These MP Board Class 11th Biology Notes for Chapter 9 Biomolecules help students to get a brief overview of all the concepts.
MP Board Class 11th Biology Notes Chapter 9 Biomolecules
→ Body of the living organisms is made up of many mineral elements.
→ Elements are found either in free form or in the form of compound in the living body.
→ Collection of various types of molecules in a cell is called as cellular pool.
→ Smaller molecules found in the cells are called as micromolecules and larger molecules found in the cells are called as macromolecules.
→ Sugar, amino acids, nucleotides, minerals and water are the important micromolecules found in the cells.
→ Carbohydrates are formed by the union of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 1: 2 :1.
→ Fat and fat like substances are called as lipids.
→ Carbohydrates and fats provide energy to the body.
→ Some nucleotides and their derivatives act as coenzymes.
→ General formula of carbohydrates is Cx(H2O)y.
→ C, H and O forms 93% part of the body.
→ Approximately 22 types of amino acids are found in the cells of living organisms.
→ Proteins are formed by the polymerization of amino acids.
→ Nucleotides are the basic units of nucleic acids.
→ Minerals regulate metabolic activities of the body.
→ Fructose is the sweetest natural sugar.
→ Mammary glands synthesize lactose (milk sugar) from glucose and galactose.
→ Water soluble vitamins are vitamin C and vitamin B-complex.
→ Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K.
→ Deficiency of iodine causes the enlargement of thyroid gland known as goitre. It can be pre-vented by taking iodized salt.
→ Deficiency of iron causes anaemia.
→ Proteins are the polymers of amino acids.
→ Ecdysone is a steroid hormone which promotes the transformation of larva to the pupal stage during insect metamorphosis.
→ Glycosidic bond is between alcoholic group of one and aldose / ketose group of another sugar.
→ Extracellular fluid : Most abundant is Na, followed by Cl, carbonate, Ca, K, P04 and Mg.
→ Intracellular pool: Most abundant is K followed by P04, Mg, C03, Na, Cl and Ca.
→ One molecule of cellulose has about 6,000 glucose residues.
→ Cellulose can be hydrolyzed into soluble sugars.
→ Artificial fibre, rayon is manufactured by dissolving cellulosic materials in alkali.
→ The vitreous humour of the eye and the synovial fluid also contains mucopolysaccharides (mucilages).
→ Polysaccharides are the high molecular weight polymers of monosaccharides.
→ In diabetic persons, excess amount of sugar is not converted into glycogen.
→ Cellulose is not digested in our body. Ruminants like cow and buffalo can digest it.
→ Chitin forms the exoskeleton in arthropods its periodical pealing off is known as moulting or ecdysis.
→ Nucleic acids are composed of four types of nucleotides.
→ DNA is known as the ‘master molecule of the body’.
→ DNA is the hereditary material known as gene. Genes are found in the nucleus located on chromosomes.
→ Proteins are the ‘building blocks’ of the living organism.
→ Tertiary and quaternary proteins are always globular in nature.
→ Antibody is a protein produced in our body which neutralizes antigen and protects our body.
→ In meat, percentage of proteins is higher than carbohydrate but in rice it is reverse.
→ Two types of pentose sugar are found in nucleic acids. Ribose (in RNA) and deoxyribose (in DNA). Deoxyribose has one oxygen atom less than ribose sugar.
→ Keratin is a fibrous, insoluble protein which is called as scleroprotein and found in ectoder¬mal cells, hair, nails and horns of animals.
→ DNA produces RNA by a process called transcription (heterocatalytic function).
→ Monellin is a protein which is the sweetest chemical.
→ All enzymes are proteins, but all proteins are not enzymes.
→ Enzymes are the biological catalysts.
→ Enzymes are manufactured in the living cells but they are non-living.
→ DNA of all cells act as carrier of message for synthesis of enzyme.
→ Enzyme substrate complex is short lived.
→ Enzymes are very specific in their mode of action.
→ Pepsin is secreted as proenzyme, in an inactive form known as pepsinogen.
→ Inactive pepsinogen is hydrolysed to active pepsin in the stomach by gastric hydrochloric acid or by the pre-existing pepsin.
→ Enzymes have two sites : One is called as active site and another is called as allosteric site. By active site enzymes combine with the substrate, whereas by allosteric site it combines with other substances such as activator or inhibitor.
→ Due to presence of three dimensional structure, enzymes are more active than catalysts.
→ High temperature causes unfolding of protein structure which is also called as denaturation.
→ Many vitamins form prosthetic group of important enzymes. Some of the such vitamins are thymine, nicotinic acid, riboflavin and pyridoxin of vitamin B-complex.
→ Enzymology : Study of enzymes, their actions and functions.
→ Allozymes : Similar enzymes formed by different genes.
→ Allosteric enzyme : Structure was studied by Monod et al (1965). The enzymes do not obey Michaelis-Menten or Km constant.
→ AIDS is tested by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunesor bent Assay).