MP Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 India: Natural Vegetation and Wild Life

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 6 Text Book Questions

Choose the Correct Answer:

Question 1.
State with the minimum forest area in India is –
(a) Assam
(b) Rajastan
(c) Jharkhand
(d) Haryana.
Answer:
(d) Haryana.

Question 2.
Sundari trees are found in –
(a) Tropical forests
(b) Himalayan forests
(c) Mangrove forests
(d) Tropical deciduous forests
Answer:
(c) Mangrove forests

Question 3.
Natural vegetation of Rajastan is –
(a) Tropical moist evergreen forests
(b) Tropical moist semi-evergreen
(c) Tropical thorny forest
(d) Alpine forests
Answer:
(c) Tropical thorny forest

Question 4.
Natural habitat reserved for Indian Loin is –
(a) Gujarat Gir forest
(b) Kaziranga forest area of Assam
(c) Sundarban of West Bengal
(d) Nilgiri forest area
Answer:
(a) Gujarat Gir forest

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MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 6 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by natural vegetation?
Answer:
Plants, trees, grasses and bushes that grow naturally without man’s interference is called natural vegetation.

Question 2
What is a forest?
Answer:
A large area covered by plants and shrubs is called a forest.

Question 3.
What are mangrove forests?
Answer:
Mangrove is a type of vegetation with submerged roots. It is found on the coastal areas of India where the tides occur.

Question 4.
What is the meaning of Endemic and Exotic vegetation?
Answer:

1. Endemic Vegetation:
The vegetation which is basically Indian is known as Endemic Vegetation.

2. Exotic Vegetation:
Plants which are brought from out of India are called Exotic Plants.

Question 5.
What is a sanctuary?
Answer:
A sanctuary is dedicated to protect, wild life and conserve species. Without permission hunting is restricted in a sanctuary.

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Question 6.
Classify the forests on the basis of administration.
Answer:
Forests are classified in three categories from the administrative viewpoint:

  • Reserved forests
  • Protected forests
  • Unclassified forests.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 6 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are migratory birds?
Answer:
Birds coming from North Asia to India for a short period of time are called migratory birds.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of forest conservation?
Answer:
Forest is a national wealth. Looking to.the problems originated due to decreasing forest resources, their conservation is very necessary. Human needs are unlimited whereas the natural resources are limited. Hence, efforts for forestation have been encouraged so that forest may be conserved.

Question 3.
Describe the vegetation of Himalayan region of India.
Answer:
Oak and chestnut are found on eastern Himalayas and pine on western Himalayas. At an altitude of 2000 to 3000 meters forests of deodar, silver, fur, and spruce are sparsely attributed. Sal is mainly found at low altitudes. On the slopes of high altitude mountains, where temperatures are low and rain is less than 100 cm dry temperate vegetation is found.

Question 4.
Differentiate between National Park and Sanctuary.
Answer:
A National Park is relatively a large area where different ecosystems exist. Exploitation and acquisition could not change this region. For special scientific, educative and re-creative interests plant and animal species, with their geomorphological sites and habitats are persevered here. Hunting, grazing and human interference are totally banned in national parks.

A Sanctuary is similar to a national park, but is medicated to protect wild-life and conserve species. Without permission hunting is restricted in a Sanctuary but grazing and regular movement of cow and other animals is permitted. Human activities are allowed in a Sanctuary.

Question 5.
Distribution of plants and vegetation depends on which factors in India? Explain.
Answer:
The geographical factors or elements affect the development of vegetation of a particular area. The important elements are rainfall, temperature, humidity, soil, altitude and geological structure.

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Question 6.
Differentiate between Evergreen and Deciduous Forest.
Answer:
Differences between Evergreen Forests and Deciduous Forest.

Evergreen Forests:

  1. The forests having trees which remain green throughout the year. This means that seasonal shed – ding of leaves does not take place.
  2. Shedding of leaves and growth of new leaves is continuous process and it goes side by side throughout the year.
  3. Ever green forests are found mainly in equatorial regions where rainfall is very heavy and where there is no dry season.
  4. Trees like eucalyptus, oak, wattle, Mahagony, Man – grove and Rosewood are common in these forests.

Deciduous Forests:

  1. The forests consisting of trees which loose their leaves at some season of the year are called deciduous forests.
  2. Tropical deciduous forests are found in sub – tropical regions with a distinct dry season such as Monsoon regions of Asia, parts of central America, Brazil and North Australia.
  3. These forests have fewer than tropical evergreen forests.
  4. In case of Monsoon forests, the trees shed their leaves during the. hot season. Teak, Oak, Elm and Beach are important timber products.

Question 7.
Explain the chief characteristics of tropical moist ever green forests.
Answer:
The chief characteristics of tropical moist evergreen forests are:

  1. These forests thrive in areas having annual rainfall above 300 cm and dry season is short.
  2. These forests are very dense, length of the trees in 60 m or more.
  3. Layers of different height can be seen in these forests. Shrubs, climbers and creepers are found under tall trees.
  4. Grass is generally not found in this region.
  5. The wood of these trees are hard and heavy,
  6. These forests do not have a distinct season of shedding of leaves, so these forests appear to be evergreen.
  7. The main trees found here are rubber, mahogany, cinchona, bamboo and palm.

Question 8.
Describe how forests are useful to man?
Answer:
Forest is a natural wealth. It has various uses for humans. Forests contribute in the economic development of the country by functioning in two ways production and conservation. we have two types of benefits from the forests – Direct benefit and Indirect benefit.

Direct Benefits:
They give us timber, fuel wood, fodder, raw material for small and cottage industries, valuable minor products (fruits, flower, grass and leaves) and raw material for medicines. It is a main source of livelihood for many people.

Indirect Benefits:

  1. Indirect benefits of forests are more important than direct benefits. They are the essential part of our nature and culture. They increase human values, provide spiritual strength and are the habitat of entertainment ancL recreation.
  2. Forests affect the temperature of the air control the speed of wind and control the climate by rainfall.
  3. Forests control floods and the soil erosion by controlling the flow of rivers.
  4. Forests increase the fertility of soil by adding humus formed due to the decomposition of the leaves and branches of the trees.
  5. Forests are the natural habitat of birds and animals.
  6. Forests are the symbol of natural beauty.
  7. Forests are the source of natural balance.

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Question 9.
How are the indirect benefits of forests more important as compared to the direct benefits? Explain.
Answer:
Indirect benefits of forests are more important than direct benefits. We know that forests are the essential part of our nature and culture. They increase human values, provide spiritual strength and are the habitat of entertainment and recreation. Forests affect the temperature of the air. They control the speed of wind. They also control the climate by rainfall. Forests control floods and soil erosion by controlling the flow of rivers. They increase the fertility of soil by adding humus.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 6 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe various types of vegetation in India.
Answer:
1. Tropical Evergreen Forests:
These are of two types.

(A) Tropical wet evergreen forests:
The forests thrive in areas having annual rainfall above 300 cm. and dry season is short. These forests are very dense, length of the trees is 60 m or more. Layers of different height can be seen in these forests. Shrubs, climbers and creepers are found under tall trees.

Grass is generally not found in this region. The wood of these trees is hard and heavy’. These forests do not have a distinct season of shedding of leaves, so these forests appear to be evergreen. The main trees found here are Rubber, Mahogony, Cinchona, Bamboo and Palm.

(B) Tropical wet semi-evergreen forests:
These forests are restricted to the areas where annual rainfall is between 200 to 300 cm. So these evergreen forests are found in the Central parts of temperate moist deciduous forests. These forests are found in Mehgalaya, Mizoram and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. They are less dense than wet evergreen forests. The important plants here are Rosewood, Ebony’, Telsur, Champa, Jun, Gurjan, Ice-wood and Laurel.

2. Tropical Deciduous Forests:
This is the largest belt of India, these forests are also known as Monsoon forests. They cover 39% of the total forest area. (See the distribution of these forests in the Vegetation Map) On the basis of availability of water these forests are classified into two parts Moist deciduous forests and Dry deciduous forests.

Moist deciduous forests are found in the area of 100 to 200 cm. rainfall in India, North-east states, foot – hills of Himalayas, Jharkhand, Western Orissa, Chhattisgarh and the eastern slopes of Western Ghats. Teak is the main species of these forests. Other trees are Bamboo, Sal, Shesham, Chandan, Khair, Kusum, Ar-jun and Mulbery.

Trees of these forests shed their leaves during the dry season for 6 to 8 weeks. To fulfill the demand of wood these forests have been exploited and cleared for cultivation. The areas with 70 to 100 cm. rainfall have Dry deciduous forests. The main areas of these forests are Peninsular Plateau, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Main trees are Teak, Sal, Pee-pal, Neem and Mango.

3. Mountainous Forests:
(A) Peninsular mountain forests:

  • On the high altitudes of Peninsular Plateau open wavy grasslands are found with the shrubs or undeveloped forests.
  • Dense vegetation is found under tall trees in these forests. Heterotrophic plants, mosses and plants with small leaves are found in these areas.
  •  Maglonia, Laurel, Elm are the common trees whereas Cinchona and Eucalyptus are brought from foreign countries and planted here.
  • There forests are found in Nilgiri, Palni, Annamalai, Western Ghats, Mahabaleshwar and Satpura and Maikal ranges.

(B) Mountainous forests of Himalayan Ranges:
In Himalayan mountainous region due to increasing altitude and decreasing temperature a difference in natural vegetation is seen. In Shivalik ranges, at an altitude of 1000 meters in the foothill region, Bhabar and Tarai tropical deciduous forests are found.

It is then succeeded by temperate moist evergreen forests between 1000 and 20000 meters. These are the dense forests with tall trees. Oak and Chestnut are found on eastern Himalayas and Pine on western Himalayas.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 India Natural Vegetation and Wild Life - 1

At an altitude of 2000 to 3000 meters forests of Deodar, Silver fur, and Spruce are sparsely distributed. Sal is mainly found at low altitudes. On the slopes of the high altitude mountains, where temperatures are low and rainfall is less than 100 cm dry temperate vegetation similar to that of Mediterranean vegetation, is found. Olive,. Babool and hard Savanna grass is found with Oak and Deodar trees.

Alpine vegetation is found between the altitude of 3000 to 4000 meters. These are less dense forests and the height of the trees decreases towards Snowline. At higher altitudes alpine pastures are found. Silver fur, Juniper, Birch and Pine are the main species of these forests.

4. Mangrove Forests or Tidal Forests:
Mangrove or Tidal vegetation is found on the coastal areas of India where the tides occur. Mangrove is a type of vegetation with submerged roots. This vegetation is found in the delta region of the Ganga, Bhahmaputra, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers. Sundari is a well – known mangrove tree found in the delta region of Ganga-Bhrahmaputra. Coconut, Palm and Agar trees are also found in this region.

Wild Life of Mangrove Forests:
Royal Bengal Tiger is famous in these forests. Tortoise, Crocodile, Alligators and different types of snake are found here.

5.  Tropical Thorny Forests:
The areas with less than 70 cm annual rainfall have thorny forests and shrubs. This type of vegetation is found in the northwestern parts of the Country. It includes Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and semi-arid regions of Haryana. Date, Palms, Babul, Cactus is the main vegetation here. These plants have long roots spread in a radial pattern in search of water.’ Leaves are small to reduce evaporation.

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Question 2.
Why is conservation of forest resources necessary? Give examples of different measures for their conservation.
Answer:
Forest conservation is necessary because our life is dependent on it. Forests provide us food. They help in the maintenance of ecosystem. They give oxygen which is necessary for survival of our life. Forests contribute in the economic development of the country. Different measures for their conservation.

Forest is a national wealth. Looking to the problems originated due to decreasing forest resources, their conservation is very necessary. Human needs are unlimited whereas the natural resources are limited. So, efforts for afforestation has been encouraged by the government.

Following measures have been taken for the conservation of forests:

  1. Dangerous tendency of the destruction of forests should be immediately controlled. The main objective of the National Forest Policy is the maintenance of environmental stability and restoration of ecological balance.
  2. Forest Conservation Act, 1980 is to prevent the destruction of forests and to prevent use of forest land for other purposes.
  3. The main objective of Social Forestry and Agro – forestry is to provide fuel wood and minor wooden resources to the farmers. Farmers are encouraged for plantation.
  4. Afforestation and development of waste and degraded land.
  5. Reforestation in the existing forest areas.
  6. Controlled cutting of forests and by scientific method.
  7. Establishment of Watch Towers and surveying to prevent forest fire.
  8. Ban on grazing, poaching and cutting trees and shrubs for fuel wood.
  9. Controlled and limited trade of timber.
  10. Controlled jhuming agriculture.
  11. Controlling harmful insects like termites, cockroaches and gubrela.
  12. Creating awareness in people regarding Agro – forestry, extensive forestry, development of social forestry and forest conservation, Chipko Movement and Van Mahotsava are all included as the measures of forest conservation.

Question 3.
Write about the different measures taken for wild-life conservation.
Answer:
Out of 5 lakh animal species of the world 75,000 are found in India. Similarly about 12,000 species and 900 sub-species of birds are available in India. Beginning of wild – life conservation was an effort of ecologists movement.

1. In 1972 Wild Life Conservation Act was passed in India. This act gives protection and preservation to endangered species of wild – life and ban the trading of related species.

2. Tiger Development Programmer Project was launched in 1973. Today there are 27 Tiger Reserves in 14 slates of the country.

3. Crocodile Breeding and Management Project was started in 1975 to conserve Crocodiles.

4. To increase the number of elephants, Elephant Project was launched-. Economic and scientific assistance was made available for this project.

5. Project Tiger movement was started to conserve the endangered species of Tiger. 17 Tiger Reserves were established for this purpose. The natural habitat of lion in the country is the Gir forest of Gujarat.

6. For the management and upkeep of zoos Central Zoo Authority is established. Responsibility of 200 zoos established in India is given to this authority.

7. There are 14 Biosphere Reserves set up in different regions of the .country. Out of which Sunderbans (West Bengal), Nanda Devi (Uttaranchal), Gulf of Mannar (Tamilnadu), Nilgiri (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamilnadu) are included in the Biosphere Reserves of the world. Other Biosphere Reserves are Nakrak, Great Nicobar, Manas, Simlipal, Dihang – Dibang, Dibru – Saikhova, Augustmalai, Kanchanjunga, Pachmarhi, Achnakmar – Amarkantak. .

Map Work:
Show the following areas in the outline Map of India.

  1. Tropical evergreen forests and tidal forest.
  2. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary and Silent Valley.
  3. Kanha Kesli and Corbett National Park.
  4. Nanda Devi, Nilgiri and Sundarban Biosphere Reserve.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 India Natural Vegetation and Wild Life - 2

Project Work
Collect the medicinal herbs from your surroundings and prepare a list and write the uses of medicinal herbs.
Answer:
Do yourself.

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MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 6 Other Important Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer:
(1) What is the percentage of total area of forest in Tripura?
(a) 44%
(b) 55%
(c) 66%
(d) 48%
Answer:
(b) 55%

Question 2.
Highest forest area found in –
(a) North – East India
(b) South – West India
(c) East – West India
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(a) North – East India

Question 3.
Which one is not medicinal herb?
(a) Tulsi
(b) Neem
(c) Sarpgandha
(d) Teak
Answer:
(d) Teak

Question 4.
Wild life Conservation Act was passed in India in –
(a) 1975
(b) 1972
(c) 1980
(d) 1985
Answer:
(b) 1972

Question 6.
From administrative viewpoint forests are classified in –
(a) Four categories
(b) Three categories
(c) Two categories
(d) None of the above.

Fill in the blank:

  1. …………….. % are is under forest in Madhya Pradesh and Chhatitisgarh.
  2. In …………….. year Wild-Life Conservation Act was passed in India.
  3. A large area covered by plants, shrubs etc. growing naturally is called a …………….
  4. Tulsi is used in ……………… and ………………..
  5. Out of 5 lakh animal species of the world …………….. are found in India.

Answer:

  1. 30
  2. 1972
  3. Forest
  4. cold, cough
  5. 75,000.

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MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 6 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is water hyacinth called in West Bengal?
Answer:
Water hyacinth in West Bengal is called the terror of Bengal.

Question 2.
In which areas do we find plants with long roots?
Answer:
In desert areas we find plants with long roots.

Question 3.
Which is the most dominant and widespread natural vegetation belt in India?
Answer:
The tropical deciduous forest or the monsoon forest provide the most dominant and widespread natural vegetation belt of India.

Question 4.
In what part of the country are the evergreen forests confined?
Answer:
The evergreen forests are confined to altitudes ranging form 500 – 1500 meters along the windward side of the Western Ghats and up to 1100 meters in the north eastern part of the country.

Question 5.
Name two important products of Tropical deciduous forests.
Answer:
Sal and Sagon.

Question 6.
Name the most important species of tree found in the Western Ghat regions.
Answer:
Teak.

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Question 7.
Which forests are called the monsoon forests?
Answer:
The tropical deciduous forests are also called the monsoon forests.

Question 8.
Where are the moist deciduous forests found?
Answer:
They are found along the Shivaliks, the Piedmont plains of the Bhabar and Tarai regions in the north, the Chhotanagpur,  the South East Deccan Plateau and along north – south strip on the coast on the east of Western Ghats.

Question 9.
Name the few species of the vegetation in the Himalayan Region.
Answer:
Sal, chir, chil, pine, cedar, silver fir and spruce.

Question 10.
What are two important trees of the thorn forests?
Answer:
Babul and Kikar.

Question 11.
Name the type of forests in which the following trees are grown mahogany, chestnut; shisham, chir, sal, sundari, cam phor, rubber, kikar, teak, lawrel, sandal wood, oak, fur, spurce, palm.
Answer:

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 India Natural Vegetation and Wild Life - 3

Question 12.
Where are the elephants found in India?
Answer:
Elephants in India are found in the Jungles of Assam and those of Kerala and Karnataka.

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Question 13.
Name the most endangered species in India?
Answer:
The tiger, the rhino, the bustard and the lion.

Question 14.
Which is the first biological reserve in India?
Answer:
The first biological reserve was set up in the Nilgiries.

Question 15.
Where is the Gulf of Mannar?
Answer:
Tamilnadu.

Question 16.
How many national parks have been established is our country to protect wild – life?
Answer:
Eighty – nine national parks have been established in our country to protect wild – life.

Question 17.
Where is the natural habitat of lion in India?
Answer:
The natural habitat of lion in India is the Gir forest of Gujarat.

Question 18.
Why are national parks and wild-life sanctuaries developed?
Answer:
They are developed to provide safe habitat and to secure species of the wild – life.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 6 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is bio-reserve?
Answer:
Efforts are being made to protect and preserve every plant and animal species found in India so that this natural heritage can be transmitted to, the future generation in all its natural vigor and glory. With these objectives in mind the biosphere reserve or bio-reserve has been set up.

First such reserve was set up in the Nilgiries consisting of 5500 sq km at the tri junction of the Karnataka, Tamilnadu, and Kerala. Thus protection and conservation of the great biological diversity in its natural form is ‘bio-reserve’. After Nilgiri Bio – reserve, the one at Nanda Devi in U.P., Himalaya was set up in 1988. The other Noktek in Meghalaya was set up in this year itself.

Question 2.
Describe the administrative classification of forests.
Answer:
Forests are classified in three categories from the administrative viewpoint.

1. Reserved Forests:
The forest which are permanently reserved for timber or other forest produce and agriculture and grazing is strictly banned are called Reserved Forests.

2. Protected Forests:
The forests where local inhabitants are allowed to graze their animals and permission of agriculture with normal restrictions is given are called Protected Forests.

3. Unclassified Forests:
The forests, which are neither reserved nor protected, are Unclassified Forests.

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Question 3.
Write a short note on medicinal herbs.
Answer:
From the ancient times India is famous for medicinal herbs. 2000 Plants species are described in Ayurveda, out of which at least 500 are in continuous use. Some of important plant species used as medicine are Sarpgandha, Tulsi, Neem, Jamun, Babul, Kachnar, and Arjun, etc.

Sarpgandha is used to control blood pressure, Tulsi is used when we are caught cough and cold, Neem is used as an antibiotic, Jamun is used to improve digestion. It is also useful is diabetes Babul is useful in boils. It is also used to increase physical strength. Kachnar is useful in boils and Asthma and Arjun is used to control blood pressure and ear pain.

Question 4.
Explain the characteristics of tropical deciduous forests.
Answer:
The characteristics of tropical deciduous forests are:

  • They shed leaves seasonally.
  • They are comparatively open with lesser under growth.
  • Teak is the most important species. Others are sandal wood rose wood, shisham and mahua.
  • Trees are of economic significance and well exploited.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 6 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a short note on conservation of wild – life
Answer:
The wild-life of a country is a part of its heritage. Every effort should therefore be made to protect – and preserve the wild life. Today there are man – endangered species of wild – life birds and animals. The Indian bustard of Rajasthan and Malwa, number of lions and tigers are some of the endangered species.

In order to conserve this resource, government of India has been taking time-to-time suitable measure, to maintain this great biological diversity of our land. Periodic census undertaken to find out the latest position and trends in this regard. The project tiger has been a great success. Now there are 16 tiger reserves in various parts of the country.

Likewise Rhino Project is being implemented in Assam, The Biosphere Reserves have been set up in the Nilgiries. It consists of 5500 km and is spread at the trijunction of Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala. The other bio – reserves have been set up as Nanda Devi in U.P., Noktek in Meghalaya, Andaman and Great Nicobar etc. The country has 63 national parks, 358 wild life sanctuaries and 35 zoological gardens covering 130000 km2 of area.

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Question 2.
Describe the factors affecting vegetation.
Answer:
The geographical factors or elements affect the development of vegetation of a particular area. The important elements are rainfall, temperature, humidity, soil, altitude and geological structure.

1. Earth Surface:
It includes relief features and nature of soil.

Land:
Land affects vegetation directly and indirectly. Mountains, Plateaus and Plains do not have same type of vegetation. Plain surface is useful for agriculture. Forests and grasslands are found on rugged and uneven surface, which are the habitat of wild – life.

Soil:
Different type of soil is found on different places which is a base for different type of Vegetation. Mangrove forests are found in delta region of rivers. Whereas conical forests on the slope of high mountains plain areas are favorable for agriculture – and deciduous forests are found on plateau region normally.

2. Climate:
Temperature Favorable temperature is required for the germination, growth and reproduction of the plants. Variety of plants grow in the tropical zone because of high temperatures and humidity. Increase in temperature by 6°C to 9°C results in the stunted of the plants. Temperatures are low on high mountains therefore the growth period of the vegetation is short

Sunlight:
Duration of sunlight at any place depends on latitude altitude from sea level and the season. Plants grow rapidly in summer season because in Summers the duration of day light is more. As the Southern slopes of the Himalaya mountainous regions receives more sunlight as compare to northern slopes, dense vegetation is found here.

Rainfall:
In the areas of heavy rainfall the forests are very dense with tall trees. In the areas of low rainfall dwarf trees, grasses and shrubs are found sparsely. In desert areas plants have long roots. To prevent the loss of moisture due to transpiration some plants have wax-coated and thorny leaves. Vegetation of Thar desert is thorny due to scanty water.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions

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