MP Board Class 11th Biology Important Questions Chapter 7 Structural Organisation in Animals
Structural Organisation in Animals Class 11 Important Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is polycythemia?
Polycythemia is an abnormality in human beings in which the number of R.B.Cs. of blood is abnormally increased.
What are ligaments? Write their functions.
Ligaments are the tufts of elastin filaments that connect bones with bones.
Distance between two adjacent ‘Z’ lines of a muscle fibre of striped muscle is called as sarcomere. The sarcomeres are the functional units of striped muscle fibres.
What is haemopoiesis?
Formation of blood in body is called haemopoiesis.
Name the glands found in the skin of human.
Three types of glands are found in the skin of human :
- Sweat gland,
- Sebaceous gland and
- Mammary gland.
What is known as haversian system?
In mammalian bone, the calcified matrix is deposited in the form of lamellae which arranged around numerous canals. These canals are called haversian canals and lamella are called haversian lamella. Each haversian canal and the lamellae forms
Write any two similarities between blood and lymph.
- Blood and lymph both contain W.B.Cs.
- Both contain sugar, urea, amino acids and both having the capacity of coagulation.
Name the tissue which joined muscle and bone.
Tendon joined muscles with bone.
Where are mast cells situated? Name the substances secreted by them.
Mast cells are found in the interstitial cells around the blood vessels. These cells secrete histamine, heparin, serotonin, etc. which are found in blood plasma.
Write the name of two specific proteins that form contractile muscle fibres.
Actin and myosin.
Draw the diagram of adipose tissue.
Draw a labelled diagram of unstriped muscles.
Write the names of the proteins found in bone and cartilage.
Ossein protein in bone and chondrin in cartilage.
Name the tissue found in the inner lining of blood vessels.
Simple epithelium and pseudostratified epithelium tissues are found in the inner lining of blood vessels.
Name the tissue found in the inner lining of fallopian tube and bronchioles.
Name the part of human body which can be repaired easily if damaged.
Name the corpuscles found in the blood.
Corpuscles found in the blood are ;
- Red blood corpuscles,
- White blood corpuscles.
What make the top layers of cells of the stratified epithelium water proof?
The top layer of the cells of the stratified epithelium replace their cytoplasm with a water proof protein keratin and become dead and water proof.
What is the life span of erythrocytes in human ? Where are R.B.Cs. pro-duced during embryonic stage and in adult stage?
In human life span of erythrocytes is 120 days.
In embryonic stage erythrocytes are mainly formed in the liver and spleen. But from birth onwards, these are formed in the red bone marrow.
Group of cells which are similar in their origin, structure and function are called as tissue.
Define organ and organ system.
A collection of various tissues to form a structure, which perform specific function is called as organ.
e.g. Stomach, intestine, liver etc.
Various organs held together to perform a specific function is galled as organ system.
e.g. Digestive system, respiratory system etc.
Why fatty people feel less cold as compared to thin people?
In fatty people more quantity of adipose tissue is found, which acts as a heat insulator under the skin, thus fatty people feel less cold as compared to thin people.
Give functions of Histamin, Heparin and Seratonin.
Mast cells of Areolar tissue secretes Histamin, Heparin and Seratonin. Their functions are:
- Histamin : Dilates the blood vessels and controls the blood flow.
- Heparin : It prevents coagulation of blood inside the blood vessels, thus acts as anticoagulant.
- Seratonin : It constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
Name a plasma protein which helps for coagulation of blood in vertebrates.
Why coagulation of blood does not occur inside the blood vessels?
Coagulation of blood does not occur inside the blood vessels due to presence of an anticoagulant substance heparin.
What is node of Ranvier?
Part of the myelinated nerve fibre where myelin sheath is not found is called as
Node of Ranvier.
In the tissue of which animals haversian system is found?
In which tissues of mammalia haversian canals are found?
Haversian system is found in the bones of mammals.
Structural Organisation in Animals Class 11 Important Questions Short Answer Type
Give types and functions of plasma protein.
Plasma protein can be divided into three types :
(1) Serum albumin,
- Serum globulin,
Functions of plasma protein :
- Body resistant: Globulin protein functions as antibodies.
- Prevent loss of blood : Fibrinogen which is produced in the liver helps in clotting of blood.
- Keeps blood in fluid form : Albumin and globulin has capacity to hold water in themselves, thus helps to maintain liquid form of blood.
- It helps in circulation or transportation.
- It maintains pH value of the blood.
- It maintains equal temperature in the whole body.
- It conducts heat.
What are following and where they are found :
- Nissil’s granules,
- Haversian system,
- Ciliated epithelium,
- Osteocyte : The cells found in the matrix of bones are called as Osteocyte.
- Nissil’s granules : These are found in the cytoplasm of the nerve cells which are concerned with impulse conduction.
- Haemoglobin : A complex protein found in red blood corpuscles and helps to carry oxygen during respiration.
- Haversian system : These are group of tubules found in the bones of mammals.
- Canaliculi: Lacunae are found united with each other by means of Canaliculi in the bones of mammals.
- Ciliated epithelium : When at free end of columnar or cuboidal cells there is fine thread like cilia found, they are called as ciliated epithelium. They are found in the inner lining of trachea, oviduct, ureter.
- Lacunae : Small bag like structures found in the matrix of bones and cartilage called as lacunae. Bone or cartilage cells are found inside them.
Describe any four differences between Tendon and Ligament.
Differences between Tendon and Ligament
|1. They are the tufts of collagen fibres that connect muscles with bones.||They are the tufts of elastin filaments that connect bones with bones.|
|2. The filaments of tendon are found in the form of thick bundles.||The filaments of ligament are thin and separated with each other.|
|3. Yellow fibres are not found in the tendons.||Yellow fibres are present.|
|4. Tendon cells are arranged in a sequence.||Ligament cells are irregularly arranged.|
What is lymph? Describe any two functions of lymph.
The blood secreted in the tissues from blood corpuscles is called as lymph. It contains white blood corpuscles and R.B.Cs. are absent in it. Thus it is a colourless fluid found in the intercellular spaces and is made up of blood plasma, W.B.Cs., O2, nutritious and excretory substances.
- W.B.Cs. present in lymph destroy pathogens by the process of phagocytosis.
- It plays an important role in circulation of fluids.
- It functions as a medium between blood vessels and cells.
Write down the name of muscles participating an important role in the following processes :
- Movement of legs,
- Movement of food in oesophagus,
- Contraction in blood capillaries,
- Closing of one eye.
Muscular movement – Types of muscles
- Movement of legs – Striated muscles
- Movement of food in oesophagus – Unstriated muscles
- Contraction in blood capillaries – Unstriated muscles
- Closing of one eye – Circular unstriated muscles.
What are voluntary and involuntary muscles?
(i) Voluntary muscles:
The muscles which are innervated by motor nerves from brain and spinal cord and are under the control of will of the animals are known as voluntary muscles. Example : Striped or skeletal muscles like biceps, triceps are voluntary muscles.
(ii) Involuntary muscles:
The muscles which are innervated by autonomous nervous system and whose contraction is not controlled by the will of animal are known as involuntary muscles. Example : Smooth, visceral or unstriated muscles are involuntary muscles.
Describe the differences between Blood and Lymph. Or, Write the four differences between Blood and Lymph.
Differences between Blood and Lymph
|1. Blood contains R.B.Cs.||R.B.Cs. absent.|
|2. W.B.Cs. are fewer in number and neutrophils are more in number.||W.B.Cs. are more in number and lymphocytes are also more.|
|3. Amount of soluble protein is higher than the amount of insoluble proteins.||Amount of soluble protein is lesser than the amount of insoluble proteins.|
|4. The amount of O2 and nutrients is more in blood.||Amount of O2 and nutrients is lesser in lymph.|
|5. The amount of CO2 and excretory substances is lesser.||The amount of CO2 and excretory substance is more.|
|6. It is red coloured fluid.||It is a colourless fluid.|
Write differences between following :
(a) A-band and I-band,
(b) Plasma and Serum.
(a) Differences between A-band and I-band
|1. Dark coloured band found in striped muscle is called as A-band.||Light coloured band found in striped muscle is called as I-band.|
|2. A light line present at the middle of A- band is called as H-line or Hensen’s line.||A dark line present at the middle of I-band is called as Z-line or membrane of Kranse. (Distance between two adjacent Z-lines is called as sarcomere.)|
|3. A-band consists of myosin protein.||I-band consists of actin protein.|
(b) Differences between Plasma and Serum :
|1. A granulated liquid part of the blood is called as plasma.||The liquid remain after clotting of blood is called as serum.|
|2. Plasma word is also used for body fluid, e.g. Lymph.||Serum word used sometimes for such fluid which is antibody against any specific disease.|
|3. Plasma is the blood plasma which contains fibrinogen protein.||Serum means that blood plasma which do not contain fibrinogen protein.|
Find out odd from the following :
(a) Areolar tissue, blood, nerve cell (Neuron), tendon.
(b) Red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles, platelets, cartilage.
(c) Exocrine, endocrine, salivary gland, ligament.
(d) Maxilla, mandible, labrum, antenna
(e) Prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax, coxa.
Draw labelled diagram of Reproductive system of Earthworm.
Draw labelled diagram of Alimentary canal of Cockroach.
Write differences between Bone and Cartilage.
Differences between Bone and Cartilage
|1. It is rigid, non-flexible, strong structure.||Soft and flexible structure.|
|2. Matrix is composed of protein called ossein.||Matrix is made up of protein called chondrin.|
|3. Matrix occurs in concentric lamellae.||Matrix occurs in homogenous mass.|
|4. Osteocytes (bone cells) lie singly in lacunae.||Chondrocytes (cartilage cells) lie in lacunae singly or in groups of two or four.|
|5. Bone cells (osteocytes) are irregular and give off branching processes.||Cartilage cells (chondrocytes) are oval and without processes.|
|6. Matrix of bone cells have the deposition of inorganic salts.||There is no deposition of inorganic salts.|
|7. Bones are richly supplied with blood.||Soft and flexible structure.|
|8. Bones of mammals show haversian system.||Matrix is made up of protein called chondrin.|
Describe body segmentation in earthworm.
Body segmentation in earthworm :
The entire elongated body is made up of a series of distinct segments. These are called metameres which are separated from each other by intersegmental grooves. The number of segments varies from 100-120. The metameres can be recognised externally in the form of circular annuli. These are internally divided by septa to divide the body cavity into compartments. This type of segmentation in earthworms which is both external and internal is known as metamerism or metameric segmentation.
However, in P. posthuma internal septa are absent. The first segment at the anterior end is called peristomium or buccal segment. It is characterised by the presence of a small projection over the crescent shaped mouth. It is known as prostomium. Anus is found at the posterior end of the last segment.
A prominent circular band of glandular tissue surrounds segments from 14-16. These segments are fused and collectively known as clitellum and are not distinct externally. The clitellum secretes mucus and albumen. It divides the whole body into
- clitellar and
- postclitellar regions.
The secretion of clitellum helps in the formation of ootheca which is the site of fertilization of eggs.
On the mid dorsal surface of earthworm a blue line is observed called as dorsal blood vessel.
Answer the following questions :
(i) Give function of Nephridia.
(ii) How many types of nephridias are found in earthworm on the basis of their location?
(i) Function of Nephridia :
Nephridia are the excretory organs of earthworm, which consists of three parts : (a) Ciliated funnel like structure, (b) Body and (c) Nephri- diopore.
Ciliated funnel like structure collect excess fluid from the coelomic cavity and through its body tube transfer the fluid to the alimentary canal.
(ii) Types of Nephridia on the basis of their locations :
1. Integumentary Nephridia : These are found in all the body segments except the first two on the inner surface of body wall. About 200-250 these nephridia are found in each segment. These lack nephrostome and open to Mouth outside through independent nephridiopores. Due to this reason, integumentary nephridia are also known as Exonephric nephridia.
2. Pharyngeal Nephridia:
These nephridia are found on both the sides of pharynx and oesophagus in 4th, 5th and 6th body segment in the form of paired tufts. Each tuft has many nephridia with branched tubule without mouth. The common duct formed by the union of terminal ducts of each ne- phridium opens in the alimentary canal. There¬fore, these are also known as enteronephric nephridia.
3. Septal Nephridia :
These are found on both the surfaces of each intersegmental septum behind 15th segment. These have typical nephridial structure and open into the intestine and thus pour their excreta into intestine itself. Septal nephridia are also known as Enteronephric nephridia.
The main nitrogenous product excreted by earthworm is urea. Therefore, it is a ureotelic animal but in addition to urea, a little amount of ammonia, amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds are also contained in the excretory fluid of earthworm.
Draw labelled diagram of alimentary canal of earthworm.
Differentiate the following :
(a) Prostomium and Peristomium,
(b) Septal nephridia and pharyngeal nephridia.
(a) Prostomium and Peristomium :
Prostomium is a lobe like structure which cover the mouth. It is a sensory organ which help to open crack of the soil and help to crawl inside it, whereas peristomium is the first segment of the body of earthworm. Mouth is found in the peristomium.
(b) Septal nephridia and Pharyngeal nephridia:
Septal nephridia are the excretory organs found on both the surfaces of intersegmental septum behind 15th segment. They have typical nephridia structure open into intestine and thus pour their excreta into intestine itself, whereas pharyngeal nephridia are found on both the sides of pharynx and oesophagus in 4th 5thand 6th body segments in the form of paired tufts. Each tuft has many nephridia with branched tubule without mouth. Each nephridia opens into alimentary canal.
What are following and give their location in the body :
(b) Nerve axon,
(c) Ciliated epithelium.
(a) Chondrocyte :
Chondrocytes are the cells found in the cartilages. Matrix of chondrin is semisolid made up of chondromucoprotein called as chondrin. Externally the cartilage is bound by a layer of densely arranged connective tissue called as perichondrium. Cells of cartilage are called as chondrocytes. Chondrocytes are found in the inter-cellular space called as lacunae. Each lacunae contains 2 to 4 chondrocytes. Chondrocytes secretes chondrin.
(b) Nerve axon :
A single nerve cell is called as neuron. Cell body of neuron is called as cyton. Many processes arises from cyton are called as dendrons. One process become long and thick called as axon. At the end, it forms branches called as nerve endings, which are connected to dendrites of next neuron through synapsis. Axon may give side branches called as collateral fibre.
Axon is found surrounded by neurilemma membrane. Many axon contains additional sheath called as Myelin sheath. Part of the axon where myelin sheath is not found is called as Node of Ranvier. Axon helps to transmit message to next neuron, muscles and glands.
(c) Ciliated epithelium :
It consists of columnar or cuboidal cells bearing cilia at their free ends. They are found at the roof of the buccal cavity of frog, surface of the gills of molluscs and respiratory passages of vertebrates.
Its main function is to maintain the flow of mucus in one direction, i.e., it helps to push mucus towards the pharynx, it also helps to maintain circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
Draw labelled diagram of Digestive system of frog.
Answer in one word or one line :
- Give common name of Periplaneta americana.
- How many spermathecae are found in earthworm?
- Give location of ovary of cockroach.
- How many segments are found in the abdomen part of cockroach?
- Where Malpighian tubules are found?
- 4 pairs of spermathecae lies in segments 6 to 9.
- In female cockroach, a pair of ovaries are found, which extend between 2nd to 6th segments.
- Abdomen is the largest part of the body of cockroach which is dorsoventrally flattened. It consists of 11 segments in embryos while in adults it has 10 segments.
- Malpighian tubules are the excretory organs of cockroach, which are found at the juncture of mid gut and hind gut of the alimentary canal.
Structural Organisation in Animals Class 11 Important Questions Long Answer Type
Describe various types of epithelium tissue with labelled diagrams.
Epithelium tissue :
The tissue that forms lining of various internal organs and also cover the body surface of an organism are called as epithelium tissue. There are fol-lowing types of epithelium tissue :
(A) Simple epithelium tissue :
It consists of a single layer of cells over a basement membrane. It is of following types :
- Simple squamous epithelium: It consists of thin, broad, flat cells with prominent nucleus. e.g. Outer lining of skin, blood vessels etc.
- Simple cuboidal epithelium: Cuboid shaped cells with granular protoplasm. e.g. Thyroid gland and liver.
- Simple columnar epithelium: Cells are much longer looks like column, nucleus is usually located at the base of the cells. e.g. Lining of alimentary canal, uterus, fallopian tube etc.
- Simple ciliated epithelium : It consists of columnar or cuboidal cells bearing cilia at their free ends. e.g. Roof of the buccal cavity of frog gills of molluscs and respiratory passage of vertebrates etc.
- Simple pseudostratifled epithelium : All the cells of this type of tissue lies over the basement membrane, only tall cells reach the free surface thus it gives an appearance of two layered cellular structure thus called as pseudostratifled. e.g. Trachea, large bronchi, male urethra etc.
(B) Compound epithelium :
It is formed of several layer of epithelial cells over the basement membrane. It may be of two types :
(i) Transitional epithelium : In this outermost layer of cells are highly elastic.
e.g. Inner lining of the urinary bladder and ureter.
(ii) Stratified epithelium : Cells of stratified epithelium are arranged in many layers one above the other. ITie nature of this layer depends upon the shape of cells of the top layer which may be keratinized (due to deposition of water proof keratin) or non-keratinised (due to absence of keratin).
e.g. Epidermis of skin, pharynx, buccal cavity, oesophagus, vagina etc.
Write differences between following :
(a) Simple epithelium and Compound epithelium,
(b) Heart muscle and Striated muscle,
(c) Dense regular and Dense irregular connective tissue,
(d) Adipose tissue and Blood tissue,
(e) Simple gland and Compound gland,
(f) White collagen fibre and Yellow elastin fibre.
(a) Differences between Simple and Compound epithelium
|Simple Epithelium||Compound Epithelium|
|1. A single layer of cells are found over basement membrane.||More than one layer of cells are found over basement membrane.|
|2. All cells are similar.||Similar, dissimilar both the types of cells are found.|
|3. All cells are in contact of basement membrane.||Only lower layer of cells are in contact of basement membrane.|
|4. Its main function is protection.||It provides mechanical support to lower tissues.|
(b) Differences between Heart muscle and Striated muscle
|Heart Muscle||Striated Muscle|
|1. They forms wall of the heart.||They are found attached to the bones and arranged in bundles.|
|2. Muscle fibres are united by bridges to form network or branched structure.||Muscle fibres are long cylindrical but non-tapering cells.|
|3. Fibres are multinucleated.||Fibres are generally uninucleated.|
|4. Nucleus lies at the centre of the cell.||Nucleus lies at the periphery.|
|5. Capable of rhythmic and autonomic contraction.||Capable of quick and sustained contraction.|
|6. They are involuntary in function.||They are voluntary in function.|
|7. They are immune to fatigue.||Fibres are subjected to fatigue when overworked|
(c) Differences between Dense Regular and Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
|Dense Regular Connective Tissue||Dense Irregular Connective Tissue|
|1. Collagen fibres are found in between other parallel fibres and are regularly distributed and fibroblast lies in continuous rows. e.g. Tendon (Bundle of collagen fibres gives strength to the tendon and makes it tough.)||Dense irregular connective tissue contains fibroblast and many other fibres, which are irregularly distributed (scattered) in the connective tissue. e.g. Cartilage, bone, blood etc.|
(d) Differences between Adipose Tissue and Blood Tissue
|Adipose Tissue||Blood Tissue|
|1. It is a semisolid connective tissue.||It is a liquid connective tissue.|
|2. It is located under the skin.||It is located inside the blood vascular system.|
|3. It stores fat and prevents heat loss.||It helps to transport various materials in the body.|
(e) Differences between Simple and Mixed (Compound) gland
|Simple gland||Mixed (Compound) gland|
|1. Duct of glands are unbranched.||Duct of glands are branched.|
|2. These glands are formed by tubular cells which open at the body surface.||These glands are compound structure have a compound shape of tubular and alveolar gland. Main tube opens at the surface of the body.|
(f) Differences between White collagen fibres and Yellow elastin fibres
|White collagen fibre||Yellow elastin fibre|
|1. They are thick, ribbon like and arranged in bundles.||They are less in number, branched and scattered.|
|2. They are unstretchable.||They are stretchable.|
|3. They are formed of a substance called as collagen.||They are formed of a substance called as elastin.|
|4. They are hard and strong.||They are elastic in nature.|
Describe circulatory system of earthworm.
Circulatory system of earthworm :
Closed type of circulatory system is found in earthworm, i.e. blood is restricted to blood vessels only.
The blood consists of plasma and colourless nucleated cells. Haemoglobin is dis-solved in plasma giving red colour to the blood, which help to transport O2and CO2 Circu-latory system consists of following parts :
1. Hearts: In earthworm lateral hearts (4 pairs) are found in the 7th, 9th 12th and 13,thsegment. These are in the form of large, thick muscular contractile vessels.
2. Main blood vessels :
(i) Dorsal vessels : It runs on mid dorsal region of alimentary canal run from anterior to posterior end. It helps to distribute blood except 13th segment.
(ii) Ventral vessels: It is found in the mid ventral region of alimentary canal extended from anterior to posterior end. The vessel function as distributing vessel.
(iii) Lateral oesophageal vessels : A pair of these vessels are found on the 13th seg-ment which help for collection.
(iv) Sub-neural vessels : It is found beneath the nerve cord and extends from 14thsegment to the last segment of the body. It acts as collecting vessels.
Give functions of the following :
(a) Ureters of frog.
(b) Malpighian tubule.
(c) Body wall of earthworm.
(a) Function of ureter of frog :
A pair of ureter are found in frog which arises from kidneys. Ureter opens into cloaca. In frog nitrogenous waste is urea, which reaches to kidney through blood, after filtration it forms urine, which passes through ureter to the cloaca. In male frog ureter acts as urinogenital duct, which carries sperms as well as urine. Cloaca helps to remove sperms, urine as well as faecal matter out of the body.
(b) Function of Malpighian tubule :
Malpighian tubules are the excretory organs of insects like cockroach. It helps to excrete metabolic waste out of the body from haemolymph. They are 80-90 in number and found in 6-8 groups at the juncture of mid gut and hind gut of alimentary canal. One end of these tubules opens in haemocoel and absorbs the excretory substances like K+, Na+, sodium urate, excess water and CO2
(c) Function of body wall of earthworm :
The body of earthworm is thin and slimy. Its body wall consists of following layers :
It is secreted by epidermal cells. It is non-cellular, thin, flexible and made up of collagen fibres.
(ii) Epidermis :
It is situated beneath the cuticle, single layered and made up of columnar cells. It has many types of cells like supporting cells, basal cells, globlefor mucous cells and albumen cells. Setal sac are fonned due to invagination of epidermis.The basal cell of setal sac functions as formative cell of seta.
Beneath epidermis, there is a continuous layer of circular muscles. It is followed by a thick layer of longitudinal muscles which extend all along the length of body. Muscles are unstriped or smooth. Longitudinal muscles are arranged in the form of bundles which are separated from each other by connective tissues.
(iv) Coelomic epithelium:
It is thin layer of parietal peritoneum situated below musculature which is membranous and mesodermal in origin.
Write differences between Male and Female cockroach.
Differences between Male and Female cockroach
|Male cockroach||Female cockroach|
|1. The abdomen is long and broad.||The abdomen is short and narrow.|
|2. Anal styles are present.||Anal styles are absent.|
|3. Brood pouch is absent. – Brood pouch is present.||Brood pouch is present.|
|4. 8th teigum is covered by 7thtergum. – Both 8thand 9th terga are covered with 7thtergum.||Both 8thand 9thterga are covered with 7th tergum.|
|5. Males have longer antennae.||Antennae of females are short.|
|6. All 9 sterna are visible.||Only 7 sterna are visible.|
|7. Gonapophysis are 3 in numbers.||Gonapophysis are 3 pairs in number.|
Explain the mouth parts of cockroach along with diagram.
Write the name and function of mouth parts present in cockroach.
At the anterior end of the head there is a mouth which is provided with many appendages collectively called as mouth parts. The components of mouth parts are as follows:
It forms the upper lip of the mouth. It is broad and chitinous. A thin plate called epipharynx is fused to the inner surface of the labrum. It holds the food particles during feeding.
(ii) Mandibles :
A pair of stout and chitinous mandibles are found on the sides of the head capsule. It lies below the genae. Teeth are present on its inner margin while on its outer margin a soft lobe prostheca is present. It helps in cutting the food material into pieces.
Two maxillae lie beneath mandibles. Each maxilla consists of following parts:
(a) Protopodite : It is the basal portion made up of cardo and stipes.
(b) Endopodite : Arises from stipes and consists of galea (hood like) and lacinia (plate like). The latter also bears numerous strong sensory bristles at its inner surface.
(c) Exopodite : It consists of a small basal sclerite, the palpifer and a five jointed maxillary palp with sensory bristles. It holds the food and gives to the mandibles for masti-cation. It is also used in cleaning the antennae and legs.
(iv) Labium :
It represents the fused second pair of maxillae lying behind the mouth. It consists of following parts :
(a) Protopodite : It again consists of sub-mentum (proximal large part), mentum (middle smaller part) and a pre-mentum. The sub-mentum and mentum together are called post-mentum. It represents the fused cardons while pre-mentum is the fused portion of two stipes.
(b) Endopodite : It is represented by ligula, glossa and paraglassa.
(c) Exopodite : It consists of two parts
(i) palpiger and
(ii) labial palp. The palpiger arise from pre-mentum while labial palp is three jointed structure bearing sensory bristles.
The labium does not take part in feeding. It is sensory in nature.
(v) Hypopharynx :
It is a hanging structure between two maxillae in front of labium. It is small, conical in shape. An efferent salivary duct carrying saliva from salivary glands opens at the base of hypopharynx. It directs salivary juice towards the food. It functions like tongue.
Structural Organisation in Animals Class 11 Important Questions Objective Type
1. Choose the correct answers:
With which of the following animals protandry is associated:
Tympanum is found in :
In which of the following animal, the body is divided into head, thorax and
Frog’s cloacal aperture is the outlet for :
(b) Faecal material
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.
Number of spiracles in cockroach is :
(a) 10 pairs
(b) 12 pairs
(c) 20 pairs
(d) 8 pairs.
(a) 10 pairs
In which of the following animals, the gizzard is associated with alimentary
Hibernation and aestivation can be observed in :
Nephrons are associated with :
A radial symmetry is found in :
In frog special connecting veins found between liver and alimentary canal
and between kidney and lower parts of the body are called as:
(a) Hepatic portal system
(b) Hepatic portal and Renal portal system
(c) Renal portal system
(d) None of these.
(b) Hepatic portal and Renal portal system
(B) Choose the correct answers :
Which of the following is responsible for the coagulation of blood :
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.
R.B.Cs. are nucleated in :
Ciliated cells are found in :
Ligaments connect the:
(a) Bone from muscles
(b) Muscles with muscles
(c) Bone with bone
(d) Muscles with cartilage.
(c) Bone with bone
Mast cells are found in :
(b) Nerve fibres
(c) Connective tissue
(c) Connective tissue
The lifespan of R.B.Cs. mammals is :
(a) 120-127 days
(b) 60 days
(c) Few hours
(d) 80 days.
(a) 120-127 days
Cells present in cartilage are called :
Croup of cells having similar structure and functions are called as :
(d) Organ system.
The hump of camel is made up of:
(a) Skeleton tissue
(b) Muscular tissue
(c) Cartilagenous tissue
(d) Adipose tissue.
(d) Adipose tissue.
Functional hormone present in nervous system during impulse generation is: (a) Acetylcholine
In vertebrate animals, striated muscles are found in :
(b) Blood vessels
(c) Gall bladder
(d) Hind limbs.
(d) Hind limbs.
Voluntary muscles are found ¡n:
Ciliated epithelium is found in:
(a) Taste buds
(b) Inner lining of stomach
(d)None of these.
2. Fill in the blanks:
1. Cells found in the cartilage are ………………..
2. Nervous tissue help for …………….. and ……………..
3. Presence of ……………. is specific characteristic of Phylum Chordata.
4. ……………… and …………………. help for locomotion in earthworm.
5. Frog is …………….. oiganism.
1. ………………. is an anticoagulant, found in the blood.
2. The red blood corpuscles of ……………….. contain nucleus.
3. Cholesterol is synthesised by the ………………
4. The abnormal rise in the total blood R. B. Cs. count is known as …………………..
5. ………………. tissue works as a packing tissue.
3. Match the following:
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|1. Haversian system||(a) Adipose tissue|
|2. Adipocytes||(b) Areolar tissue|
|3. Mast cells||(c) Mammalian bone|
|4. Platelets||(d) Nerve cell|
|5. Axon||(e) Blood.|
1. (c) Mammalian bone
2. (a) Adipose tissue
3. (b) Areolar tissue
4. (e) Blood.
5. (d) Nerve cell
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|1. Stratified epithelium||(a) Erythrocytes|
|2. Polycythemia||(b) Myelinated nerve fibres|
|3. Blood coagulation||(c) Trachea|
|4. Dendrite||(d) Collagen fibres|
|5. White fibrous tissue||(e) Prothrombin.|
1. (d) Collagen fibres
2. (a) Erythrocytes
3. (e) Prothrombin
4. (b) Myelinated nerve fibres
5. (c) Trachea
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|1. Compound epithelium||(a) Alimentary canal|
|2. Compound eye||(b) Cockroach|
|3. Septal nephridia||(c) Skin|
|4. Open circulatory system||(d) Mosaic vision|
|5. Intestinal caecum||(e) Earthworm|
|6. Osteocyte||(f) Penis|
|7. Copulatory organ||(g) Bone.|
1. (c) Skin
2. (d) Mosaic vision
3. (e) Earthworm
4. (b) Cockroach
5. (a) Alimentary canal
6. (g) Bone
7. (f) Penis
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|1. Phagocytosis of harmful germs||(a) Bone|
|2. Connection at the joint of bones||(b) Bone marrow|
|3. Haversian canals in mammals||(c) Sarcomere|
|4. Structural and functional unit of muscle||(d) Lymphocyte|
|5. Production of red blood corpuscles||(e) Ligament.|
1. (d) Lymphocyte
2. (e) Ligament.
3. (a) Bone
4. (c) Sarcomere
5. (b) Bone marrow
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|1. Less protein containing matrix||(a) Serum|
|2. Liquid squeezes out of the clot||(b) Leukemia|
|3. Increase in number of W.B.Cs.||(c) Haemophilia|
|4. No blood clotting occurs||(d) Anticoagulent|
|5. Sodium oxalate||(e) Lymph.|
1. (e) Lymph
2. (a) Serum
3. (b) Leukemia
4. (c) Haemophilia
5. (d) Anticoagulent
4. Write true or false:
1. In the foetus, R.B.Cs. are mainly formed in liver and spleen.
2. The hump of Camel is made up of skeletal tissue.
3. Protein present in the matrix of cartilage is known as chondrin.
4. Cytoplasm of muscle cell is called neuroplasm.
5. The fibrous tissue which connects the two bones is Ligament.
6. Body of earthworm is metamerically segmented.
7. Head of cockroach consists of five segments.
8. Jointed leg is the characteristic of the class Insecta.
9. Male and female cockroach may be identified on the basis of anal style.
10. Main function of clitellum is copulation.
5. Answer in one word:
1. Supporting cells which hold together the nerve cells.
2. Life span of R.B.Cs.
3. R,B.Cs. are found in.
Bone marrow and Spleen
4. Thick filaments made up of protein.
5. Tells present in cartilage are called.
6. Which type of corpuscles is responsible for coagulation of blood.
Prothrombin, Ca, Fibrinogen and trypnase enzyme or thrombin
7. Write the pH value of blood.