन अवे।)
कुल्हाड़ीधारी डर गये और वे भाग गए।

Trees Were Being Saved By The Contractors True Or False Question 4.
What did the villagers do when the contractors chose another forest ?
(व्हॉट डिड द विलेजर्स डू व्हेन द कॉन्ट्रेक्टर्स चोज ऐनदर फॉरेस्ट ?)
गाँववासियों ने क्या किया जब ठेकेदारों ने दूसरा जंगल चुन लिया ?
Answer:
When the contractors chose another forest, the villagers began to march in a procession to save the forests.
(व्हेन द कॉण्ट्रैक्टर्स चोज एनदर फॉरेस्ट, द विलेजर्स बिगेन टू मार्च इन अ प्रोसैशन टु सेव द फॉरेस्ट्स।)
जब ठेकेदारों ने दूसरा जंगल चुना तो गाँववासी जुलूस के साथ उसे बचाने निकल पड़े।

Mp Board Class 8th English Solution Question 5.
What is the work of “Dasohli Gram Swarajya Mandal ?”
(व्हॉट इट द वर्क ऑफ “दसोहली ग्राम स्वराज्य मण्डल’)
“दसोहली ग्राम स्वराज्य मण्डल” का क्या कार्य है ?
Answer:
This organisation works to regenerate the degraded forests.
(दिस ऑर्गेनाइजेशन वर्क्स टु रीजनरेट द डिग्रेडिड फॉरेस्ट्स।)
ये संस्था उन जंगलों को नवजीवन प्रदान करने का कार्य करती है जिनका पतन हो गया है।

(B) Say whether the following statements are true or false:
(निम्नलिखित कथन सत्य हैं या गलत, बतायें:)

  1. Trees were being saved by the contractors.
  2. In 1953, a group of people from a factory arrived at the Village of Gopeshwar.
  3. ‘Chipko’ or ‘Hug the trees’ was a non-violent movement of the mountain people to save their trees.
  4. Dasohli Gram Swarjya Mandal is an organisation to regenerate the degraded forests.
  5. Chipko movement proved very valuable in the conservation of forests.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. False
  3. True
  4. True
  5. True.

Let’s Learn
(आओ याद करें):

(A) Fill in the blanks with suitable pronouns.
(उचित सर्वनाम से रिक्त स्थान भरिए:)
Answer:
Leena was on her annual visit to her uncle’s house. She always enjoyed it because she was allowed to spend most of the day down at the mango grove. Reena’s uncle was a friend of the man who owned the grove and he always gave mangoes at a special rate. This year her aunt joined her, and together they set off across the fields to the grove. The branches of the trees were covered with fruits, and so bowed down with the weight that they almost touched the ground. They spent hours picking the fruit, eating most of them and sleeping in the shade.

(B) Use the words given in the box in the blanks below to make the Past Perfect Tense.
(बॉक्स में दिये शब्दो से Past Perfect Tense बनाने के लिए रिक्त स्थान भरें:)
Answer:

  • Harry had died before the doctor came.
  • The rain had stopped before you arrived.
  • I had reached the school before the bell rang.
  • There was a storm after the plane had landed.
  • The thief had run away before the police came.

Let’s Talk
(आओ बात करों):

Look at the picture given in the book carefully.
(दिये चित्र को ध्यान से देखें।)
Frame the questions related to the answers.
(दिए गए उत्तरों से सम्बन्धित प्रश्न बनाएँ।)

Mp Board Class 8 English Book Solution Question 1.
Where did you go in the morning ?
Answer:
I went for a morning walk.

Class 8 English Mp Board Question 2.
Who went with you ?
Answer:
My mother and sister went with me.

Mp Board Class 8 English Question 3.
What did you see there?
Answer:
We saw a large number of people and children there.

Mp Board Solution Class 8 English Question 4.
What were they doing there?
Answer:
Some were walking about, some were reading newspapers. Some were doing exercise, children were playing and some of them were roaming around.

English Reader Class 8 Question 5.
When did you come back?
Answer:
We came back at 9 O’clock.

Mp Board Class 8 English Solutions Question  6.
Did you enjoy ?
Answer:
Yes, we enjoyed and returned home full of energy.

Let’s Read
(आओ पढ़ें):

Read the given notice which the Cultural Secretary of Vallabh Bhai School put up on his school notice board and answer the questions given below:
(दिये गये नोटिस को पढ़ें जो वल्लभ भाई स्कूल के सांस्कृतिक सचिव ने स्कूल के सूचना-पट्ट पर लगाया है और नीचे दिये प्रश्नों के उत्तर दें:)

(A) Fill in the blanks:
(रिक्त स्थान भरिए:)

(1) Anurag has put up a ………on his school noticeboard.
(2) Anurag is the ……….. secretary of Vallabh Bhai School.
Answer:
(1) notice
(2) cultural.

(B) Answer the following questions:
(निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर दें:)

Class 8 Mp Board English Solution Question 1.
Which ceremony was being held at Vallabh Bhai School ?
Answer:
Tree Plantation ceremony was being held at Vallabh Bhai School.

English Class 8 Mp Board Question 2.
How many plants are to be contributed by each class ?
Answer:
A minimum of five plants should be contributed by each class.

English Mp Board Class 8 Question 3.
Write the name and designation of the student who has written the notice.
Answer:
Anurag has written the notice. He is the Cultural Secretary of the school.

English Reader Book Class 8 Question 4.
Which word in the notice has the meaning complete and enthusiastic ?
Answer:
The word ‘wholehearted’ means complete and enthusiastic.

Let’s Write
(आओ लिखो):

Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper complaining against the cutting of trees, with the help of guidelines, given in the box.
(बॉक्स में दिये गये निर्देशों की सहायता से पेड़ों को काटने के विरुद्ध शिकायत करते हुए किसी समाचार-पत्र के सम्पादक को एक पत्र लिखें)
Answer:

403, D. K. Rainbow
Chunna Bhatti,
Bhopal
15th Oct., 20 …….

The Editor,
The Hindustan Times,
Bhopal:
15th Oct., 20.

Sir,
I would like to draw your attention to the cutting of trees prevailing in our area. As we all know that trees are valuable to us. Trees help to bring rain, keep the air clean, we get fruits from them. Trees help to beautify our surroundings. Hence, cutting of trees shall be a thrust to the environment. If the trees are cut then ecology will be disturbed. The floods shall occur and destroy the crops after rains. So the concerned authorities should take immediate steps to stop the cutting. Strick action should be taken against them.

Thanking you,
Yours Truly
Anurag

Let’s do it
(आओ इसे करें):

Draw pictures of at least five trees and write two uses of each in your note book / drawing sheet.
कम से कम पाँच पेड़ों के चित्र बनायें और अपनी नोटबुक/ चित्रकला शीट पर प्रत्येक के दो प्रयोग लिखें।
Answer:
Here are the names of five trees with their uses. Students can draw their pictures themselves in their drawing sheet.

MP Board Class 8th geranal English Chapter 4 Trees Our Saviours

Trees: Our Saviours Word Meanings

Arrive (अराइव) – पहुँचना; Achieve (ऐचीव) – प्राप्त करना; Conservation (कन्सरवेशन) – सुरक्षित रखना; Comforts (कम्फर्ट्स) – सुख साधन; Deforestation (डीफॉरेस्टेशन) – वन कटाई; Destroy (डेस्ट्रॉय) – नष्ट करना; Degrade (डिग्रेड) – दरजा घटाना; Frighten (फ्राइटन) – भयभीत करना; Flood (फ्लड) – बाढ़; Hug (हग) – लिपटना; Huge (ह्यूज) – विशाल; Incident (इन्सिडेन्ट) – घटना, Landslide (लैन्डस्लाइड) – भू-स्खलन; Livelihood (लाइवलिहुड) – आजीविका, रोजी; Neglect ( गलैक्ट)-ध्यान नहीं रखना; Non – violent (नॉन-वाइलेंट) — अहिंसात्मक; Organisation (ऑर्गनाइजेशन) – संगठन; Prevent (प्रिवेन्ट) – नहीं होने देना; Procession (प्रोसेशन) – जलूस; Precious (प्रैशस) – कीमती; Regenerate (रिजेनरेट) – नवजीवन प्रदान करना; Unforgettable (अनफॉरगैटेबल) – अविस्मरणीय; fodder (फॉडर) – चारा; Erosion (ईरोजन) – (भू) क्षरण, नाश।

Trees: Our Saviours Summary, Pronunciation & Translation

1. The forests of the Himalayan region have played an important role in the life of the people of Uttarakhand. They have been supplying fodder for their cattle, wood for fuel, fruits for food and herbs for medical treatment. The forests have also prevented floods and soil erosion in the area during the monsoon season.

द फॉरेस्ट्स ऑफ द हिमालयान रीजन हैव प्लेड ऐन इम्पोर्टेट रोल इन द लाइफ ऑफ द पीपुल ऑफ उत्तराखण्ड. दे हैव बीन सप्लाइंग फोडर फॉर देअर कैटल, वुड फॉर फ्युअल, फ्रूट्स फॉर फूड एण्ड हर्ब्स फॉर मेडिकल ट्रीटमेंट. द फॉरेस्ट्स हैव ऑल्सो प्रीवेन्टिड फ्लड्स एण्ड सॉइल इरोजन इन द एरिया ड्यूरिंग द मानसून सीजन.

अनुवाद:
हिमालय क्षेत्र के जंगलों की उत्तराखण्ड के लोगों के जीवन में एक महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका रही है। वे उनके जानवरों के लिए चारा, ईंधन के लिए लकड़ी, भोजन के लिए फल और चिकित्सा के लिए जड़ी-बूटियाँ प्रदान करते हैं। वन बरसात के मौसम में बाढ़ और भूमि क्षरण से इस क्षेत्र का बचाव भी करते हैं।

2. During the 1970’s, however deforestation began. Trees were cut down. As a result, there was nothing to hold the soil. The rushing rain water carried away not only the soil, but also huge rocks, causing landslides, filling up the rivers, leading to floods. Further owing to the forest trees being taken away, the people who depended on them for food and fuel, faced great difficulty. They had to walk longer distances to collect firewood for cooking, plants for food and medicines, and to graze their cattle.

ड्यूरिंग द 1970′ (नाइन्टीन सेवन्टीज) हाउएवर डिफॉरेस्टेशन बिगेन. ट्रीज़ वर कट डाउन. ऐज़ अ रिजल्ट, देअर वाज़ नथिंग टु होल्ड द सॉइल. द रशिंग रेन वाटर कैरिड अवे नॉट ऑनली द सॉइल, बट आल्सो ह्यूज रॉक्स, कॉजिंग लैण्डस्लाइड्स, फिलिंग अप द रिवर्स, लीडिंग टु फ्लड्स. फर्दर ओइंग टु द फॉरेस्ट ट्रीज बीइंग टेकन अवे, द पीपुल हूँ डिपेन्डिड ऑन दैम फॉर फूड एण्ड फ्यूअल, फेस्ड ग्रेट डिफीकल्टी. दे हैड टु वॉक लांगर डिस्टेन्सिस टु कलैक्ट फायरवुड फॉर कुकिंग, प्लांट्स फॉर फूड एण्ड मेडीसिन्स, एण्ड टु ग्रेज देअर केटल.

अनुवाद:
उन्नीस सौ सत्तर के दशक में जंगलों की कटाई आरम्भ हुई। वृक्षों को काटा गया था। परिणामस्वरूप मृदा को क्षरण से रोकने को कुछ नहीं था। तेज बहते हुए वर्षा का जल अपने साथ केवल मिट्टी ही नहीं बल्कि विशाल चट्टानें ले जाता था जिससे भूस्खलन होता था और इनसे नदियाँ भर जाने पर बाढ़ आ जाती थी। इसके अतिरिक्त जंगल से पेड़ों को हटाने से, लोग जो भोजन और ईंधन के लिए उन पर निर्भर थे, उन्होंने बड़ी परेशानी का सामना किया। उन्हें खाना पकाने के लिए लकड़ी, भोजन एवं दवाइयों के लिए पौधे इकट्ठा करने और अपने पशुओं को चराने दूर-दूर तक जाना पड़ता था।

3. The people were angry but helpless. They did not know what they, the simple villagers, could do to stop the destruction of their forests. For a long time rich forests had been destroyed by the contractors. One morning in March 1973, a group of people from a factory that made railway goods arrived at the village of Gopeshwar, in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand. They had come to cut the ash trees. The wood was to be used to make sleepers for the railways in the plains. The villagers requested the axe men to go back, but they refused to return. The people decided that they would not let the axes touch the trees, no matter what happened. They said,

द पीपुल वर ऐंग्री बट हैल्पलैस. दे डिड नॉट नो व्हाट दे, द सिम्पल विलेजर्स, कुड डू टु स्टॉप द डिस्ट्रक्शन ऑफ देअर – फॉरेस्ट्स. फॉर अ लांग टाइम रिच फॉरेस्ट्स हैड बीन डेस्ट्रायड बाइ द कॉन्ट्रेक्टर्स. वन मार्निंग इन मार्च 1973, अ ग्रुप ऑफ पीपुल फ्रॉम अ फैक्ट्री दैट मेड रेलवे गुड्स एराइव्ड ऐट द विलेज ऑफ गोपेश्वर, इन चमोली डिस्ट्रिक्ट ऑफ उत्तराखण्ड. दे हैड कम टु कट द एश ट्रीज. द वुड वाज टु बी यूज्ड टु मेक स्लीपर्स फॉर द रेल्वेज इन द प्लेन्स. द विलेजर्स रिक्वेस्टिड द एक्समैन टु गो बैक, बट दे रिफ्यूज्ड टु रिटर्न. द पीपुल डिसाइडिड दैट दे वुड नॉट लैट द एक्सेज टच द ट्रीज, नो मैटर व्हॉट हैपन्ड. दे सैड,.

अनुवाद:
लोग क्रुद्ध थे परन्तु असहाय थे। वे नहीं जानते थे कि वे, साधारण ग्रामीण, अपने वनों का विनाश रोकने के लिए क्या करें। एक लम्बे अर्से से समृद्ध वनों को ठेकेदारों द्वारा नष्ट किया जा रहा था। मार्च, 1973 की एक सुबह, उत्तराखण्ड के चमोली जिले के गोपेश्वर गाँव में रेलवे कोच बनाने वाले एक कारखाने के लोगों का एक समूह आया। वे मोहिन वृक्षों को काटने आये थे। लकड़ी का प्रयोग मैदानी क्षेत्रों में रेल्वे के लिए स्लीपर बनाने में किया जाना था। ग्रामीणों ने पेड़ काटने वालों से वापस जाने की प्रार्थना की परन्तु उन्होंने वापस जाने से मना कर दिया। लोगों ने तब यह तय किया कि चाहे जो हो जाए वह कुल्हाड़ियों को उन वृक्षों को छूने नहीं देंगे। उन्होंने कहा,

4. “Let us save our precious trees. Let us hug them so that no one can reach them.” And they all rushed forward shouting, “Chipko Chipko.” The axe men were frightened by the turn the situation had taken and they ran away. The people had succeeded in saving their trees Thus began the movement called “Chipko” or. “Hug the Trees”. It was a non-violent movement of the mountain people to save their trees by hugging them.

“लैट अस सेव अवर प्रैशस ट्रीज. लैट अस हग दैम सो दैट नो वन कैन रीच दैम.” एण्ड दे ऑल रश्ड फॉरवर्ड शाउटिंग, “चिपको चिपको”. द एक्समैन वर फ्राइटन्ड बाइ द टर्न द सिचुएशन हैड टेकन एण्ड दे रैन अवे. द पीपुल हैड सक्सीडिड इन सेविंग देअर ट्रीज ! दस बिगेन द मूवमेंट कॉल्ड “चिपको” और “हग द ट्रीज”. इट वाज़ अ नॉन-वायलेण्ट मूवमेंट ऑफ द माउन्टेन पीपुल टु सेव देअर ट्रीज बाइ हगिंग दैम.

अनुवाद:
आओ, अपने मूल्यवान पेड़ों को बचाएँ। आओ उनसे लिपट जाएँ जिससे कोई उन तक नहीं पहुँच सके। . . .. और वे सभी ‘चिपको-चिपको’ चिल्लाते हुए आगे की ओर दौड़े। स्थिति को बदलता देख वृक्षों को काटने आये लोग भयभीत हो गए और वे भाग गए। लोग अपने वृक्षों को बचाने में सफल हो गए। इस प्रकार ‘चिपको’ या वृक्षों को गले लगाओ’ आन्दोलन आरम्भ हो गया। यह पहाड़ी लोगों का अपने वृक्षों को गले लगाकर उन्हें बचाने के लिए एक अहिंसावादी आन्दोलन था।

5. The villagers of Gopeshwar had saved its trees but the contractors were not going to give up easily. They chose another forest which was about 60 kilometers away from Gopeshwar. News of this reached Gopeshwar. So the entire village men and women, old and young, began to march in a procession. They carried drums and trumpets and banners with messages like –

“Chop me – not the tree.”
and
“Kill us first, before you cut a single tree.”

द विलेजर्स ऑफ गोपेश्वर हैड सेव्ड इट्स ट्रीज बट द कॉन्ट्रेक्टर्स वर नॉट गोइंग टु गिव अप ईजिली. दे चोज अनअदर फॉरेस्ट विच वाज अबाउट 60 किलोमीटर्स अवे फ्रॉम गोपेश्वर. न्यूज ऑफ दिस रीच्ड गोपेश्वर. सो द एन्टायर विलेज मैन एण्ड वुमैन, ओल्ड एण्ड यंग, बिगेन टु मार्च इन अ प्रोसेशन. दे कैरिड ड्रम्स, एण्ड ट्रम्पेट्स एण्ड बैनर्स विद मेसेजिज लाइक-

“चॉप मी-नॉट द ट्री.”
एण्ड
“किल अस फर्स्ट, बिफोर यू कट अ सिंगल ट्री.”

अनुवाद:
गोपेश्वर के ग्रामीणों ने अपने वृक्षों को बचा लिया था परन्तु ठेकेदार भी आसानी से छोड़ने वाले नहीं थे। उन्होंने दूसरा जंगल चुन लिया जो गोपेश्वर से लगभग 60 किमी. दूर था। यह समाचार गोपेश्वर पहुँचा। तब सम्पूर्ण गाँववासी-पुरुष एवं स्त्रियाँ, वृद्ध एवं युवा एक जुलूस में आगे बढ़ने लगे। वे ढोल और तुरही बजाते हुए चल रहे थे तथा हाथों से इसमें सन्देश की । तख्ख्यिाँ लिए हुए थे –
“मुझे काटो-पेड़ को नहीं”
और
“हमें पहले मारो, इससे पहले कि तुम एक भी पेड़ काटो।”

6. The axe men could not raise their axes. They fled. The “Chipko” idea had once again won. Trees had been saved. The message began to sweep through the region. The people knew that if they could save their forest, the forest would save for them their soil, their water and their livelihood. Many such incidents took place. Over the years the people’s movement became well known all over India and abroad. Thus, people have come together to work to protect their forests.

द एक्समैन कुड नॉट रेज देअर एक्सिस. दे फ्लैड. द “चिपको” आइडिया हैड वन्स अगेन वन. ट्रीज हैंड बीन सेव्ड. द मेसेज बिगेन टु स्वीप श्रू द रीजन. द पीपुल निऊ दैट इफ.दे कुड सेव देअर फॉरेस्ट, द फॉरेस्ट वुड सेव फॉर दैम देअर सॉइल, देअर वाटर एण्ड देअर लाइवलीहुड. मैनी सच इन्सीडेन्ट्स एक प्लेस. ओवर द ईयर्स द पीपुल्स मूवमेंट बिकेम वैल नोन ऑल ओवर इण्डिया एण्ड एब्रोड. दस, पीपुल हैव कम टुगेदर टु वर्क टु प्रोटेक्ट देअर फारेस्ट्स.

अनुवाद:
कुल्हाड़ी लिए लोग अपनी कुल्हाड़ी को नहीं उठा सके। वे भाग गए। ‘चिपको’ विचार ने एक बार पुनः विजय प्राप्त की। वृक्षों को बचा लिया गया। पूरे क्षेत्र में सन्देश फैल गया। लोगों को समझ आ गया कि यदि वे अपने वनों को बचा सके तो वन उनके लिए उनकी मिट्टी, जल और जीविका को बचाएँगे। ऐसी कई घटनाएँ घटित हुईं। कालान्तर में यह जनान्दोलन पूरे भारत और विश्व में प्रसिद्ध हो गया। इस प्रकार लोग अपने जंगलों की रक्षा करने के लिए काम करने को एक साथ आ गये।

7. They have organised themselves especially the women through organisations such as the Dasohli. Gram Swarajya Mandal to regenerate the degraded forests. This is how the Chipko movement has proved very valuable in the conservation of forests. It has taught an important lesson to the people in the conservation of the forests.

दे हैव ऑर्गनाइज्ड दैमसेल्व्स एस्पेशियली द वुमैन श्रू ऑर्गनाइजेशन्स सच ऐज़ द दसोहली ग्राम स्वराज्य मण्डल टु रिजनरेट द डिग्रेडिड फॉरेस्ट्स.दिस इज हाउ द चिपको मूवमेंट हैज प्रूव्ड वैरी वेल्यूएबल इन द कन्जर्वेशन ऑफ फॉरेस्ट्स. इट हैज टॉट एन इम्पॉर्टेट लैसन टु द पीपुल इन द कन्जर्वेशन ऑफ द फॉरेस्ट्स.

अनुवाद:
उन्होंने मृत वनों को पुनर्जीवित करने के लिए दसोहली ग्राम स्वराज्य मण्डल जैसे, कई संगठनों के माध्यम से – स्वयं को संगठित किया, विशेष रूप से महिलाओं से। इस प्रकार चिपको आन्दोलन वनों के संरक्षण में बहुत मूल्यवान सिद्ध हुआ है। इसने वनों के संरक्षण में लोगों को एक . महत्वपूर्ण सबक सिखाया है।

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MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 17 Stars and The Solar System

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 17 Stars and The Solar System

MP Board Class 8th Science Stars and The Solar System NCERT Textbook Exercises

Choose the correct answer in question 1 – 3:

Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 17 Question 1.
Which of the following is NOT a member of the solar system?
(a) An asteroid
(b) A satellite
(c) A constellation
(d) A comet.
Answer:
(c) A constellation.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 17 Question 2.
Which of the following is NOT a planet of the sun?
(a) Sirius
(b) Mercury
(c) Saturn
(d) Earth.
Answer:
(a) Sirius.

Class 8 Science Chapter 17 Mp Board Question 3.
Phases of the moon occur because
(a) we can see only that part of the moon which reflects light towards us.
(b) our distance from the moon keeps changing.
(c) the shadow of the earth covers only a part of moon’s surface.
(d) the thickness of the moon’s atmosphere is not constant.
Answer:
(a) We can see only that part of the moon which reflects light towards us.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Solution Chapter 17 Question 4.
Fill in the blanks:
(a) The planet which is farthest from the sun is ………… .
(b) The planet which appears reddish in colour is ……………….. .
(c) A group of stars that appear to form a pattern in the sky is known as a …………. .
(d) A celestial body that revolves around a planet is known as ……………… .
(e) Shooting stars are actually not …………….. .
(f) Asteroids are found between the orbits of ………… and…………..
Answer:
(a) neptune
(b) mars
(c) constellation
(d) satellite
(e) meteors
(f) mars, jupiter.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Book Pdf Question 5.
Mark the following statements as true (T) or false (F):

  1. Pole star is a member of the solar system.
  2. Mercury is the smallest planet of the solar system.
  3. Uranus is the farthest planet in the solar system.
  4. INSAT is an artificial satellite.
  5. There are nine planets in the solar system.
  6. Constellation Orion can be seen only with a telescope.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. True
  3. False
  4. True
  5. False
  6. False.

Class 8 Chapter 17 Science Question Answer MP Board Question 6.
Match items in column A with one or more items in column B:
Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 17
Answer:
(i) (g), (ii) (e), (iii) (c), (f), (iv) (d).

Class 8 Science Chapter 17 MP Board Question 7.
In which part of the sky can you find Venus if it is visible as an evening star?
Answer:
Venus is seen as an evening star in western

Science Class 8 Mp Board English Medium Question 8.
Name the largest planet of the solar system.
Answer:
Jupiter is the largest planet of the solar system.

Class 8 Science Chapter 17 Question Answer MP Board Question 9.
What is a constellation? Name any two constellations.
Answer:
Constellation is a group of stars that appears to form some recognizable shape. For example, Ursa Major and Orion.

Chapter 17 Class 8th Science MP Board Question 10.
Draw sketches to show the relative positions of prominent stars in:
(a) Ursa Major, (b) Orion
Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 17
Fig. 17.1: Relative position of stars in Ursa Major and Ursa Minor stars in Orion.
Class 8 Science Chapter 17 Mp Board
Fig. 17.2: Relative position of stars in Orion.

Star And The Solar System Class 8 MP Board Question 11.
Name two objects other than planets which are members of the solar system.
Answer:
Asteroids and Comets.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Chapter 17 Question 12.
Explain how you can locate the Pole Star with the help of Ursa Major?
Answer:
Pole Star can be located with the help of the two stars at the end- of Ursa Major. Imagine a straight line passing through these stars as shown in Fig 17.3. Extend this imaginary line towards the north direction. (About five times the distance between the two stars). This line will lead to a star which is not too bright. This is the Pole Star. Observe the pole star for some time. Note that it does not move at’ all as other stars drift from east to west.
Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Solution Chapter 17

Question 13.
Do all the stars in the sky move? Explain.
Answer:
No, stars actually do not move but they only appear to move from east to west, as the earth from where we see them, rotates from west to east. However pole star, which is situated in the direction of the earth’s axis. It does not appear to move.

Question 14.
Why is the distance between stars expressed in light years? What do you understand by the statement that a star is eight light years away from the Earth.
Answer:
The sun is about 150,000.00 kilometres (150 million km) away from the earth. It is not convenient to express such large distances in kilometres. Therefore, large distances between stars are expressed in another unit known as light near. A light year is the distance ‘r travelled by light in a year.
1 light year = speed of light x number of seconds in a year
= 300,000 x 365 x 24 x 60 x 60km.
= 95,00,00,00,00,000 km = 95 x 1011
= 9.5 x 10 x 1011
= 9.5 x 1012 km (Approximately)
∴ 8 light year
= 8 x 9.5 x 1012 km
= 76 x 1012 km
Thus, by the statement that a star is eight light years away from the earth means that the star is about 76 x 1012 km away from the earth.

Question 15.
The radius of Jupiter is 11 times the radius of the Earth. Calculate the ratio of the volumes of Jupiter and the Earth. How many Earths can Jupiter accommodate?
Answer:
If the radius of the Earth is r.
Then, radius of the Jupiter is Ur.
So, ratio of the volumes of Jupiter and Earth is
MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 17 Stars and The Solar System 5
Thus, 1331 Earths can be accommodated within the Jupiter.

Question 16.
Boojho made the following sketch (Fig. 17.4) of the solar system. Is the sketch connect? If not, correct it.
Mp Board Class 8 Science Book Pdf
Answer:
This sketch is not correct. The correct sketch of solar system is given is Fig. 17.5.
Class 8 Chapter 17 Science Question Answer MP Board

MP Board Class 8th Science Stars and The Solar System Extended Learning – Activities and Projects

Question 1.
The North-South line at your place.
Let us learn to draw the north-south line with the help of the shadow of a stick. Fix a straight stick vertically in the ground where the Sun can be seen for most of the day. Call the foot of the stick as point O. Sometime in the morning, mark the tip of the shadow of the stick. Say this point is A. With OA as radius draw a circle on the ground. Wait till the shadow becomes shorter and then starts increasing in size. When the shadow again touches the circle, mark it as point B. Draw the bisector of the angle AOB. This is your North-South line. To decide which side
of this line shows North, use a magnetic compass.

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 17 Stars and The Solar System 8
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 2.
If possible, visit a planetarium. There are planetariums in many cities. In a planetarium you can see the motion of the stars, constellations and planets on a large dome.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 3
On a moonless night observe the sky for a few hours. Look out for a meteor, which appears as a streak of light. September-November is a good time for observing meteors.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 4
Learn to identify the planets visible to the naked eye and some prominent constellations such as Great Bear (Saptarishi) and Orion. Also try to locate the Pole Star and the star Sirius.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 5.
Position of the rising Sun – Uttarayan and Dakshinayan :
This activity may last for several weeks. Choose a place from where eastern horizon is clearly visible. Choose also a marker, such as a tree or an electric pole, to mark the position of the rising Sun. It will be sufficient if you take the observation once every week. On any day, note down the direction of the rising Sun. Repeat this observation every week. What do you find? You would have noted that the point of sunrise changes continuously. From summer solstice (around 21 June), the point of sunrise gradually shifts towards the south. The Sun is then said to be in dakshinayan (moving south). It keeps doing so till winter solstice (around 22 December). Thereafter, the point of sunrise changes direction and starts moving towards north. The Sun is now said to be in uttarayan the equinoxes (around 21 March and 23 September) the Sun rises in the east. On all other days, it rises either north of east or south of east. So, the direction of the rising Sun is not a good guide to determine directions. The Pole Star, which defines North,‘is a much better indicator of directions.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 6.
Form a group of students. Prepare a model of the solar system showing the planets, and their relative sizes. For this take a large chart paper. Make spheres representing different planets according to their relative size (Use Table 17.1). Y6u may use newspaper, clay or plasticine to make spheres. You can cover these spheres with paper of different colours. Exhibit your models in the class.
MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 17 Stars and The Solar System 9
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 7.
Try to make a scale model of the solar system showing distances of the planets from the Sun (Use Table 17.1). Did you face any difficulty? Explain it.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 8.
Solve the following riddle and try to make similar riddles yourself.
My first is in VAN but not in PAN
My second is in EARTH and also in HEAVEN
My third is’ in ONE and not in TWO
My fourth is in BUN and also in FUN
My last is in STAR but not in RADAR
I am a planet that moves round the Sun.
Answer:
It is the planet venus.

MP Board Class 8th Science Stars and The Solar System Additional Important Questions

A. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is Universe?
Answer:
Universe is the space surrounding the earth. It contains all the heavenly objects like stars, comets, planets, asteroids, etc.

Question 2.
Name two constellations which are visible in summer.
Answer:
Scorpio and Ursa Major.

Question 3.
What are comets?
Answer:
Heavenly bodies, composed of dust and gas, revolving around the sun with long bright tail are called comets. Their period of revolution around the sun is very large. They are particularly seen, after the pretty number of years.

Question 4.
Which is the brightest planet of our solar system?
Answer:
Venus is the brightest planet of our solar system.

Question 5.
What is the most significant feature of remote sensing technology?
Answer:
The most significant feature of remote sensing technology is that it makes possible the repetitive surveys of vast areas in a very short time. It is applicable even to inaccessible areas.

B. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 6.
Define light year. What is the approximate distance of the sun from the earth?
Answer:
One light year is the distance travelled by light in one year at a speed of light which is about 300000 km/sec. Light year is a unit of distance and is equal to 9.46 x 1012 km.
The approximate distance of the sun from the earth is 150,000,000 km, which means that light takes about 8 minutes 20 seconds to reach the earth from the sun.

Question 7.
The stars twinkle and the planets do not twinkle. Account for the observation.
Answer:
Owing to the atmospheric disturbances in the atmosphere the position of the stars appears to vibrate, so they apear to be twinkling. Due to the fact that the planets are very close to each other, their disc position does not vibrate, owing to the atmospheric conditions, hence the planets do not appear to be twinkling.

Question 8.
Give three reasons why life cannot survive on Venus.
Answer:
All the above conditions are present on the earth. Hence, life is possible there.

  1. Being nearer to the sun Venus it is extremely hot.
  2. There is no water on the planet
  3. The planet does not contain sufficient oxygen.

Question 9.
Expand the term INSAT. What three things are expected from INSAT?
Answer:
The term INSAT stands for Indian National Satellite. This satellite series expected to carry out three tasks. These tasks are:

  1. communication
  2. television and radio broadcasting and
  3. meteorological observations.

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 8th Hindi Bhasha Bharti Solutions Chapter 16 पथिक से

MP Board Class 8th Hindi Bhasha Bharti Solutions Chapter 16 पथिक से

पथिक से बोध प्रश्न 

Mp Board Class 8 Hindi Chapter 16 प्रश्न 1.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों के अर्थ शब्दकोश से खोजकर लिखिए
उत्तर
पथिक = राहगीर; वापी = बावड़ी; जलकण = जल की बूदें; एकाकीपन = अकेलापन; असमंजस = दुविधा; हवन सामग्री = यज्ञ में आहुति देने की वस्तुएँ; दूर्वादल = दूब घास के कोमल पत्ते; निर्झर = झरने; उन्मन = उदास; कुमकुम थाल = रोली की थाली; आहुति = यज्ञ में डालने की हवन सामग्री।

Class 8 Hindi Chapter 16 Mp Board प्रश्न 2.
निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर संक्षेप में लिखिए
(क) “पथ में काँटे तो होंगे ही” इस पंक्ति में काँटे शब्द का अर्थ स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर
काँटे शब्द का अर्थ बाधाओं से है। कर्त्तव्य निर्वाह करना कठिनाइयों से भरा होता है।

(ख) नीचे दो खण्डों में कविता की आंशिक पंक्तियाँ दी गई हैं। खण्ड ‘अ’ और खण्ड ‘ब’ से एक सही पंक्ति लेकर पूरी कीजिए
Class 8 Hindi Chapter 16 Mp Board
उत्तर
(अ) → (3), (आ) → (4), (इ) + (1), (ई)→(2)

(ग) स्वतन्त्रता की ज्वाला में माँ आहुति की मांग कर रही है। ‘माँ’ शब्द के प्रयोग द्वारा यहाँ किस माँ की ओर संकेत किया गया है?
उत्तर
‘माँ’ शब्द के प्रयोग से ‘भारत माँ’ की ओर संकेत किया गया है।

पथिक से कविता का अर्थ MP Board Class 8th Hindi प्रश्न 3.
निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर विस्तार से लिखिए
(क) जीवन पथ पर चलते हुए पथिक को किन बाधाओं का सामना करना पड़ता है ? कविता के आधार पर कोई तीन बाधाओं को लिखिए।
उत्तर
जीवन रूपी मार्ग पर मनु रूपी राहगीर आगे बढ़ता है तो उसे अनेक बाधाएँ आकर घेर लेती हैं। मनुष्य सोचता है कि वह सफलताएँ ही प्राप्त करता जाएगा, विफलता उसके समक्ष आएँगी ही नहीं, ऐसा सोचना उसकी मूर्खता है। विफलता भी आ सकती है। इन विफलताओं (कठिनाइयों) के समय में अपने भी पराये जैसा (अपरिचितों जैसा) व्यवहार करते हैं। मन में दुविधा आ सकती है, यही दुविधा निराशा को जन्म देती है। आशा को काले बादलों में छिपा लेती है। आपत्तिकाल में अकेला व्यक्ति व्याकुल हो सकता है। कविता में कवि ने तीन बाधाओं को दर्शाया है

  1. निराशा में डूबे हुए व्यक्ति का एकाकीपन।
  2. ध्येय प्राप्ति में उलझन कि कार्य शुरू किया जाय या नहीं।
  3. अपनी क्षमताओं पर अविश्वास-असमंजस (दुविधा) की स्थिति का बन जाना।

(ख) किस स्थिति में कदम-कदम पर मनुष्य अपने आपको घोर निराशा में देखता है?
उत्तर
मनुष्य जब सब प्रकार से अपने प्रयास करने पर विफल हो जाता है, तो उस स्थिति में भी उसे अपने कर्त्तव्य से विमुख नहीं हो जाना चाहिए। उस असफलता की घड़ी में हर एक आदमी पराया-सा लगता है और उसके सामने पूर्णत: विरोधी होकर सामने दीख पड़ते हैं। उसे कदम-कदम पर भारी निराशा होती है। कठिनाइयों के काले बादल छा जाते हैं। उस अवस्था में उसे अकेलापन अनुभव करता है। उस व्यक्ति में निराशा और हताशा दोनों स्थितियाँ उसे क्लेश पहुँचाने वाली होती हैं।

(ग) सुन्दरता की मृगतृष्णा का क्या तात्पर्य है ?
उत्तर
किसी भी उद्देश्य को प्राप्त करने के लिए आदमी को निश्चित उपायों के माध्यम से अपने लक्ष्य (मंजिल) तक पहुँचना होता है, परन्तु उस व्यक्ति को यह भी ध्यान रखना चाहिए कि उस मार्ग पर काँटों रूपी रुकावटें होंगी। साथ ही, कभी-कभी कोमल घास के दलों से पूर्ण सुखदायी मार्ग होगा, नदियाँ और तालाब तथा झरने भी होंगे। उस सौन्दर्य की मृगतृष्णा उस पथिक को भ्रम में डाल देने वाली होती है। सौन्दर्य की मृगतृष्णा में आनन्द और जीवन की सफलता महसूस करना उसे भ्रमित कर सकता है। इसी भ्रम से पथिक अपने कर्तव्य पथ को छोड़ उत्तरदायित्व के निर्वाह करने से विमुख हो जाता है।

(घ) कवि के अनुसार पथिक के सामने कब असमंजस की स्थिति उत्पन्न हो सकती है? . .
उत्तर
कवि का मत है कि मातृभूमि की आजादी के लिए अनेक राष्ट्र भक्तों ने स्वयं का बलिदान फाँसी के तख्ते पर झूल कर दे दिया। उस आजादी को प्राप्त तो कर लिया परन्तु उसकी रक्षा के लिए मातृभूमि अपने राष्ट्रभक्तों से आहुति की माँग कर रही है। इस स्वतन्त्रता की ज्वाला में अपने महात्याग के पथ पर चलते हुए असमंजस (दुविधा) में स्थिति उत्पन्न मत होने देना। नहीं तो हे पथिक ! तू अपने कर्तव्य पथ को भूल जायेगा।

(ङ) कवि ने इस कविता में प्रकृति के कौन-कौन से अंगों-उपांगों का चित्रण किया है जो पथिक को उसके मार्ग में मिलते हैं?
उत्तर
कवि ने उन प्राकृतिक अंगों-उपांगों का वर्णन किया है जिन्हें पथिक कदम-कदम पर देखता है। पथिक को कभी तो दूबघास के कोमल दल, अपने निर्मल जल से भरकर इठलाती चलती नदियाँ, व तालाब दिखेंगे। इनके अतिरिक्त सुन्दर पर्वत, वन-वाटिकाएँ तथा जल की बावडियाँ तथा सुन्दर-सुन्दर झरने भी दिखेंगे जो अपनी कल-कल की मधुर ध्वनि से आकर्षण के केन्द्र बने हुए होंगे। कर्तव्य पथ के पथिक को प्राकृतिक उपादानों की सुन्दरता मृगतृष्णा के विमोह में फंसा लेने वाली सिद्ध न हो जाए, जिससे वह अपने कर्तव्य पालन में विफल होकर उद्देश्य को प्राप्त नहीं कर सके। कवि तो पथिक को आगाह करता है कि वह अपने कर्तव्य पथ पर अग्रसर होता ही रहे।

पथिक से भाषा-अध्ययन

प्रश्न 1.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों के चार-चार पर्यायवाची शब्द दिए गए हैं। उनमें से एक-एक शब्द गलत है। गलत ‘शब्द पर गोला लगाएँ
उत्तर
(क) पहाड़-(1) गिरि, (2) अचल, (3) पाषाण, (4) पर्वत।
(ख) वन-(1) अरण्य, (2) जम्बुक , (3) कानन , (4) विपिन।
(ग) तालाब-(1) सर, (2) तड़ाग, (3) सरोवर, (4) तटिनी

प्रश्न 2.
नीचे कुछ शब्द और अके विलोम शब्द दिए गए हैं। दोनों को अलग-अलग लिखिए, प्रथम, सम्मुख, विफलता, अन्तिम, मांग, कठिन, विमुख, सफलता, अनुराग, प्रलय, पुष्ट, जर्जर, विराग, सरल, पूर्ति, सृष्टि।
उत्तर
शब्द – विलोम शब्द
प्रथम – अन्तिम
सम्मुख – विमुख
विफलता – सफलता
माँग – पूर्ति
कठिन – सरल
अनुराग – विराग
प्रलय – सृष्टि
पुष्ट – जर्जर

प्रश्न 3.
कविता में आए पुनरुक्ति शब्दों (जैसेअपना-अपना) को छाँटकर लिखिए।
उत्तर

  1. सुन्दर-सुन्दर
  2. पग-पग
  3. सुन-सुन
  4. विदा-विदा।

प्रश्न 4.
एकाकीपन शब्द में ‘एकाकी’ में ‘पन’ – प्रत्यय है। इसी प्रकार ‘पन’ प्रत्यय जोड़कर चार शब्द बनाइए।
उत्तर

  1. लड़कपन
  2. बचपन
  3. दुकेलापन
  4. अकेलापन।

प्रश्न 5.
‘सरिता-सर’ में अनुप्रास अलंकार है। अनुप्रास अलंकार के अन्य उदाहरण छाँटकर लिखिए।
उत्तर
वन-वापी, कठिन-कर्म, सैनिक-पुलक।

प्रश्न 6.
निम्नलिखित पंक्तियों को पढ़कर प्रयुक्त अलंकार पहचानकर उनके नाम लिखिए
(क) जब कठिन कर्म पगडंडी पर।
राही का मन उन्मन होगा।
(ख) मानो झूम रहे हैं तरु भी, मन्द पवन के झोंकों से।
उत्तर
(क) अनुप्रास अलंकार
(ख) उत्प्रेक्षा अलंकार।

पथिक से सम्पूर्ण पद्यांशों की व्याख्या

1. पथ भूल न जाना पथिक कहीं
पथ में काँटे तो होंगे ही,
‘दूर्वादल, सरिता, सर होंगे।
.सुन्दर गिरि-वन-वापी होंगे,
सुन्दर-सुन्दर निझर होंगे।
सुन्दरता की मृगतृष्णा में,
पथ भूल न जाना पथिक कहीं।

शब्दार्थ-पथ = मार्ग, राह; पथिक = राहगीर; काँटे = कंटकी रूपी बाधाएँ: दूर्वादल = दूब घास के कोमल पत्ते; सरिता = नदियाँ; सर = तालाब; गिरि = पर्वत; वन = जंगल; वापी = बावड़ियाँ निर्झर = झरने; मृगतृष्णा = (एक प्रकार का भ्रम), रेगिस्तान में रेत पर सूर्य की किरणें पड़ने पर जल का भ्रम होता है।

सन्दर्भ-प्रस्तुत पद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य-पुस्तक ‘भाषा-भारती’ के पाठ ‘पथिक से’ अवतरित है। इसके रचयिता डॉ. शिवमंगल सिंह ‘सुमन’ हैं।

प्रसंग-कवि बता देना चाहता है कि अपने लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने के मार्ग में अनेक बाधाएँ आती हैं परन्तु उस मार्ग में बहुत से सुहावने दृश्य भी होते हैं जो हमें अपनी ओर आकर्षित करते हैं लेकिन हमें उनके सौन्दर्य के भुलावे में नहीं आना चाहिए। हमें तो केवल अपने कर्तव्य पथ पर आगे ही आगे बढ़ते जाना चाहिए।
व्याख्या हे पथिक ! तुम अपने मार्ग को मत भूल जाना। अपने लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने के मार्ग में अनेक बाधाएँ (काँट) अवश्य ही होंगी परन्तु इसके विपरीत वहाँ कोमल दूब घास के पत्ते होंगे, नदियों के अच्छे-अच्छे दृश्य भी होंगे। मनोरम तालाब भी होंगे। पर्वतों, वनों और बावड़ियों के अति सुन्दर जंगल होंगे। -वहाँ अति सुन्दर झरने भी होंगे परन्तु हे राहगीर तुझे यह ध्यान – रखना पड़ेगा कि सुन्दरता का भ्रम, तुझे अपने लक्ष्य प्राप्ति के -सही मार्ग से भटका न दे। तू अपने सही मार्ग को भूल मत जाना।

(2) जब कठिन कर्म पगडंडी पर
राही का मन उन्मन होगा।
जब सपने सब मिट जाएँगे,
कर्तव्य मार्ग सम्मख होगा।

तब अपनी प्रथम विफलता में,
पथ भूल न जाना पथिक कहीं।

शब्दार्थ-कर्म पगडंडी पर = कर्म के कम चौड़े मार्ग पर; राही = राह पर चलने वाला उन्मन = उदास. खिन्न: सपने = कल्पनाएँ; मिट जाएंगे = समाप्त हो जाएँगे; कर्त्तव्य मार्ग = उत्तरदायित्व का निर्वाह करने वाला रास्ता; सम्मुख = समक्ष, सामने प्रथम = पहली; विफलता- असफलता।

सन्दर्भ-पूर्व की तरह।

प्रसंग-कवि सलाह देता है कि कर्म के मार्ग पर चलते रहने से कल्पनाएँ अपने आप मिट जाती हैं। वे साकार होने लगती हैं।

व्याख्या-अपने लक्ष्य की ओर अग्रसर होने में पथिक के मार्ग में अनेक बाधाएँ आती ही हैं, राही का मन कई बार इनमें घिरकर उदास हो उठता है। जब उसकी कल्पनाएँ मात्र कल्पनाएँ लगने लगती हैं। तब उसके सामने केवल कर्त्तव्य मार्ग ही होता है। यदि किसी कारण से पहली बार उसे असफलता मिलती है तो भी
उस कर्तव्य पथ पर आगे बढ़ने वाले राहगीर को अपना मार्ग नहीं भुला देना चाहिए। वह मार्ग से भटक न जाय अर्थात् उसे अपने कर्तव्य को पूरा करने में जुटा रहना चाहिए।

3. अपने भी विमुख पराये बन,
आँखों के सम्मुख आएंगे।
पग-पग पर घोर निराशा के,
काले बादल छा जाएंगे।

तब अपने एकाकीपन में,
पथ भूल न जाना पथिक कहीं।

शब्दार्थ-विमुख = विरुद्ध पराये = दूसरे, अन्य; सम्मुख = सामने; निराशा = नाउम्मीद; काले बादल = विपत्ति, कठिनाइयाँ; छा जाएँगे = घिर आएँगे;
एकाकीपन अकेलापन।

सन्दर्भ-पूर्व की तरह।

प्रसंग-कठिनाइयों के आ जाने पर भी अपने कर्त्तव्य मार्ग से पीछे नहीं हटना चाहिए, इस तरह की सलाह कवि देता है।

व्याख्या-कठिनाइयों के काले बादल जब चारों ओर छा जाते हैं तब कदम-कदम पर भयंकर आशाहीनता आ जाती है। उस समय अपने सगे-सम्बन्धी भी अन्य से (पराये से) बन जाते हैं। वे अपरिचित से हो जाते हैं। उस अकेलेपन में भी, हे राहगीर ! तुम्हें अपने कर्त्तव्य मार्ग से नहीं भटक जाना चाहिए।

4. रणभेरी सुन-सुन विदा-विदा
जब सैनिक पुलक रहे होंगे;
हाथों में कुमकुम थाल लिए,
जल कण कुछ डुलक रहे होंगे।

कर्तव्य प्रेम की उलझन में,
पथ भूल न जाना पथिक कहीं।

शब्दार्थ-रणभेरी = युद्ध शुरू करने की ध्वनि पुलक रहे होंगे – प्रसन्न या पुलकायमान हो रहे होंगे;
जलकण = आँसुओं की बूंदें।

सन्दर्भ-पूर्व की तरह।

प्रसंग-कर्त्तव्य निर्वाह किया जाय अथवा प्रेम का निर्वाह इस उलझी हुई पहेली के सुलझाव के लिए अपने कर्तव्य के मार्ग को मत भूल जाना, ऐसी सलाह देकर कवि राहगीर को अपने कर्त्तव्य पथ पर आगे ही आगे बढ़ते रहने का सदुपदेश देता है।

व्याख्या-युद्ध प्रारम्भ होने की ध्वनि सुनते-सुनते, सैनिक रोमांचित हो रहे होंगे। वे युद्ध क्षेत्र के लिए विदा होने की तैयारी कर रहे होंगे। युद्ध (कर्तव्य पथ पर बढ़ने के लिए) को जाते समय वह (प्रियतमा) कुमकुम से सजा हुआ थाल अपने हाथों में लिए हुए अपने नेत्रों से प्रेमाश्रु बहाती हुई हो सकती है। उन प्रेमाश्रुओं को देखकर तथा समक्ष ही कर्तव्य पूरा करने की घड़ी सामने होने पर पैदा हुई उलझन में, हे राहगीर तुम अपने कर्तव्य मार्ग से इधर-उधर भटक मत जाना।

(5) कुछ मस्तक कम पड़ते होंगे,
जब महाकाल की माला में,
माँ माँग रही होगी आहुति,
जब स्वतन्त्रता की ज्वाला में।
पल भर भी पड़ असमंजस में,
पथ भूल न जाना पथिक कहीं।

शब्दार्थ-मस्तक = माथा; आहुति = यज्ञ में डाली जाने वाली हवन सामग्री; असमंजस- दुविधा।

सन्दर्भ-पूर्व की तरह।

प्रसंग-किसी भी प्रकार की दुविधा में पड़े बिना कर्तव्य | का निर्वाह करते रहना चाहिए।

व्याख्या-युद्ध की देवी उन बहादुर वीरों की संख्या कम होने पर अन्य युद्धवीरों के आने की प्रतीक्षा कर रही होगी क्योंकि महाकाल की माला में आजादी की खातिर अपने मस्तक को काटकर चढ़ाने वाले युद्ध वीरों की संख्या कुछ कम पड़ सकती है। वह युद्ध की देवी, नौजवान युवकों की आहुति आजादी को प्राप्त करने की प्रज्ज्वलित आग में देने के लिए, सभी से माँग कर रही है। कर्त्तव्य पथ पर आगे बढ़ने के लिए, किसी भी असमंजस 1 में नहीं पड़ें। उन्हें तो अपने कर्तव्य मार्ग का ही ध्यान होना चाहिए। कर्त्तव्य मार्ग से हट जाने की भूल न हो जाये।

MP Board Class 8th Hindi Solutions

MP Board Class 8th Sanskrit Solutions Chapter 14 आचार्योपदेशाः

MP Board Class 8th Sanskrit Solutions Surbhi Chapter 14 आचार्योपदेशाः

MP Board Class 8th Sanskrit Chapter 14 अभ्यासः

Mp Board Class 8 Sanskrit Solution Chapter 14 प्रश्न 1.
एकपदेन उत्तरं लिखत(एक शब्द में उत्तर लिखो-)
(क) पुष्पसजं कण्ठे कः समर्पयति? (पुष्पाहार गले में कौन समर्पित करता है?)
उत्तर:
शिवराजः। (शिवाजी)

(ख) वृत्तं केन रक्ष्यते? (चरित्र की रक्षा कैसे की जाती है?)
उत्तर:
धर्मभयेन। (धर्म के भय से)

(ग) अद्य मे किं निवृत्तम्? (आज मेरा क्या समाप्त हो गया है?)
उत्तर:
मोहावरणम्। (मोह का आवरण)

(घ) नृपः धर्मान् केन पालयेत्? (राजा धर्म का पालन कैसे कराये?)
उत्तर:
नियमेन। (नियम से)

(ङ) शिवराजम् भारतकवीर! इति शब्देन कः सम्बोधयति? (शिवाजी को ‘भारत का एक वीर!’ इस शब्द से कौन सम्बोधित करता है?)
उत्तर:
श्रीरामदासः। (श्रीरामदास)

Mp Board Class 8 Sanskrit Chapter 14 प्रश्न 2.
एकवाक्येन उत्तरं लिखत(एक वाक्य में उत्तर लिखो-)
(क) शिवराजस्य गुरुः कः आसीत्? (शिवाजी के गुरु कौन थे?)
उत्तर:
शिवराजस्य गुरुः श्रीरामदासः आसीत्। (शिवाजी के गुरु श्रीरामदास थे।)

(ख) क्षत्रियस्य परो धर्मः किं अस्ति? (क्षत्रिय का परम धर्म क्या है?)
उत्तर:
क्षत्रियस्य परोधर्मः दुष्कृतां हिंसनं साधूनां च परित्राणम् अस्ति। (क्षत्रिय का परम धर्म दुष्कर्मियों को मारना और सज्जनों की सुरक्षा है।)

(ग) शिवराजस्य साहाय्यार्थं श्रीरामदास किम् करोति स्म? (शिवाजी की सहायता के लिए श्रीरामदास क्या कर रहे थे?)
उत्तर:
शिवराजस्य साहाय्यार्थं श्रीरामदासः प्रतिमठे राष्ट्रभावभावितान् शतशः युवगणान् निर्माति स्म। (शिवाजी की सहायता के लिए श्रीरामदास प्रत्येक मठ में सैकड़ों युवागणों का निर्माण कर रहे थे।)

कीदृशाः युवगणाः भाविरणे सहायाः भविष्यन्ति? (कैसे युवकों के समूह भविष्य में होने वाले युद्ध में सहायक होंगे?)
उत्तर:
राष्ट्रैकभक्ताः युवगणाः भाविरणे सहायाः भविष्यन्ति। (राष्ट्रभक्त युवकों के समूह भविष्य में होने वाले युद्ध में सहायक होंगे।)

(ङ) शिवराजस्य अभीष्टं का सम्पादयतु? (शिवराज की इच्छा को कौन पूरा करे?)
उत्तर:
शिवराजस्य अभीष्ट भगवती परदेवता सम्पादयतु। (शिवराज की इच्छा को भगवान् परमात्मा पूरा करें।)

Class 8 Sanskrit Chapter 14 Mp Board प्रश्न 3.
रिक्तस्थानं पूरयत(रिक्त स्थान भरो-)
(क) वृत्तं यथा ……………. रक्ष्यते।
(ख) प्रजाहितज्ञो नियमेन ……………..।
(ग) मया ……….. राष्ट्रभावभाविताः।
(घ) अपितु त्वमसि मे …………।
(ङ) ……………. सम्पादयतु तवाभीष्टम्।
उत्तर:
(क) धर्मभयेन
(ख) पालयेत
(ग) निर्मीयन्ते
(घ) द्वितीयं हृदयम्
(ङ) भारतैकवीर।

8th Class Sanskrit Chapter 14 प्रश्न 4.
सन्धि-विच्छेदं कुरुत
(सन्धि विच्छेद करो-)
(क) गमितोऽस्मि
(ख) त्वमसि
(ग) नृभिस्तथा
(घ) भगवतैवारब्धे
(ज) भारतैकवीरः
(च) सम्प्रत्यपि
(छ) प्रतिष्ठेऽहम्
(ज) तवाभीष्टम्
(झ) योगोपचिताः
(ण) राष्ट्रकभक्तेः।
उत्तर:
(क) गमितः + अस्मि
(ख) त्वम् + असि
(ग) नृभिः + तथा
(घ) भगवत् + एव+ आरब्धे
(ङ) भारत + एक + वीरः
(च) सम्प्रति + अपि
(छ) प्रतिष्ठे + अहम्
(ज) तव + अभीष्टम्
(झ) योग + उपचित
(ण) राष्ट्र + एक + भक्तेः।

Class 8 Sanskrit Chapter 14 प्रश्न 5.
सन्धिं कुरुत(सन्धि करो-)
उत्तर:
(क) शङ्कर + अंशेन + अवतीर्णस्य = शङ्करांशेनावतीर्णस्य।
(ख) वर्णाश्रमे + अस्मिन् = वर्णाश्रमेऽस्मिन्।
(ग) उत् + मूल्य = उन्मूल्य।
(घ) राष्ट्र + उद्धरण + उद्यमे = राष्ट्रोद्धरणोद्यमे
(ङ) उत् + ईक्ष्यते = उदीक्ष्यते।

Mp Board Class 8 Sanskrit Chapter 13 प्रश्न 6.
श्लोकं पूरयत(श्लोक पूरा करो-)
उत्तर:
वृत्तं यथा धर्मभयेन रक्ष्यते नृभिस्तथा नैव नरेन्द्रशासनात्।
धर्मान् सदाचारपरानतो नृपः प्रजाहितज्ञो नियमेन पालयेत्॥

Class 8 Sanskrit Chapter 14 Question Answer प्रश्न 7.
संस्कृतेन भावार्थं लिखत (संस्कृत में भावार्थ लिखो-)
व्यायामयोगोपचिताङ्गसत्त्वा विद्याकलादण्डनयप्रतिष्ठताः।
राष्ट्रकभक्ता उपधाविशोधिता भवन्तु ते भाविरणे सहायाः॥
उत्तर:
राष्ट्र प्रति एकभक्ताः, व्यायामेन योगेन च अङ्गनां शक्तिसम्पन्नाः, विद्यासु कलासु दण्डनीतेः कुशलाः, धर्मे अर्थे च संस्कारिताः, भविष्ये युद्धे शतशः युवगणाः तव सहायकाः भवन्तु।

Class 8th Sanskrit Chapter 14 प्रश्न 8.
निम्नाङ्कितशब्दान् आधृत्य वाक्यरचनां कुरुत(निम्न शब्दों के आधार पर वाक्य रचना करो-)
(क) दिष्ट्या
(ख) सदाचारः
(ग) परित्राणम्
(घ) धर्मशासनम्
(ङ) राष्ट्रियभावना।
उत्तर:
Chapter 14 Sanskrit Class 8

Class 8 Sanskrit Chapter 13 Mp Board प्रश्न 9.
अर्थानुसारं युग्मनिमाणं कुरुत (अर्थ के अनुसार जोड़े बनाओ-)
Class 8th Sanskrit Chapter 14 Solution
उत्तर:
(क) → (iii)
(ख) → (v)
(ग) → (iv)
(घ) → (i)
(ङ) → (ii)

कक्षा 8 संस्कृत पाठ 14 प्रश्न 10.
निम्नाङ्कितपदानां विलोमपदानि लिखत(नीचे लिखे शब्दों के विलोम शब्द लिखो-)
उत्तर:
पदानि – विलोमपदम्
(क) मया – त्वया
(ख) निवृत्तम् – संवृत्तम्
(ग) तव – मम
(घ) उत्थानम् – पतनम्
(ङ) अस्मिन् – तस्मिन्।

(संस्कृत में नाटकों की परम्परा अति प्राचीन है। यह परम्परा इस समय भी निर्बाध रूप से चल रही है। बीसवीं शताब्दी में गुजरात प्रदेश के श्री मूलशंकर मणिक लाल याज्ञिक ने भी अनेक पुस्तकें रचीं। उनमें संस्कृत भाषा में संयोगितास्वयम्वरम्, प्रतापविजयम् और छत्रपतिसाम्राज्यम् का वर्णन करते हैं।

‘छत्रपतिसाम्राज्यम्’ तो ऐतिहासिक नाटक है। इस नाटक में छत्रपति शिवाजी के शौर्यपूर्ण कार्यों का एवं तात्कालिक यवन सम्राट की दुर्नीति के विरुद्ध संघर्ष का और अन्त में स्वराज्य की स्थापना का चित्रण है।

यह प्रस्तुत नाट्य अंश ‘छत्रपतिसाम्राज्यम्’ इस नाटक से ही उद्धृत है। इसमें शिवाजी के गुरु श्रीरामदास के उपदेश हैं। राष्ट्रीय भक्ति की भावना से भरा यह अंश देखने योग्य है।)

आचार्योपदेशाः हिन्दी अनुवाद

(ततः प्रविशति रामदासेन सह शिवराजः)
शिवराज: :
(सप्रश्रयम्) दिष्ट्याद्य कृतार्थतां गमितोऽस्मि चिरप्रार्थितेन भगवत्-प्रसाद-अधिगमेन। (इति पुष्पस्रजंकण्ठे समर्प्य पादयोः पतति।)

श्रीरामदासः :
भारतैकवीर! उत्तिष्ठ। धर्मराज्यसंस्थापनार्थं शङ्कर-अंशेन-अवतीर्णस्य तव भवतु सर्वत्र अप्रतिहतो विजयः।

अनुवाद :
(उसके बाद रामदास के साथ शिवाजी प्रवेश करते हैं।)

शिवराज :
(विनम्रतापूर्वक) सौभाग्य से आज मैं बहुत समय से प्रार्थित (प्रार्थना करने पर) भगवान की कृपापूर्वक आने से सफलता को प्राप्त हुआ हूँ। (इस प्रकार पुष्पाहार गले में समर्पित करके पैरों में गिरते हैं।)

श्रीरामदास :
भारत के एक वीर! उठो। धर्म के राज्य की अच्छी प्रकार से स्थापना के लिए शंकर के अंश (भाग) के द्वारा अवतरित तुम्हारी सब जगह निर्विघ्न विजय हो।

शिवराजः :
(उत्थाय) प्रतिगृहीताशीः।

श्रीरामदास: :
व्यवस्थितवर्णाश्रमे अस्मिन् भारते वर्षे दुष्कृतां हिंसनं साधूनां च परित्राणम् एव क्षत्रियस्य परो धर्मः। तत् नयमार्गम् अवलम्ब्य उत्पथगामिनो नृपाधमान् च उन्मूल्य प्रवर्तय स्व धर्मशासनम् यतः वृत्तं यथा धर्मभयेन रक्ष्यते नृभिस्तथा नैव नरेन्द्रशासनात्। धर्मान् सदाचारपरानतो नृपः प्रजाहितज्ञो नियमेन पालयेत्॥

अनुवाद :
शिवराज :
(उठकर) आशीर्वाद प्राप्त हो गया।

श्रीरामदास :
व्यवस्थित वर्णाश्रम में इस भारतवर्ष में दुष्कर्मियों को मारना और सज्जनों की सुरक्षा ही क्षत्रिय का परम धर्म है। इसलिए नीति के मार्ग का सहारा लेकर कुमार्ग गामी और अधम राजाओं को जड़ से उखाड़कर अपना धर्मराज्य स्थापित करो। क्योंकि-

‘जैसी मनुष्यों द्वारा धर्म के भय से चरित्र की रक्षा की जाती है वैसी राजा की आज्ञा से नहीं। सदाचारी प्रजा के हित को जानने वाला राजा नियम से धर्म का पालन कराये।’

शिवराजः :
भगवन्। तव अनुग्रहेण अद्य निवृत्तम् मे मोहावरणम्। नवीकृतश्च साम्राज्य-संस्थापनोत्साहः।

श्रीरामदासः :
वत्स! तव साहाय्यार्थं प्रतिमठं मया निर्मीयन्ते राष्ट्रभावभाविताः शतशो युवगणाः। तदिमेव्यायामयोगोपचिताङ्गसत्त्वा विद्याकलादण्डनयप्रतिष्ठताः। राष्ट्रकभक्ता उपधाविशोधिता भवन्तु ते भाविरणे सहायाः॥

अनुवाद :
शिवराज :
भगवन्! आपकी कृपा से आज मेरा मोह का आवरण (पर्दा) समाप्त हो गया है और साम्राज्य की स्थापना का उत्साह नया सा कर दिया गया है।

श्रीरामदास :
वत्स! तुम्हारी सहायता के लिए मेरे द्वारा प्रत्येक मठ (आश्रम) में राष्ट्रीय भावना वाले सैकड़ों युवाओं के समूह तैयार किये जा रहे हैं। इसलिये ये-

‘राष्ट्र के एक भक्त व्यायाम और योग से प्राप्त अंगों की शक्ति वाले, विद्याओं, कलाओं, दण्डनीति में कुशल, धर्म, अर्थ में संस्कारित भविष्य में होने वाले युद्ध में तुम्हारी सहायता करने वाले होवें।’

शिवराजः :
अहो, परमार्थतो भगवतैवारब्धे राष्ट्र-उद्धरण-उद्यमे अहं तु निमित्तमात्रमेव।

श्रीरामदासः :
वत्स! न केवलं शिष्य इति, त्वमसि मम प्रेमास्पदम्। अपितु त्वमसि मे द्वितीयं हृदयं त्वदधीनैवास्ति मे साध्यसिद्धि। तन्मया सततं सावधानेन उदीक्ष्यते त्वद् विजयध्वजप्रसरः। सम्प्रत्यपि त्वां निर्विण्णम् उपश्रुत्य संप्राप्तोऽस्मि अहं तव प्रोत्साहनार्थम् एतद् दुर्गराजम्। अथ त्वां स्वकर्मणि अभिप्रवृत्तं वीक्ष्य प्रतिष्ठेऽहं धर्मप्रवचनाय दुर्गान्तरम्।।

शिवराजः :
भगवतानुग्राह्यः अयं जनो भूयो दर्शनेन।

श्रीरामदासः :
भारतैकवीर! सम्पादयतु तवाभीष्टं भगवती परदेवता। (इति निष्क्रान्तः)

अनुवाद :
शिवराज :
अहो, वस्तुतः भगवान द्वारा ही आरम्भ किये गये राष्ट्र के उद्धार के कार्य में मैं तो निमित्त (कारण) मात्र ही हूँ।

श्रीरामदास :
वत्स! तुम न केवल मेरे शिष्य बल्कि प्रिय हो। अपितु तुम मेरे द्वितीय हृदय हो, तुम्हारे हाथ में ही मेरे लक्ष्य की प्राप्ति है। इसलिए मैं निरन्तर सावधानी से तुम्हारी विजय पताका का लहाराना सादर देखता हूँ। इस समय भी तुमको दुःखी सुनकर मैं तुम्हारे प्रोत्साहन के लिए इस विशाल किले में आया हूँ। अब तुमको अपने कार्य में लगा हुआ देखकर मैं धर्म के उपदेश देने के लिए दूसरे किले की ओर प्रस्थान करता हूँ।

शिवराज :
यह जन (शिवाजी) फिर (आपके द्वारा) दर्शन से कृपा करने योग्य है।

श्रीरामदास :
भारत के एक वीर! तुम्हारे इच्छित को भगवान् परमात्मा पूरा करें। (निकल जाते हैं)

आचार्योपदेशाः शब्दार्थाः

सप्रश्रयम् = विनम्रतापूर्वक। प्रतिगृहीताशीः = आशीर्वाद प्राप्त। दिष्ट्या = सौभाग्य से। दुष्कृताम् = निन्दित कर्म करने वालों का या दुष्कर्मियों का। कृतार्थताम् = सफलता को। अस्मिन् = इसमें। प्रसादाधिगमेन = कृपापूर्वक आने से। हिंसनम् = मारना। पुष्पस्रजम् = पुष्पहार। परित्राणम् = सुरक्षा।। समर्प्य = समर्पित करके। परोधर्मः = श्रेष्ठ धर्म। पादयोः = पैरों पर। नयमार्गम् = नीतिपथ। उत्तिष्ठ = उठो। अवलम्ब्य = सहारा लेकर। संस्थापनार्थम् = अच्छे प्रकार से स्थापना के लिए। उत्पथगामिनः = कुमार्ग गामी। नृपाधमान् = अधम । राजाओं को। अंशेन = अंश (या भाग) के द्वारा। धर्मशासनम् = धर्मराज्य। वृत्तम् = चरित्र को। अवतीर्णस्य = अवतरित का। नृभिः = मनुष्यों के द्वारा। अप्रतिहतः = निर्बाध, निर्विघ्न। सदाचारपरान् = सदाचार परायण या सदाचारी। उत्थाय = उठकर। प्रजाहितज्ञः = प्रजाहित का ज्ञाता या प्रजा के हित को जाने वाला। परमार्थतः = वस्तुतः। आरब्धे = आरम्भ किये गये। प्रेमास्पदम् = प्रिय। अनुग्रहेण = कृपा से।

साध्यसिद्धिः = लक्ष्य की प्राप्ति। निवृत्तम् = समाप्त। सततम् = निरन्तर। मोहावरणम् = मोह का आवरण। उदीक्ष्यते = सादर दिखाई देता है। नवीकृतः = नया कर दिया। विजयध्वजप्रसरः = विजय पताका का लहराना। प्रतिमठम् = प्रत्येक मठ (या आश्रम) में। सम्प्रत्यपि = इस समय भी। निर्मीयन्ते = तैयार किये जाते हैं। निर्विष्णम् = विरल हृदय को। राष्ट्रभावभाविताः = राष्ट्रिय भावना वाले। प्रोत्साहनार्थम् = उत्साह बढ़ाने के लिए। शतशः = सैकड़ों। दुर्गराजम् = विशाल दुर्ग या बड़ा किला। युवगणाः = युवक समूह। व्यायामयोगोपचित = व्यायाम और योग से प्राप्त। स्वकर्मणि = अपने कार्य में। अभिप्रवृत्तम् = लगा हुआ। अङ्गसत्वाः = अंगों की शक्ति वाले। वीक्ष्य = देखकर। विद्याकलादण्डनयप्रतिष्ठिताः = विद्याओं, कलाओं, दण्डनीति में कुशल। प्रतिष्ठेडहम् = मैं प्रस्थान करता हूँ। धर्मप्रवचनाय = धर्म के उपदेश देने के लिए। उपधाविशोधिता = धर्म, अर्थ में परीक्षित या संस्कारित। दुर्गान्तरम् = दूसरे दुर्ग (किला) को। अनुग्राह्यः = कृपा करने योग्य। भाविरणे= भविष्य में होने वाले समर में। भूयः = फिर। सम्पादयतु = पूरा करें। सहायाः = सहायता करने वाले। अभीष्टम् = इच्छित। भवन्तु = होवें। परमार्थतः = वस्तुतः।

MP Board Class 8th Sanskrit Solutions

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 5 Coal and Petroleum

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 5 Coal and Petroleum

MP Board Class 8th Science Coal and Petroleum NCERT Textbook Exercises

Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 5 Question 1.
What are the advantages of using CNG and LPG as fuels?
Answer:
The advantages of using CNG and LPG as fuels are:

  1. CNG and LPG are a non-polluting fuel vehicles.
  2. CNG is used for power generation.
  3. LPG can be used directly for burning in homes and factories.
  4. CNG and LPG fuels are easy to store.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 5 Question 2.
Name the petroleum product used for surfacing of roads.
Answer:
These days bitumen is used for surfacing of roads in place of coal-tar.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Solution Chapter 5 Question 3.
Describe how coal is formed from dead vegetation. What is this process called?
Answer:
About 300 million years ago, the earth had dense forests in low lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes like flooding, these forests got buried under the soil. As more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature also rose as they sank deeper and deeper. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead plants got slowly converted to coal. As coal contains mainly carbon, the slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonisation. Since it was formed from the remains of vegetation, coal is also called a fossil fuel.

Mp Board Class 8th Science Chapter 5 Question 4.
Fill in the blanks:
(a) Fossil fuels are and
(b) Process of separation of different- constituents from petroleum is called
(c) Least polluting fuel for vehicle is
Answer:
(a) coal, petroleum, natural gas.
(b) refining
(c) CNG.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Chapter 5 Question 5.
Tick TruelFalse against the following statements:
(a) Fossil fuels can be made in the laboratory. (T/F)
(b) CNG is more polluting fuel than petrol. (T/F)
(c) Coke is almost pure form of carbon. (T/F)
(d) Coal tar is a mixture of various substances. (T/F)
(e) Kerosene is not a fossil fuel. (T/F)
Answer:
(a) False, (b) False, (c) True, (d) True, (e) True.

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Science Question 6.
Explain why fossil fuels are exhaustible natural resources.
Answer:
Coal, petroleum and natural gas are fossil fuels. The amount of these resources is limited in nature and is used by human activities. This is why fossil fuels are exhaustible natural resources.

Class 8 Science Chapter 5 Mp Board Question 7.
Describe characteristics and uses of coke.
Answer:
Coke is obtained as a solid residue by heating coal in a closed tube in the absence of air. Coke is a tough porous black substance. It is almost pure form of carbon. Uses of Coke:

  1. It is used in the manufacture of steel.
  2. It is used in the extraction of many metals.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 4 Question 8.
Explain the process of formation of petroleum.
Answer:
Petroleum was formed from organisms living in the sea. As these organisms died, their bodies settled at the bottom of the sea and got covered with layers of sand and clay. Over millions of years, absence of air, high temperature and high pressure transformed the dead organisms into petroleum and natural gas.

Mp Board 8th Class Science Solutions Question 9.
The following table shows the total power shortage in India from 1991-1997. Show the data in the form of a graph. Plot shortage percentage for the years on the Y-axis and the year on the X-axis.
Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 5
(Source: CME, D&B researchcea.nic.in)
Answer:
Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 5

MP Board Class 8th Science Coal and Petroleum NCERT Intext Activities and Projects

Mp Board Class 8th Science Solution Activity 5.1

Make a list of various materials used by us in daily life and classify them as natural and man-made.
Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Solution Chapter 5

MP Board Class 8th Science Coal and Petroleum NCERT Additional Important Questions

A. Short Answer Type Questions

Mp Board Solution Science Class 8 Question 1.
Define inexhaustible natural resources with examples.
Answer:
These resources are present in unlimited, quantity in nature and are not likely to be exhausted by human activities. Examples are sunlight, air.

Class 8 Science Mp Board Solution Question 2.
Define exhaustible natural resources with examples.
Answer:
The amount of these resources in nature is limited. They can be exhausted by human activities. Examples of these resources are forests, wildlife, minerals, coal, petroleum, natural gas etc.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Question 3.
Why charcoal is better fuel than wood?
Answer:
Charcoal is a clean fuel and gives very less smoke which is equivalent to negligible. But wood is not a clean fuel and gives a lot of smoke on burning.

Mp Board Class 8 English Chapter 5 Question 4.
Why should we conserve energy?
Answer:
We should conserve energy:

  1. to overcome the problem of energy crisis.
  2. to save non-renewable sources of energy.
  3. to make the sources last long.

Class 8 Coal And Petroleum Question Answer Question 5.
Why are we using coal and petroleum
even though a large amount of sun’s energy is falling on the earth?
Answer:
Even though a large amount of the sun’s energy is falling on earth, it is very much diffused. In order to use sun’s energy we have to collect and concentrate it.

B. Long Answer Type Questions

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Subject Science Question 6.
What are the uses of LPG?
Answer:
At high pressure, LPG is stored in liquid form. Therefore, it can be filled at high pressure in small cylinders which can be sent for household and industrial uses. When regulator fitted on the cylinder is turned on, pressure inside the cylinder reduces and LPG converts in gaseous form and passes through a pipe to the burner where it is used as fuel.

Question 7.
Write a short note on Compressed Nature Gas.
Answer:
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG): Natural gas is mainly composed of methane (CH4) with ethane C2H6 and propane C3H8 gases in lesser amount. Methane is the major component (95%) of the natural gas. Usually petroleum gases are obtained at the top level of petroleum oil in petroleum wells. CNG is natural gas compressed at high pressure. CNG is used as a fuel in houses and in automobiles. It is more pollution free than other fuels.

Question 8.
Define the term fossil fuel. Name three fossil fuels.
Answer:
The period between 200 to 300 million years ago is known as carboniferous age. During this period large trees covered many areas of the earth. The generations of trees died and were gradually buried. These trees were converted very slowly into peat, then lignite and finally coal. It is called fossil fuels. Examples of fossils fuels are coal, petroleum and natural gas.

Question 9.
What is PCRA? What does it advise?
Answer:
PCRA stands for Petroleum Conservation Research Association. It advises people how to save petrol/diesel while driving. Their tips are:

  • drive at a constant and moderate speed as far as possible.
  • switch off the engine at traffic lights or at a place where one has to wait.
  • ensure correct tire pressure.

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 8th Sanskrit Solutions विविधप्रश्नावलिः 3

MP Board Class 8th Sanskrit Solutions Surbhi विविधप्रश्नावलिः 3

Class 8 Sanskrit Vividh Prashnavali 3 MP Board प्रश्न 1.
प्रश्नानाम् एकपदेन उत्तरं लिखत (प्रश्नों के एक शब्द में उत्तर लिखो-)
(क) काव्येषु किं रम्यम्? (काव्यों में क्या सुन्दर है?)
उत्तर:
नाटकम्। (नाटक)

(ख) दुष्यन्तशकुन्तलयोः पुत्रस्य किं नाम? (दुष्यन्त और शकुन्तला के पुत्र का क्या नाम है?)
उत्तर:
भरतः। (भरत)

(ग) कर्मणां लेखनं कस्य पार्वे अस्ति? (कर्मों का लेखा किसके पास है?)
उत्तर:
चित्रगुप्तस्य। (चित्रगुप्त के)

(घ) विक्रमादित्यः नगरभ्रमणसमये किं दृष्टवान्? (विक्रमादित्य ने नगर भ्रमण के समय क्या देखा?)
उत्तर:
रुग्णम्। (रोगी को)

(ङ) नर्मदा कस्मात् स्थानात प्रादुर्भवति? (नर्मदा किस स्थान से निकलती है?)
उत्तर:
अमरकण्टकपर्वतात्। (अमरकण्टक पर्वत से)

(च) कस्याः नाम रेवा? (किसका नाम रेवा है?)
उत्तर:
नर्मदायाः। (नर्मदा का)

(छ) कः सर्वत्र पूज्यते? (कौन सभी जगह पूजे जाते हैं?)
उत्तर:
विद्वान्। (विद्वान्)

(ज) कस्मात् परं सुखं नास्ति? (किससे बढ़कर सुख नहीं है?)
उत्तर:
ज्ञानात्। (ज्ञान से)

(झ) कम्बलवन्तं किंन बाधते? (कम्बल वाले को क्या परेशान नहीं करती है?)
उत्तर:
शीतम्। (ठण्ड)

(ञ) करिणां कुलं को हन्ति? (हाथियों के समूह को कौन मारता है?)
उत्तर:
सिंह। (शेर)

(ट) हट्टः कस्मिन् दिवसे भवति? (हाट किस दिन होती है?)
उत्तर:
मङ्गलवासरे। (मंगलवार को)

(ठ) विक्रेतारः कुत्र आपणान् आयोजयन्ति? (दुकानदार कहाँ दुकानों को लगाते हैं?)
उत्तर:
वृक्षच्छायायाम्। (पेड़ की छाया में)

(ड) इन्दिरायाः भाषणानि कीदृशानि आसन्? (इन्दिरा के भाषण कैसे थे?)
उत्तर:
ऊर्जस्वलानि। (तेजस्वी)

(ढ) इन्दिरा कुत्र भारतीयसेनाम् प्रेषितवती? (इन्दिरा ने भारतीय सेना को कहाँ भेजा?)
उत्तर:
बङ्गलादेशम्। (बांग्लादेश में)

Vividh Prashnavali 3 Sanskrit MP Board प्रश्न 2.
प्रश्नानाम् एकवाक्येन उत्तरं लिखत(प्रश्नों के उत्तर एक वाक्य में लिखो-)
(क) अस्माकं देशस्य नाम ‘भारतवर्षः’ इति कथम् प्रसिद्धम्? (हमारे देश का नाम ‘भारतवर्ष’ कैसे प्रसिद्ध हुआ?)
उत्तर:
भरतस्य नाम्ना एव अस्माकं देशस्य नाम “भारतवर्षः” इति प्रसिद्धम्। (भारत के नाम से ही हमारे देश का नाम ‘भारतवर्ष’ प्रसिद्ध हुआ।)

(ख) कालिदासेन विरचितानां नाट्यग्रन्थानां नामानि लिखत। (कालिदास के द्वारा रचित नाट्य ग्रन्थों के नाम लिखो।)
उत्तर:
कालिदासेन विरचितानां नाट्यग्रन्थानां नामानि मालविकाग्निमित्रम्, विक्रमोर्वशीयम्, अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम् चेति सन्धि। (कालिदास के द्वारा रचित नाट्य ग्रन्थों के नाम मालविकाग्निमित्र, विक्रमोर्वशीय और अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तल हैं।)

(ग) कर्मतपस्ययोः कः भेदः? (कर्म और तपस्या में क्या भेद है?)
उत्तर:
“कर्मणः स्थानम् भिन्नम् परं तपस्या स्वर्गप्राप्तेः साधनम्” इति कर्मतपस्ययोः भेदः। (“कर्म का स्थान भिन्न है परन्तु तपस्या स्वर्ग प्राप्ति का साधन है” ऐसा कर्म और तपस्या का भेद है।)

(घ) विक्रमादित्यः लोके कथम् प्रसिद्ध? (विक्रमादित्य संसार में क्यों प्रसिद्धः है?)
उत्तर:
विक्रमादित्यः लोके सत्कर्मणा एव प्रसिद्धः। (विक्रमादित्य संसार में सत्कर्म से ही प्रसिद्ध हैं।)

(ङ) धूमधारजलप्रपातः कुत्र अस्ति? (धुंआधार झरना कहाँ है?)
उत्तर:
धूमधारजलप्रपात: भेड़ाघाटनामके स्थाने अस्ति। (धुंआधार झरना भेड़ाघाट नामक स्थान पर है।)

(च) बन्धैः के लाभाः? (बाँधों से क्या लाभ हैं?)
उत्तर:
बन्धैः विद्युतत्पादनम्, भूमिसेचनम्, जलपरिवहनम्, अभयारण्यनिर्माणम्, पर्यटनस्थलनिर्माणम् इत्यादयो विविधलाभाः। (बाँधों से बिजली उत्पादन, भूमि का सींचना, जल परिवहन, अभयारण्य का निर्माण, पर्यटन स्थल का निर्माण इत्यादि विभिन्न लाभ हैं।)

(छ) दुर्लभं वचः किम्? (दुर्लभ वाणी क्या है?)
उत्तर:
हितं मनोहारि च दुर्लभं वचः। (हितकारी और मनोहारी वाणी दुर्लभ है।)

(ज) किं न अन्विष्यति किञ्च मृग्यते? (क्या नहीं खोजता है, क्या खोजा जाता है?)
उत्तर:
रत्नं न अन्विष्यति तत् च मृग्यते। (रत्न नहीं खोजता है और वह ही खोजा जाता है।)

(झ) शङ्करम् पतितं दृष्ट्वा पार्वती कीदृशी भवति? (शंकर को गिरा हुआ देखकर पार्वती कैसी होती है?)
उत्तर:
शङ्करम् पतितं दृष्ट्वा पार्वती हर्षनिर्भरा भवति। (शंकर को गिरा हुआ देखकर पार्वती प्रसन्न होती है।)

(ञ) काशीतलवाहिनी का? (काशी की सतह पर बहने वाली कौन है?)
उत्तर:
काशीतलवाहिनी गङ्गा। (काशी की सतह पर बहने वाली गंगा है।)

(ट) पञ्च शाकानां नामानि लिखत। (पाँच सब्जियों के नाम लिखो।)
उत्तर:
पञ्च शाकानां नामानि आलुकम्, पलाण्डुः, कूष्माण्डम्, शिम्बाम् मूलिका च इति सन्ति। (पाँच सब्जियों के नाम आलू, प्याज, कद्दू, सेम और मूली हैं।)

(ठ) पञ्चानाम् अन्नानां नामानि लिखत। (पाँच अन्नों के नाम लिखो।)
उत्तर:
पञ्चानाम् अन्नानां नामानि गोधूमाः, चणकाः, यवाः, तण्डुलानि द्विदलानि च इति सन्ति। (पाँच अन्नों के नाम गेहूँ, चना, जौ, चावल और दाल हैं।)

(ड) दिवङ्गतापि का अस्माकं कृते वर्तमानेवास्ति? (मरकर भी हमारे लिए कौन उपस्थित ही है?)
उत्तर:
दिवङ्गतापि इन्दिरा अस्माकं कृते वर्तमानेवास्ति। (मरकर भी इन्दिरा हमारे लिए उपस्थित ही है।)

(ढ) इन्दिरायाः समाधिस्थलं केन नाम्ना प्रसिद्धमस्ति? (इन्दिरा का समाधि स्थल किस नाम से प्रसिद्ध है?)
उत्तर:
इन्दिरायाः समाधिस्थलं ‘शक्तिस्थलम्’ इति नाम्ना प्रसिद्धमस्ति। (इन्दिरा का समाधिस्थल ‘शक्तिस्थल’ नाम से प्रसिद्ध है।)

Mp Board Class 8 Sanskrit Vividh Prashnavali 3 प्रश्न 3.
रेखांकितपदम् आधृत्य प्रश्ननिर्माणं कुरुत(रेखांकित शब्द के आधार पर प्रश्न निर्माण करो-)
(क) कालिदासस्य उपमा विश्वप्रसिद्धा। (कालिदास की उपमा विश्व प्रसिद्ध है।)
उत्तर:
कस्य उपमा विश्वप्रसिद्धा? (किसकी उपमा विश्वप्रसिद्ध है?)

(ख) तेन मेघदूतं विरचितम्। (उनके द्वारा मेघदूत रचित है।)
उत्तर:
केन मेघदूतं विरचितम्? (किनके द्वारा मेघदूत रचित है?)

(ग) मेघः दूतरूपेण अलकापुरीं गच्छति। (मेघ दूत के रूप में अलकापुरी जाता है।)
उत्तर:
कः दूतरूपेण अलकापुरी गच्छति? (कौन दूत के रूप में अलकापुरी जाता है?)

(घ) तत्रैव यमलोकस्य दृश्यं दर्शितवान्। (वहीं यमलोक का दृश्य दिखाया।)
उत्तर:
कुत्र यमलोकस्य दृश्यं दर्शितवान्? (कहाँ यमलोक का दृश्य दिखाया?)

(ङ) यमराजः दूतान् पृच्छति। (यमराज दूतों से पूछता है।)
उत्तर:
यमराजः कान् पृच्छति? (यमराज किनसे पूछता है?)

(च) राज्ञः धर्मः प्रजापालनम्। (राजा का धर्म प्रजापालन है।)
उत्तर:
कस्य धर्मः प्रजापालनम्। (किसका धर्म प्रजापालन?)

(छ) पुराणेषु नर्मदायाः वर्णनम् अस्ति। (पुराणों में नर्मदा का वर्णन है।)
उत्तर:
केषु नर्मदायाः वर्णनम् अस्ति? (किनमें नर्मदा का वर्णन है?)

(ज) विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूज्यते।। (विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूजे जाते हैं।)
उत्तर:
कः सर्वत्र पूज्यते? (कौन सर्वत्र पूजे जाते हैं?)

(झ) नास्ति ज्ञानात् परं सुखम्। (ज्ञान से बढ़कर सुख नहीं है।)
उत्तर:
नास्ति कस्मात् परं सुखम्? (किससे बढ़कर सुख नहीं है?)

कस्तूरी कस्मात् जायते Class 8 MP Board प्रश्न 4.
कोष्ठकात् उचितानि पदानि चित्वा रिक्तस्थानानि पूरयत (कोष्ठक से उचित शब्द चुनकर रिक्त स्थान भरो-)
(क) प्रवर्तताम् ……….. पार्थिवः। (स्वहिताय/प्रकृतिहिताय)
(ख) सर्वः ……… नन्दतु। (अन्यत्र/सर्वत्र)
(ग) सर्वो ……….. पश्यतु। (भद्राणि/अभद्राणि)
(घ) विक्रमादित्यस्य समीपे एकः ………. तपस्यारतः आसीत्। (महात्मा/दुरात्मा)
(ङ) वने सः कठिनां ………. आरब्धवान्। (तपस्याम्/दिनचर्याम्)
(च) नर्मदायाः अपरं नाम ………. अस्ति। (भागीरथी/मेकलसुता)
(छ) नर्मदानदी ……….. जीवनदायिनी इति कथ्यते। (उत्तरप्रदेशस्य/मध्यप्रदेशस्य)
(ज) ……….. सर्वत्र वै धनम्। (शीलं/स्वर्णम्)
उत्तर:
(क) प्रकृतिहिताय
(ख) सर्वत्र
(ग) भद्राणि
(घ) महात्मा
(ङ) तपस्याम्
(च) मेकलसुता
(छ) मध्यप्रदेशस्य
(ज) शीलम्।

Vividh Prashnavali 3 Sanskrit Class 8 MP Board प्रश्न 5.
उचित योजयत(उचित को जोड़ो-)
Class 8 Sanskrit Vividh Prashnavali 3 MP Board
उत्तर:
(क) → (ii)
(ख) → (i)
(ग) → (iv)
(घ) → (iii)
(ङ) → (vi)
(च) → (v)

प्रश्न निर्माण संस्कृत कक्षा 8 MP Board प्रश्न 6.
शुद्धवाक्यानां समक्षम् ‘आम्’ अशुद्धवाक्यानां। समक्षं ‘न’ इति लिखत
(शुद्ध वाक्यों के सामने ‘आम्’ (हाँ) और अशुद्ध वाक्यों के सामने ‘न’ (नहीं) लिखो-)
(क) मेघदूते नर्मदायाः वर्णनं नास्ति।
(ख) रेवा नर्मदायाः अपरं नाम अस्ति।
(ग) कालिदासस्य उपमा विश्वप्रसिद्धा अस्ति।
(घ) गणनाप्रसङ्गे कालिदासः अनामिकाधिष्ठतिः अस्ति।
(ङ) विद्वान सर्वत्र न पूज्यते।
(च) आज्ञा गुरूणाम् ह्यविचारणीया।
उत्तर:
(क) आम्
(ख) आम्
(ग) आम्
(घ) न
(ङ) न
(च) आम्

प्रश्न 7.
अपेक्षितम् पदपरिचयं लिखत(पूछे गये शब्द का परिचय लिखो-)
उत्तर:
Vividh Prashnavali 3 Sanskrit MP Board

प्रश्न 8.
भिन्नप्रकृतिकं शब्दं चिनुत(भिन्न प्रकृति के शब्द को चुनो-)
(क) अत्र, तत्र, सर्वत्र, मित्रम्।
(ख) श्रोतुम्, गन्तुम्, धेनुम्, ज्ञातुम्।
(ग) रामायणम्, पुराणम्, कालिदासः, महाभारतम्।
(घ), अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम्, मालविकाग्निमित्रम्, विक्रमोर्वशीयम्, मेघदूतम्।
(ङ) छात्रः, सीता, गीता, शिक्षिका।
उत्तर:
(क) मित्रम्
(ख) धेनुम्
(ग) कालिदासः
(घ) मेघदूतम्
(ङ) छात्रः।

प्रश्न 9.
अधोलिखितगद्यांशम् पठित्वा उत्तराणि लिखत(नीचे लिखे गद्यांश को पढ़कर उत्तर लिखो-)
अनूपपुरमण्डले अमरकण्टकं नाम पर्वतोऽस्ति। तत एव नर्मदा प्रादर्भवति। तदनन्तरम् एषा गहनारण्येषु उत्तुङपर्वतेषु च भ्रमणं कुर्वती डिण्डोरीमण्डलं प्रविशिति।

अनुवाद :
अनूपपुर मण्डल में अमरकण्टक नामक पर्वत है। वहाँ से ही नर्मदा निकलती है। उसके बाद यह घने वनों और ऊँचे पर्वतों पर भ्रमण करती हुई डिण्डोरी मण्डल में प्रवेश करती है। डिण्डोरी से सर्पाकार गति से ऊँचे-नीचे मार्ग से महाराजपुर (मण्डल) पहुँचती है। वहाँ से जबलपुर आती है। संगमरमर की चट्टानों के लिए अति प्रसिद्ध भेड़ाघाट नाम के स्थान पर धूआँधार झरने का रूप धरती है। उसे देखने के लिए बहुत से पर्यटक यहाँ आते हैं।

(क) अनूपपुरमण्डले किं नाम पर्वतः अस्ति? (अनूपपुर मण्डल में किस नाम का पर्वत है?)
उत्तर:
अनूपपुरमण्डले अमरकण्टकं नाम पर्वतोऽस्ति। (अनूपपुर मण्डल में अमरकण्टक नाम का पर्वत है।)

(ख) कुतः नर्मदा प्रादुर्भवति? (नर्मदा कहाँ से निकलती है?)
उत्तर:
अमरकण्टकपर्वतात् नर्मदा प्रादुर्भवति। (अमरकण्टक पर्वत से नर्मदा निकलती है।)

(ग) डिण्डोरीमण्डलं का प्रविशति? (डिण्डोरी मण्डल में कौन प्रवेश करती है?)
उत्तर:
डिण्डोरीमण्डलं नर्मदा प्रविशति। (डिण्डोरी मण्डल में नर्मदा प्रवेश करती है।)
अथवा
तेन मेघदूतम् ऋतुसंहारञ्च द्वे खण्डकाव्ये विरचिते। मेघदूते पूर्वमेघः उत्तरमेघश्चेति द्वौ भागौ स्तः। अस्मिन् काव्ये मेघः यक्षस्य दूतः अभवत्। सः मेघः दूतरूपेण रामगिरितः हिमालयस्थानम् अलकापुरीं गच्छति। दूतमार्गस्य वर्णनं नैसर्गिकम् अतीव रमणीयं चास्ति।

अनुवाद :
उनके कुमारसम्भव और रघुवंश नामक दो महाकाव्ये प्रसिद्ध हैं। कुमारसम्भव महाकाव्य में सत्रह सर्गों में स्वामी कार्तिकेय की जन्म की कथा और तारकासुर के वध की कथा है। रघुवंश महाकाव्य में उन्नीस सर्गों में रघुवंशियों के पराक्रम का वर्णन तथा उनके उदात्त चरित्र का निरूपण उनके द्वारा किया गया है।

उनके द्वारा मेघदूत और ऋतुसंहार दो खण्डकाव्य भी रचे गये हैं। मेघदूत में पूर्वमेघ और उत्तरमेघ ये दो भाग हैं। इस काव्य में मेघ यक्ष का दूत बना। वह मेघ दूत के रूप में रामगिरि से हिमालय पर स्थित अलकापुरी को जाता है। दूत के मार्ग का वर्णन स्वाभाविक और अत्यन्त रमणीय (सुन्दर) है।

(क) कालिदासेन विरचितखण्डकाव्ययोः नाम लिखत। (कालिदास के द्वारा विरचित खण्डकाव्यों के नाम लिखो।)
उत्तर:
कालिदासेन विरचितखण्डकाव्ययोः नाम मेघदूतम् ऋतुसंहारञ्च स्तः। (कालिदास के द्वारा विरचित खण्ड काव्यों के नाम मेघदूत और ऋतुसंहार हैं।)

(ख) मेघदूतस्य भागयोः नामलिखत। (मेघदूत के भागों के नाम लिखो।)
उत्तर:
मेघदूतस्य भागयोः नाम पूर्वमेघः, उत्तरमेघश्चेति स्तः। (मेघदूत के भागों के नाम पूर्वमेघ और उत्तरमेघ हैं।)

(ग) मेघः कस्य दूतः अभवत्? (मेघ किसका दूत हुआ?)
उत्तर:
मेघः यक्षस्य दूतः अभवत्। (मेघ यक्ष का दूत हुआ।)

(घ) मेघः दूतरूपेण कुतः गच्छति? (मेघ दूत के रूप में कहाँ जाता है?)
उत्तर:
मेघः दूतरूपेण रामगिरितः हिमालयस्थानम् अलकापुरीं गच्छति। (मेघदूत के रूप में रामगिरि से हिमालय पर स्थित अलकापुरी जाता है।)

प्रश्न 10.
अधोलिखितम् पद्यम् पठित्वा उत्तराणि लिखत (नीचे लिखे पद्य को पढ़कर उत्तर लिखो-)

कं सञ्जघान कृष्णः का शीतलवाहिनी गङ्गा।
के दारपोषणरताः कं बलवन्तं न बाधते शीतम्।।

अनुवाद :
श्रीकृष्ण ने किसको मारा? – कंस को।
कौन शीतल जल वाली गंगा है? – काशी की सतह पर बहने वाली।
कौन पत्नी के पोषण में रत है? – केदार (खेत) संवारने में संलग्न (कृषक)
किस बलवान् को ठण्ड परेशान नहीं करती? – कम्बल जिसके पास हो उसको।

(क) कृष्णः कं जघान? (कृष्ण ने किसको मारा?)
उत्तर:
कृष्णः कंसं जघान। (कृष्ण ने कंस को मारा।)

(ख) शीतलवाहिनी का? (कौन शीतल जल वाली है?)
उत्तर:
काशीतलवाहिनी गङ्गा। (काशी की सतह पर बहने वाली गंगा है?)

(ग) दारपोषणरताः के? (पत्नी के पोषण में रत कौन है?)
उत्तर:
केदारपोषणरताः। (खेत के संवारने में लगे हुए अर्थात् किसान।)

(घ) शीतं कंन बाधते? (ठण्ड किसको परेशान नहीं करती?)
उत्तर:
कम्बलवन्तम् शीतं न बाधते। (कम्बल वाले को ठण्ड परेशान नहीं करती।)
अथवा
कस्तूरी जायते कस्मात् को हन्ति करिणां कुलम्।
किं कुर्यात् कातरो युद्धे मृगात् सिंहः पलायनम्।।

अनुवाद :
कस्तूरी किससे उत्पन्न होती है? कौन हाथियों के कुल (समूह) को मारता है? दुःखी युद्ध में क्या करे, मृग से, सिंह, पलायन।

यहाँ तीन चरणों में तीन प्रश्न हैं और चौथे चरण में तीनों के ही उत्तर हैं। कस्तूरी किससे उत्पन्न होती है? यह पहला प्रश्न है। हाथियों के कुल (समूह) को कौन मारता है? यह दूसरा प्रश्न है। दुःखी युद्ध में क्या करे? यह तीसरा प्रश्न है।

(क) कस्तूरी कस्मात् जायते? (कस्तूरी किससे उत्पन्न होती है?)
उत्तर:
कस्तूरी मृगात् जायते। (कस्तूरी मृग से उत्पन्न होती है।)

(ख) करिणां कुलं कः हन्ति? (हाथियों के समूह को कौन मारता है?)
उत्तर:
करिणां कुलं सिंहः हन्ति। (हाथियों के समूह को सिंह मारता है?)

(ग) कातरः युद्धे किं कुर्यात्? (शक्तिहीन युद्ध में क्या करे?)
उत्तर:
कातरः युद्धे पलायनम् कुर्यात्। (शक्तिहीन युद्ध में पलायन करे।)

(घ) मृगात् शब्दे का विभक्तिः? (मृगात् शब्द में कौन-सी विभक्ति है?)
उत्तर:
मृगात् शब्दे पञ्चमी विभक्तिः। (मृगात् शब्द में पंचमी विभक्ति है।)

प्रश्न 11.
उचितविकल्पं चित्वा लिखत (उचित विकल्प चुनकर लिखो-)
(क) सर्वः पश्यतु। (दूरदर्शनम्/भद्राणि/अभद्राणि)
(ख) आज्ञा ह्यविचारणीया। (सहचराणाम्/गुरूणाम्ध्अ धमानाम्)
(ग) वयं संस्कृतं। (पठति/पठन्ति/पठामः)
(घ) कालिदासमहोत्सवस्य आयोजनम् भवति। (कार्तिकपूर्णिमायाम्/देवप्रबोधन्याम्/कार्तिककृष्ण पक्षस्य एकादश्याम्)
उत्तर:
(क) भद्राणि
(ख) गुरूणाम्
(ग) पठाम्:
(घ) देवप्रबोधन्याम्।

MP Board Class 8th Sanskrit Solutions

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 16 Light

MP Board Class 8th Science Light NCERT Textbook Exercises

Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 16 Question 1.
Suppose you are in a dark room. Can you see objects in the room? Can you see objects outside the room? Explain.
Answer:
We cannot see objects in the dark room. But we can see objects outside the room, in case there is light outside the room. To see an object, we need light which must reflect from the object to the eyes.

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 16 Question 2.
Differentiate between regular and diffused reflection. Does diffused reflection mean the failure of the laws of reflection?
Answer:
Following are the differences between a regular reflection and diffused reflection:
Mp Board Class 8 Science Chapter 16
No, diffused reflection is not due to failure of laws of reflection.

Class 8 Science Chapter 16 Mp Board Question 3.
Mention against each of the following whether regular or diffused reflection will take place when a beam of light strikes. Justify your answer in each case.
(a) Polished wooden table
(d) Chalk powder
(b) Cardboard surface
(e) Marble floor with water spread over it
(c) Mirror
(f) Piece of paper.
Answer:
(a) A polished wooden table will have regular reflection because its surface is smooth.
(b) A chalk powder will get the diffused reflection because chalk particles are not smooth.
(c) Cardboard surface has minute irregularities on it, so it will have a diffused reflection.
(d) Marble stone with water spread over it will have regular reflection if water is stable but if waves are formed then diffused reflection will take place.
(e) A mirror will reflect light regularly due to its smooth surface.
(f) A piece of paper will have irregular reflection due to minute irregularities on it.

Mp Board Class 8th Science Chapter 16 Question 4.
State laws of reflections.
Answer:
There are two laws of reflection:

  1. The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection. Thus, Zi = Zr
  2. The incident ray, the reflected ray and normal to the mirror at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Solution Chapter 16 Question 5.
Describe an activity to show the incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie in the same plane.
Answer:
Fix a white sheet of paper on a drawing board or a table. Take a comb and close all its openings except one in the middle. You can use a strip of black paper for this purpose. Hold the comb perpendicular to the sheet of paper. Throw light from a torch through the opening of the comb from one side (Fig. 16.3) With slight adjustment of the torch and the comb you will see a ray of light along the paper on the other side of the comb. Keep the comb and the torch steady. Place a strip of plane mirror in the path of the light ray (Fig. 16.3).

Mp Board Class 8 Science Solution Chapter 16

After striking the mirror, the ray of light is reflected in another direction. The light ray, which strikes any surface, is called the incident ray. The ray that comes back from the surface after reflection is known as the reflected ray. Perform above activity again. This time use a sheet of stiff paper or a chart paper. Let the sheet project a little beyond the edge of the table (Fig 16.4). Cut the projecting portion of the sheet in the middle. Look at the reflected ray. Make sure that the reflected ray extends to the projected portion of the paper. Bend that part of the projected portion on which the reflected ray falls.

Class 8 Science Chapter 16 Mp Board
Fig. 16.4: Incident ray, reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie in the same plane

When the whole sheet of paper is spread on the table, it represents one plane. The incident ray, the normal at the point of incidence and the reflected ray are all in this plane. When you bend the paper you create a plane different from the plane in which the incident ray and the normal lie. Then you do not see the reflected ray. This indicates that the incident ray, the normal at the point of incidence and the reflected ray all lie in the same plane. This is another law of reflection.

Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Chapter 16 Question 6.
Fill in the blanks in the following:
(a) A person 1 m in front of a plane
(b) If you touch your ear with right hand in front of a plane mirror it will be seen in the mirror that your right ear is touched with
(c) The size of the pupil becomes when you see in dim light.
(d) Night birds have cones than rods in their eyes.
Answer:
(a) 2,
(b) left, left hand
(c) large
(d) lesser.

Choose the correct option in Questions 7 – 8:

Class 8th Science Chapter 16 Solution MP Board Question 7.
Angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
(a) Always
(b) Sometimes
(c) Under special conditions
(d) Never.
Answer:
(a) Always.

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Science Chapter 16 Question 8.
Image formed by a plane mirror is:
(a) virtual, behind the mirror and enlarged.
(b) virtual, behind the mirror and of the same size as the object.
(c) real at the surface of the mirror and enlarged.
(d) real, behind the mirror and of the same size as the object.
Answer:
(b) virtual, behind the mirror and of the same size as the object.

Class 8 Science Chapter 16 Question Answer MP Board Question 9.
Describe the construction of a kaleidoscope.
Answer:
Kaleidoscope is an optical instrument used to see a number of beautiful patterns. It is made up of a circular cardboard tube or tube of a thick chart paper in which rectangular mirror strips are joined together to form a prism. At one end of the tube, touching these mirrors, a circular plane glass plate is fixed and several small pieces of coloured glass (broken pieces of coloured bangles) are placed upon it. This end is closed by ground glass plate. Allow enough space for the colour pieces to move around. Now the kaleidoscope is ready. When we peep through the hole, we will be able to see a variety of patterns in the tube.

Chapter 16 Science Class 8 MP Board Question 10.
Draw a labeled sketch of the human eye.
Answer:
Mp Board Class 8th Science Chapter 16
Class 8 Science Chapter 16 Solution MP Board Question 11.
Gurmit wanted to perform Activity 16.8 (of textbook) using a laser torch. Her teacher advised her not to do so. Can you explain the basis of the teacher’s advice?
Answer:
The Teacher advised her so because laser light is harmful for eyes and can cause some permanent damage to her eyes when throw directly in eyes.

Light Class 8 In Hindi MP Board Question 12.
Explain how you can take care of your eyes?
Answer:
It is necessary that we take proper care of our eyes. If there is any problem we should go to an eye specialist. Have a regular checkup. We must:

  1. If advised, use suitable spectacles.
  2. Too little or too much light is bad for the eyes. Insufficient light causes eyestrain and headaches. Too much light, like that of the sun, or powerful lamps, can injure retina, which is very delicate.
  3. Never rub the eyes if any small particle or dust goes into the eyes. Wash the eyes with clean water. If condition does not improve, go to a doctor.
  4. Wash the eyes frequently with clean water.
  5. Always read at the normal distance for vision.
  6. Do not look at the sun or a powerful light directly.

Mp Board Solution Class 8 Question 13.
What is the angle of incidence of a ray if the reflected ray is at an angle of 90° to the incident ray?
Answer:
We know that,
Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Solution Chapter 16
Thus, the angle of incidence is 45°.

Question 14.
How many images of a candle i will be formed if it is placed between two parallel plane mirrors separated by 40 cm?
Answer:
Infinite number of images of the candle will be formed, if it is placed between two parallel plane mirrors.

Question 15.
Two mirrors meet at right angles. A ray of light is incident on one at an angle of 30° as shown in Fig. 16.6. Draw the reflected ray from the second mirror.
Mp Board Class 8 Social Science Chapter 16
Answer:
Class 8th Science Chapter 16 Solution MP Board

Question 16.
Boojho stands at A just on the side of a plane mirror as shown in Fig. 16.8. Can he see himself in the mirror? Also can he see the image of objects situated at P, Q and R?
Mp Board Solution Class 8 Science Chapter 16
Answer:
Boojho will not be able to see himself in the mirror. But he can see image of objects situated at P and Q.

Question 17.
(a) Find out the position of the image of an object situated at A in the plane mirror (Fig. 16.9).
(b) Can Paheli at B see this image?
(c) Can Boojho at C see this image?
(d) When Paheli moves from B to C
Class 8 Science Chapter 16 Question Answer MP Board
Answer:
(a) Fig. 16.7 (a)
(b) Yes
(c) Yes
(id) No change as position of A is not changing

Chapter 16 Science Class 8 MP Board

MP Board Class 8th Science Light NCERT Extended Learning – Activities and Projects

Question 1.
Make your own mirror. Take a glass strip or glass slab. Clean it and put it on a white sheet of paper. See yourself in the glass. Next put the glass slab on a black sheet of paper. Again look into the glass. In vehicle case you see yourself better and why?
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 2.
Make friends with some visually impaired students. Enquire from them how they read and write. Also find out how they are able to recognise objects, hurdles and currency notes.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 3.
Meet an eye specialist. Get your eye sight checked and discuss how to take care of your eyes.
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 4.
Survey your neighbourhood. Find out how many children below the age of 12 years use spectacles. Find out from their parents what, in their view, could be the reason for the weak eyesight of their children.
Answer:
Do yourself.

MP Board Class 8th Science Light NCERT Additional Important Questions

A. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you understand by the refraction of light?
Answer:
The deviation (bending) of a ray of light when it passes from one transparent Medium to another, is called refraction of light.

Question 2.
What happens when light passes from one transparent medium to another transparent medium?
Answer:
The velocity of light changes and also the direction of movement of light changes.

Question 3.
What is refracted ray?
Answer:
The ray of light emerging in the

B. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 4.
Where should an object be placed for using a convex lens as magnifying glass?
Answer:
Object should be placed between focus and lens.

Question 5.
How does retina send sensations to brain?
Answer:
Retina sends sensations to brain through nerve cells.

Question 6.
What is a mirror? What kind of image is formed in a mirror?
Answer:
Any smooth and shining surface can act as a mirror. A mirror is a smooth surface which is polished from its back and can form the image of the object which is placed in front of it. The image formed by a mirror is a virtual and erect and is of the same size as that of the object in front of it.

Question 7.
What is dispersion of light?
Answer:
A beam of white light consists of seven colours. When a beam of white light passes through a prism, it splits into its seven constituent colours. The splitting of white light into its seven constituent colours is called dispersion of light. Rainbow is a natural phenomenon showing dispersion.

Question 8.
Write a short note on human eye.
Answer:
Our eyes are shaped like a ball. The eye lens in the front of the eye ball makes a real and inverted image of the objects on the retina, which is located behind it. The retina is a thin tissue that has many layers of cells. The most important layer of the retina consists of nerve cells that are sensitive to the brightness as well as to the colours of light. The nerve cells carry the message about the image from the retina to the brain in the form of special signals. The brain then interprets these signals and enables us to see the object we are looking at.

MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions