These MP Board Class 11th Biology Notes for Chapter 2 Biological Classification help students to get a brief overview of all the concepts.
MP Board Class 11th Biology Notes Chapter 2 Biological Classification
→ The bacteria constitute the most ancient, smallest, simplest organisms which are classified on the basis of structure and activities.
→ Bacteria often reproduce by binary fission.
→ Many eubacteria are disease producers in man, animals and plants. Some bacteria produce antibiotics.
→ Cyanobacteria are ancient photosynthetic prokaryotes. They liberate oxygen during photosynthesis.
→ Bacteria are photoautotrophic, chemoautotrophic or heterotrophic.
→ Archaebacteria are living fossils.
→ Plasmids are the extranuclear circular DNA found in bacteria.
→ In Moneran, 70S type ribosomes are found.
→ The cell wall of bacteria contain polysaccharide, lipids, proteins and mucopeptides.
→ Photosynthetic bacteria does not ‘split water’ to obtain reducing power. Instead of water they obtain H2 from H2S or other sulphur containing compounds.
→ Use of more concentration of salt or sugar in food preservation kills the bacteria by plasmolysis thus prevent the food from decaying.
→ Joker of plant kingdom : Mycoplasma is also known as Joker of plant kingdom.
→ Trichome : A filament without mucilage sheath is called trichome.
→ ‘Germ theory of disease’ is proposed by Louis Pasteur.
→ Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is the ‘founder of bacteriology’ and regarded as ‘father of microbiology.
→ Endospore : A resting spore produced by few bacteria under unfavourable conditions.
→ Antibiotics : A chemical substance excreted by micro-organisms which inhibit the development and growth of other organisms.
→ Bacterial cell wall: It is made up of peptidoglycan.
→ Ehrich (1854-1915) is regarded as ‘father of chemotherapy’.
→ Fungi are heterotrophic thallophytes because of the absence of chlorophyll.
→ The body of fungi is made up of thin filaments. A single filament of fungi is called as hyphae.
→ The group of filaments forming a network is called as mycelium.
→ The cell wall of fungi is made up of chitin.
→ Glycogen is the stored food material of fungi.
→ Kingdom fungi is classified into five classes :
- Class 1. Mastigomycotina or Eumycotina.
- Class 2. Zygomycotina.
- Class 3. Ascomycotina.
- Class 4. Basidiomycotina.
- Class 5. Deuteromycotina.
→ Asexual reproduction in fungi mostly takes place by spores or conidia, whereas the sexual reproduction may be isogamous or heterogamous. In lower forms, it takes place by conjuga¬tion.
→ The higher fungi are included under ascomycetes and basidiomycetes.
→ The most distinctive feature of ascomycetes is the formation of sac like ascus in which sexually produced ascospores develop. In some members, asci are borne in a fruiting body called the ascocarp.
→ An association of algae and fungi is called as Lichen.
→ Mushrooms are the fungi used as food.
→ Mycology is the branch of biology deals with study of fungi.