MP Board Class 9th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why do we Fall Ill

Why do we Fall Ill Intext Questions

Why do we Fall Ill Intext Questions Page No. 178

Question 1.
State any two conditions essential for good health.
Answer:
Two conditions essential for good health are:

  1. Balanced diet and good nutrition.
  2. Good social surrounding and economic wellness.

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Question 2.
State any two conditions essential for being free of disease.
Answer:
Two conditions essential for being disease – free are:

  1. Personal and community hygiene.
  2. Proper diet and economic growth.

Question 3.
Are the conditions essential for maintaining good health and being free of diseases same or different? Why?
Answer:
Yes, to some extent they are the similar, because if the conditions that are essential for good health are maintained, then the chances of getting a disease will be minimized. But at the same time, we can say that they are different because being health or good health means physical, mental and social well-being while being disease-free means not suffering from a particular disease.

Why do we Fall Ill Intext Questions Page No. 180

Question 1.
List any three reasons why you would think that you are sick and ought to see a doctor. If only one of these symptoms were present, would you still go to the doctor? Why or why not?
Answer:
Common symptoms which indicate sickness are:

  1. Headache
  2. Cough
  3. Dysentery

If only one of these symptoms is present, we usually do not visit a doctor. This is because such symptoms do not have much effect on our general health and ability to work. However, if a person is experiencing these symptoms for quite sometime, then he needs to visit a doctor for proper treatment.

Question 2.
In which of the following case do you think the long – term effects on your health are likely to be most unpleasant?

  1. If you get jaundice
  2. If you get lice
  3. If you get acne.
    Why?

Answer:
Jaundice is a disease that can cause long – term effects on our health. It is a chronic disease that lasts for a long period of time. Jaundice does not spread rapidly, but it develops slowly over a period of time.

Why do we Fall Ill Intext Questions Page No. 187

Question 1.
Why are we normally advised to take bland and nourishing food when we are sick?
Answer:
When we are sick, the normal body functions get disturbed. In such a situation, food that is easily digestible and contains adequate nutrients are required for the speedy recovery. Thus, bland and nourishing food is given during sickness.

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Question 2.
What are the different means by which infectious diseases spread?
Answer:
The different modes of transmission of infectious diseases are:

  1. Through Air: Certain disease – causing micro – organisms are expelled in air by coughing, sneezing, talking etc. These micro-organisms can travel through dust particles or water droplets in air to reach other people. For example, tuberculosis, pneumonia etc. spread through air.
  2. Through Water: Sometimes causal micro – organisms get mixed with drinking water and spread water borne diseases. Cholera, for example is a water borne disease.
  3. Through Sexual Contact: Sexual act between two people can lead to the transfer of diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhoea, AIDS etc.
  4. Through Vectors: Certain diseases spread by animals called vectors. For example, mosquitoes spread malaria.

Question 3.
What precautions can you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?
Answer:
Precautions to reduce incidence of infectious diseases are:

  1. Staying away from the infected person.
  2. Covering mouth or nose while coughing or sneezing to prevent the spread of disease.
  3. Drinking safe water.
  4. Keeping the school environment clean to prevent multiplication vectors.

Question 4.
What is immunisation?
Answer:
Immunisation is defined as protection of the body from communicable diseases by administration of some agent that mimics the pathogen.

Question 5.
What are the immunisation programmes available at the nearest health centre in your locality? Which of these diseases are the major health problems in your area?
Answer:
The immunisation programmes available at the nearest health centre are DPT (Diphtheria, Pertusis, and Tetanus), polio vaccine, hepatitis B, MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella), jaundice, typhoid etc. Of all these diseases, jaundice and typhoid are major health problems.

Why do we Fall Ill NCERT Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
How many times did you fall ill in the last one year? What were the illnesses?

  1. Think of one change you could make in your habits in order to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
  2. Think of one change you would wish for in your surroundings in order to avoid any of / most of the above illnesses.

Answer:
The illness was 2 – 3 times common – cold, occurred in a year:

  1. One change I would make in my habits in order to avoid the above illness is that I would take proper diet rich in vitamin C and would avoid too cold food.
  2. The surroundings should be neat and clean.

Question 2.
A doctor / nurse / health – worker is exposed to more sick people than others in the community. Find out how she / he avoids getting sick herself / himself.
Answer:
The following precautions must be taken by a doctor / nurse / health – worker:

  1. Wearing a mask when in contact with a diseased person.
  2. Keeping yourself covered while moving around an infected place.
  3. Drinking safe water.
  4. Eating healthy and nutritious food.
  5. Ensuring proper cleanliness and personal hygiene.

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Question 3.
Conduct a survey in your neighbourhood to find out what the three most common diseases are. Suggest three steps that could be taken by your local authorities to bring down the incidence of these diseases.
Answer:
Common diseases are dysentry, malaria, viral fever / jaundice. Preventive Measures:

  1. Cleanliness of surrounding neighbourhood i.e, removal of garbage from the streets / house and storage in a covered place till it is disposed off. Proper cleaning of drains and proper disposal of sewer water.
  2. Removal of breeding places of mosquitoes like ditches with stagnant water.
  3. Ensure supply of safe drinking water.

Or
Periodical programmes to educate people about prevention of disease.

Question 4.
A baby is not able to tell her / his caretakers that she / he is sick. What would help us to find out

  1. that the baby is sick?
  2. what is the sickness?

Answer:

  1. The baby is sick can be determined by his / her behavioural changes such as constant crying of baby, improper intake of food, frequent mood changes etc.
  2. The sickness is determined by symptoms or indications that can be seen in the baby. The symptoms include vomiting, fever, loose motion, paleness in the body etc.

Question 5.
Under which of the following conditions is a person most likely to fall sick?
(a) when she is recovering from malaria.
(b) when she has recovered from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken – pox.
(c) when she is on a four – day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken – pox. Why?
Answer:
(c) A person is more likely to fall sick when she is on a four day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone who is suffering from chicken pox. This is because she is fasting during recovery and her immune system is so weak that it is not able to protect its own body from any foreign infection. If she is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox, then she has more chances of getting infected from chicken pox virus and will get sick again with this disease.

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Question 6.
Under which of the following conditions are you most likely to fall sick?
(a) when you are taking examinations.
(b) when you have travelled by bus and train for two days.
(c) when your friend is suffering from measles. Why?
Answer:
(c) You are more likely to fall sick when your friend is suffering from measles. This is because measles is highly contagious and can easily spread through respiration i. e., through air. Thus, if your friend is suffering from measles, stay away from him otherwise you might easily get infected with the disease.

Why do we Fall Ill Additional Questions

Why do we Fall Ill Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Community health is related to:
(a) Social health
(b) Physical health
(c) Mental health
(d) All.
Answer:
(d) All.

Question 2.
Every disease have particular:
(a) Body weight
(b) temperature
(c) Sign
(d) Appearance change.
Answer:
(c) Sign

Question 3.
Condition for good community health is by maintaining:
(a) Cleanliness
(b) Pollution less atmosphere
(c) Economic growth
(d) All.
Answer:
(d) All.

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Question 4.
Malaria is caused by:
(a) Vibrio cholerae
(b) Plasmodium vivax
(c) Andies
(d) H. pylori.
Answer:
(b) Plasmodium vivax

Question 5.
Vibrio cholerae is a:
(a) Agent
(b) Host
(c) Vector
(d) None.
Answer:
(a) Agent

Question 6.
Which one of the following is water born infectious disease?
(a) Common cold
(b) Peptic ulcers
(c) Cholera
(d) AIDS.
Answer:
(c) Cholera

Question 7.
Which one among the following is a viral disease?
(a) AIDS
(b) Cholera
(c) TB
(d) Typhoid.
Answer:
(a) AIDS

Question 8.
Which one among the following is a chronic disease?
(a) Cold
(b) Malaria
(c) Elephantiasis
(d) None.
Answer:
(c) Elephantiasis

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Question 9.
In malaria disease, which one of the following is vector?
(a) Plasmodium vivax
(b) Mosquito
(c) Human
(d) Dog.
Answer:
(b) Mosquito

Question 10.
Which one of the following is mechanical cause of disease?
(a) Injury
(b) Microbes
(c) Heat
(d) All.
Answer:
(a) Injury

Question 11.
HIV – AIDS is transmitted by:
(a) Microbes
(b) Sexual contact
(c) Water
(d) All.
Answer:
(b) Sexual contact

Question 12.
Main factors which can help in public health hygiene:
(a) Availability of safe drinking water.
(b) Availability of clean environment.
(c) Spacious condition for living.
(d) All.
Answer:
(d) All.

Question 13.
Penicillin is a / an:
(a) Antigen
(b) Antibody
(c) Pathogen
(d) Host.
Answer:
(a) Antigen

Why do we Fall Ill Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write symptoms of a disease.
Answer:
Discomfort pain and tiredness is symptoms of a disease.

Question 2.
Is mental discomfort a disease?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 3.
When a part of body is hurt, can it affect all body? Why?
Answer:
Yes, because all body parts are connected internally.

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Question 4.
Write name of two diseases caused by virus.
Answer:
AIDS, common cold.

Question 5.
Write name of two diseases caused by worms.
Answer:
Elephantiasis, intestine infection.

Question 6.
Write name of two deficiency diseases.
Answer:
Beri – Beri, Rickets.

Question 7.
What is a vector?
Answer:
Organism which transfer a disease is called a vector.

Question 8.
What is a host?
Answer:
Organism which bear disease and their causative agents is called host.

Question 9.
Name one genetical disorder.
Answer:
Haemophilia.

Question 10.
How malaria and dengue are spread?
Answer:
By species of mosquito.

Question 11.
Name two communicable diseases.
Answer:

  1. AIDS
  2. cold.

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Question 12.
What become vector for a communicable disease?
Answer:
Host itself.

Question 13.
What kind of disease is AIDS?
Answer:
AIDS is a fatal viral disease.

Question 14.
Name two air born diseases.
Answer:

  1. Influenza
  2. pneumonia.

Question 15.
Name a disease against which vaccines are available.
Answer:
Typhoid.

Why do we Fall Ill Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define congenital diseases. Give some examples of such disease.
Answer:
Diseases or abnormalities present since birth are called congenital diseases. It is due to gene mutations (genetic factor) or environmental factors.
Examples:

  • Colour blindness
  • Cleft lip or palate.

Question 2.
Name the agent and vector which cause rabies.
Answer:
The causative agent of rabies is rabies virus (RV). The animals included humans can be infected and all of them can spread the disease.
Causes:

  • Dogs
  • rats
  • cats
  • monkeys
  • squirrels
  • cattle
  • wolves
  • racoons
  • bears etc. can spread this disease.

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Question 3.
What are acquired diseases?
Answer:
The diseases which develop after birth are called acquired diseases. It is categorized into

  • Communicable Diseases(Infectious Diseases): malaria, influenza etc. and
  • Non – Communicable Diseases: diabetes, scurvy, high blood pressure.

Question 4.
Write some common signs and symptoms of a disease if a brain is affected.
Answer:
Headache, fits, vomitting, unconsciousness etc.

Question 5.
What are infectious agents?
Answer:
The microorganisms which spread the disease from one person to other are called infectious agents.

Question 6.
Define ‘germ theory of disease’?
Answer:
Louis Pasteur proposed ‘germ theory of disease’ also called pathogenic theory of medicine. He stated that micro – organisms are the causes of many diseases.

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Question 7.
What happen when kidneys of a person do not filter urine properly?
Answer:
If the kidneys of a person do not filter urine properly then the toxic substances which disturbs metabolism could be fatal.

Question 8.
Is skin, hairs, saliva form the first line of defence against diseases? If yes, then how?
Answer:
Yes, skin, nose hairs, saliva act as the first line of defence.

  • Skin: It prevents the entry of microbes.
  • Hairs: These prevent the entry of dust particles and germs.
  • Saliva: It washes away bacterial growth from teeth and mouth.

Question 9.
What is immunity?
Answer:
Immunity refers to ability of the body to be resistant towards injury, poison or harmful pathogens. It is part of the defence reaction in the body. There are two types of immunity – natural or innate immunity and acquired or specific immunity.

Question 10.
Why are kids and elderly people more vulnerable to cold / flu?
Answer:
Kids are more vulnerable to cold and flu because their immune systems haven’t fully developed. Elderly people also more prone to catch a cold because of their poor health.

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Question 11.
Define antibiotic. Explain how it is able to control bacterial infections but not viral infections.
Answer:
Antibiotics (anti means against and biotic means living) are types of medications which slows and destroy the growth of bacteria. They commonly block biochemical pathways important for bacteria. Many bacteria, for example, make a cell – wall to protect themselves. The antibiotic penicillin blocks the bacterial processes that build the cell wall. Thus, bacteria fail to build their cell – wall, stop multiplying and die out.

Question 12.
Name infectious diseases that are spread through air.
Answer:
Infectious diseases that spread through air are – sneezing, coughing, open pneumonia, tuberculosis, measles, SARS, chicken – pox.

Question 13.
How infectious diseases are spread through water? Give two examples.
Answer:
Open defecation, consuming contaminated water, inadequate hand washing causes infectious diseases through water. Water – borne diseases are cholera, typhoid etc.

Question 14.
Give few examples of direct and indirect contact diseases.
Answer:

  1. Direct Contact Diseases: Examples of diseases spread by direct contact are common cold, tuberculosis, chicken pox, warts etc. Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD) are Syphilis, AIDS, gonorrhoea.
  2. Indirect Contact Diseases: Examples of diseases spread by indirect contact are Flu, TB, Chickenpox, urinal infections etc.

Why do we Fall Ill Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Becoming exposed to or infected with an infectious microbe does not necessarily mean developing noticeable disease. Explain.
Answer:
Infected with a microbe does not mean developing a disease because an infectious microbe is able to cause a disease only. If the immune system of the person is weak but a person with strong immune system normally fights off microbes. We have cells which are specialised to kill the pathogenic microbes. These cells are active when infecting microbes enter the body and if they are successful in removing the pathogen, we remain disease – free. So, even if we are exposed to infectious microbes, the person will not catch the disease.

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Question 2.
Give any four factors necessary for a healthy person.
Answer:
Factors necessary for a healthy person are as follows:

  1. A clean environment with proper public health services.
  2. Personal hygiene prevents infectious diseases.
  3. A proper balanced diet and sufficient nourishment are necessary for good immune system of our body.
  4. Immunisation / vaccination against severe diseases.

Question 3.
Why is AIDS considered to be a ‘Syndrome’ and not a disease?
Answer:
AIDS is considered a syndrome and not a disease because AIDS causing virus – HIV comes into the body via the sexual organs or any other means like blood transfusion and spread to lymph nodes all over the body. The virus damages the immune system of the body and the body can no longer fight off many minor infectious. Instead, every small cold can become pneumonia, or minor get infection can become severe diarrhoea. The effect of disease becomes very severe and complex, at times killing the person suffering from AIDS. Hence, there is no specific disease symptoms for AIDS but it results in a complex disease and symptoms.

Question 4.
(a) The signs and symptoms of a disease depend upon the tissues or organ the microbe targets. Explain giving any two examples.
(b) How does the immune system work against microbes?
(c) Name two diseases against which vaccines are available.
Answer:
(a) Disease – causing microbes enter the body through different means. These disease – causing micro – organisms are tissues specific or we can say that they target a specific organ.  If these microbes enter the body via the nose, the lungs are target and the symptoms are:

  1. cough
  2. breathlessness.

This is seen in the bacteria causing tuberculosis. If brain is targetted by these microbes, the symptoms will be headache, vomitting, fits or unconsciousness. This is seen in the bacteria causing meningitis.

(b) Immunisation is most important and effective way to raise resistance against the disease. Immunity may be two types:

  1. Active immunity
  2. Passive Immunity (artificial).

In active immunity, the body responds against disease – causing microbes and produces antibodies. The antibodies attack organ and kill the disease – causing microbes. In passive immunity, prepared antibodies are used against disease – causing microbes.

(c) We have vaccine against polio and tuberculosis.

Why do we Fall Ill Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

Question 1.
Why we cannot destroy virus?
Answer:
Virus attacks our body and consume proteins and RNA only. They do not have any metabolic pathway while other pathogens have their metabolic pathways. Our medicines stops the metabolic activity of pathogens and hence they get destroyed, but it is not possible in case of virus.

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Question 2.
How vaccine stops disease while it is, itself a low dose of similar causative agent?
Answer:
Our body has a very strong immune system and it develops antigen to subside the effect of any new high quantity antibody entering in the body. Presence of chemical in small harmless quantity initiate development of antigen in body and when actually agent enters in the body, antigen fights easily with it.

Why do we Fall Ill Value Based Questions

Question 1.
Anya got vaccination, she told her friend Sakshi. Sakshi got scared and doubted if it was safe as it contains weakened pathogens which cause diseases. Later, Anya explained her the concept of vaccination and immunity. Answer the following questions:

  1. What did Anya explain Sakshi?
  2. What values did Anya possess?

Answer:

  1. Anya explained that vaccine or weakened pathogen are not harmful to the body. Rather, they boost the person immunity against the same pathogen when it is actually encountered by the body is attacked by it leading to its destruction.
  2. Anya possess the values of helpfulness and intelligence. She is practical.

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Question 2.
Akash found in a blood test that his brother was HIV positive. His brother, due to this was expelled from the job. Only after intervention of NGO, he got it back.

  1. Which disease is his brother suffering from?
  2. Write its modes of transmission.
  3. Write your views about the NGO and the organization where his brother worked.

Answer:

  1. AIDS (caused by HIV).
    • Mother to child (during pregnancy).
    • Using infected syringes.
    • Blood transfusion.
    • Sexual contact with infected person.
  2. NGO has taken correct step and has helped Akash in fighting for injustice. While, organisation was wrong in its step as it does not spread by touching or by working with the infected person.

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