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MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar

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Some Parts of Speech

(1) NOUN: A noun is the name of a person, place or thing.
किसी प्राणी, स्थान अथवा वस्तु के नाम को Noun (संज्ञा) कहते हैं।

Kinds of Noun

  1. Proper Noun : Gita, Ram, Agra, Ganges.
  2. Common Noun : boy, girl, book, city, chair.
  3. Collective Noun : class, army, crowd, flock.
  4. Material Noun : gold, silver, iron, stone, wood.
  5. Abstract Noun : honesty, truth, poverty, childhood.

(2) PRONOUN: A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.
Noun के स्थान पर प्रयोग किए जाने वाला शब्द Pronoun (सर्वनाम) कहलाता है।

  1. Personal Pronoun : I, me, my, we, our, us, you, your, thou, thine, thy, he, him, his, she, her, it, its, they, them, their.
  2. Demonstrative Pronoun : this, that, these, those, such.
  3. Interrogative Pronoun : who, what, which, whom.
  4. Relative Pronoun : who, which, that, whose, whom.
  5. Reflexive Pronoun : himself, myself, yourself, themselves.

(3) ADJECTIVE: An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun or a pronoun.
Noun अथवा Pronoun की विशेषता बतलाने वाले शब्द को Adjective (विशेषण) कहते हैं।

  1. Adjective of Quality : poor, rich, clever, foolish, honoured, red, good.
  2. Adjective of Quantity : some, much, little, enough,
  3. Adjective of Number : ten, eight, many, some
  4. Demonstrative Adjective: this, that, those, these, such.
  5. Interrogative Adjective : what, whose, which.

(4) VERB: A verb is a word which shows something done.
जिस शब्द से किसी कार्य के करने अथवा होने का बोध होता है, उसे Verb (क्रिया) कहते हैं।

Kinds of Verb
1. Transitive Verb : This kind of verb shows an action which passes over from the subject to the object.

Examples :

  1. Prem opens the door.
  2. The cow eats grass.

2. Intransitive Verb: This kind of verb shows an action which stops with its subject. It does not require object to complete its sense.
यह Verb अपने Subject के साथ ही पूरा अर्थ दे देता है। इसे Object की आवश्यकता नहीं होती है।

Examples :

  1. Kamla Sings.
  2. The sun rises in the east.

3. Linking Verb: This verb takes another word (complement) to complete its sense.
यह क्रिया अपना अर्थ पूरा करने के लिए अन्य पूरक शब्द (Complement) लेती है।

Examples:

  1. Ravi is a boy.
  2. Meghna was beautiful.

4. Adverb: An adverb is a word which modifes an adjective, verb or another adverb.
जो शब्द किसी विशेषण, क्रिया अथवा अन्य क्रिया विशेषण की विशेषता बतलाता है, क्रिया-विशेषण कहलाता है।

Kinds of Adverb

  1. Adverb of Time : now, then, when, before, always, never, again, late, soon, etc.
  2. Adverb of Place : here, there, where, everywhere, above, below, under, in, out, far, near, up, etc.
  3. Adverb of Number: once, twice, thrice, often, always, never, frequently, thirdly, etc.
  4. Adverb of Manner : well, thus, slowly, so, wisely, etc.
  5. Adverb of Degree of Quantity : much, more, most, little, wholly, enough, etc.
  6. Adverb of Reason: so, therefore, hence, accordingly, etc.

The Number

Number दो प्रकार के होते हैं
(1) Singular Number (एकवचन) Noun का वह रूप है जिससे एक प्राणी या वस्तु का बोध हो। जैसे-man, boy, girl, chair, etc.
(2) Plural Number (बहुवचन) Noun का वह रूप है जिससे एक से अधिक प्राणियों या वस्तुओं का बोट होता है।
जैसे-
man, boys, girls, chairs, etc.

Formation of Plurals
(बहुवचन बनाना)

Singular से Plural बनाने के लिए निम्नलिखित नियम होते हैं

1. Singular number के अन्त में ‘ड’ जोड़कर-
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-1

2. जिन Nouns के अन्त में ‘g’, ‘sh’, ‘ss’, ‘ch’ या ‘x’ होता है, उनके अन्त में ‘es’ जोडकर
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-2

3. जिन Nouns के अन्त में ‘y’ होता है और ‘y’ से पूर्व Vowel हो, तो उनका Plural बनाने के लिए ‘y के पश्चात् ” लगाया जाता है।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-3

4. जिन Nouns के अन्त में ‘y’ होता है और y’ से पूर्व Consonant हो, तो उनका Plural बनाने के लिए y’ को ” में बदलकर ‘es’ जोड़ दिया जाता है।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-4

5. जिन Nouns के अन्त में ‘o’ होता है उनका Plural बनाने के लिए उनके बाद में ‘es’ जोड़ा जाता है।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-5

6. जिन Nouns के अन्त में Fया ‘fe’ होता है, उनका Plural बनाने के लिए ‘ या ‘fe’ को ‘V’ में बदलकर ‘es’ जोड़ दिया जाता है।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-6

7. कुछ Nouns का Plural बनाने के लिए Singular के अन्दर का Vowel बदल देते हैं।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-7

8. कुछ Nouns के Singular और Plural एक-से (समान) ही होते हैं।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-8

9. कुछ Nouns सदैव Singular में ही प्रयोग किए जाते हैं।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-9

10. कुछ Nouns सदैव Plural में ही प्रयोग किए जाते हैं।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-10

EXERCISE

  1. निम्नलिखित Nouns को Plural में बदलो
    Baby, branch, bush, wolf, army, loaf, face, wife, child, buffalo, ox, goose, potato, chair, chief, woman, eye, fairy, monkey.
  2. निम्नलिखित Nouns को Singular में बदलो
    Benches, machines, cities, houses, flies, nice, tomatoes, taxes, calves, lives, bamboos, men.

The Gender

परिभाषा-Noun के जिस रूप में यह पता चले कि Noun पुरुष है या स्त्री या बेजान (निर्जीव) है, उसे Gender कहते हैं।

Gender चार प्रकार के होते हैं

  1. Masculine Gender (पुल्लिंग)-वे संज्ञाएँ जो पुरुष जाति से सम्बन्धित होती हैं, उन्हें Masculine (पुल्लिंग) कहते हैं। जैसे-man, dog, boy, horse आदि।
  2. Feminine Gender (स्त्रीलिंग)-वे संज्ञाएँ जो स्त्री जाति से सम्बन्धित होती हैं, उन्हें Feminine (स्त्रीलिंग) कहते हैं। जैसे-women, bitch (कुतिया) girl, mare (घोड़ी) आदि।
  3. Common Gender (उभयलिंग)-जिन Nouns से पुरुष और स्त्री दोनों का बोध होता है, Common Gender में होते हैं। जैसे-child, friends, pupil, (शिष्य) enemy आदि।
  4. Neuter Gender (नपुंसकलिंग)-जिन Nouns से निर्जीव वस्तु का बोध होता है, वे Neuter Gender में होते हैं। जैसे-chair, table, book, house आदि।

नोट-Commmon तथा Neuter Gender का लिंग परिवर्तन नहीं होता है।

CHANGE OF GENDER
(लिंग परिवर्तन)

Masculine से Feminine बनाने के नियम नीचे दिए गए हैं।
1. Singular number के अन्त में ” जोड़कर
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-11

2. Masculine के अन्त में ‘ess’ लगाकरMasculine
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-12

3. Masculine के प्रथम अथवा अन्तिम शब्द को बदलकर।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-13

EXERCISE 2

निम्नलिखित Nouns के Opposite Gender लिखो।
(a) Cow, poet, land-lord, lad.
(b) Misterss aunt, hero, horse, king.
(c) Princess, brother, mother, girl, actor, man.

Degrees of Comparison

Adjective on to Degrees in

  1. Positive Degree
  2. Comparative degree
  3. Superlative Degree

Comparative तथा Superlative बनाने के नियम
1. Positive Degree के अन्त में ‘er’ और ‘est’ लगाकर।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-14
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-15

2. Positive Degree के अन्त में जब ‘e’ अक्षर होता है तो’ और ‘st’ लगाकर
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-16

3. Positive Degree के अन्त में यदि ‘ हो तो y’ को ‘ में बदलकर उसमें ‘err और ‘est’ लगाकर।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-17

4. Positive degree के पूर्व more यो most लगाकर
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-18

5. बिना किसी नियम के।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-19

EXERCISE 3

Write the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives :

  • Wise, tall, long, good, bad, old, happy, little.
  • Rich, young, big, strong, ugly, holy.
  • Kind, up, able, safe, dry, useful.

EXERCISE 4

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of adjectives given in the brackets.

  1. Pen is ……………………………… than sword. (might)
  2. Shyam is ……………………………… than Ram (tall)
  3. Kolkata is the ……………………………… city in India. (busy)
  4. Shimla is ……………………………… than Delhi. (cold)
  5. He is the ……………………………… of all the brothers. (wise)
  6. Shipra is the ……………………………… of all the sisters. (pretty)
  7. Rohit is ……………………………… than Mohit. (Clever)

The Preposition

A Preposition is a word which is placed before a Noun or å Pronoun to show its relation with other words.
जो शब्द किसी Noun या Pronoun के पूर्व रखा जाता है और जो उसका सम्बन्ध अन्य शब्दा ते बताता है, Preposition कहलाता है। जैसे :

The pen is on the table.
इस वाक्य में ‘on’ Preposition है, जो pen का सम्बन्ध table से बताता है।

Some Important Prepositions – At, on, in, to, by, with, for, from, out, of, up, under, upon, about, before, behind, between, beneath, within, without.

Use of Some Prepositions
1. At, In: At छोटे स्थान के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है। In बड़े स्थान के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है।
जैसे

  • He lives at Bhopal.
  • We live in India.

2. In, Into : In स्थिति को बताता है और Into गति का बोध कराता है। जैसे

  • All the boys are in the classroom.
  • We bought the tickets and went into the hall.

3. With, By : with यंत्र के साथ प्रयोग होता है और by कार्य करने वाले के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे

  • We cut the apple with the knife.
  • The snake was killed by the farmer.

4. Since, For : Since निश्चित समय के साथ (जैसे दिन का नाम या तिथि आदि) और For समय की अवधि के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे

  • He has been ill Since Monday.
  • Raj Kumar has been absent for three days.

5. Between, Among : Between दो व्यक्तियों तथा Among दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे

  1. Divide these mangoes between Raj and Ravi.
  2. The gentlemen divided his property among his four sons.

6. On, Upon : On गतिहीनता तथा Upon गतिशीलता के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है।

जैसे-

  • The cat is sitting on the table.
  • The dog sprang upon the table.

7. In, Within : In समय की अवधि की समाप्ति का बोध कराता है और Within समय की अवधि के भीतर का बोध कराता है। जैसे

  • I shall come back in a week. (एक सप्ताह की समाप्ति पर)
  • I shall come within a week. (एक सप्ताह समाप्त हाने से पूर्व)

8. Below, Beneath : Below पद के संदर्भ में और Beneath स्थान के संदर्भ में प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे

  • Your brother is below my rank.
  • The lion sat beneath a tree.

9. Beside, Besides : Beside का अर्थ है-पास (by the side of) जब कि Besides का अर्थ है-अतिरिक्त। जैसे

  • The boys stood beside the teacher’s chair.
  • Besides the Principal other teachers spoke in the prayer assembly.

10. With, Without : With का अर्थ है-साथ और Without का अर्थ है-बिना (रहित)।

जैसे-

  • Come to me with your brother.
  • Come to the field without anything.

EXERCISE 6
Fill in the blank with suitable prepositions given in bracket :

  1. I went to Indore …………………………….. May. (on, in, at)
  2. She bought this pen …………………………….. ten rupees. (with, of, for)
  3. The monkey jumped …………………………….. the rive. (in, into, on)
  4. He ran …………………………….. the thief. (before, after, with)
  5. He started …………………………….. six …………………………….. the morning. (in, on, at)
  6. Kanıla plucked an apple …………………………….. the tree. (from, on, at with)
  7. The teacher beat him …………………………….. a cane. (by, with, from)
  8. I do not agree …………………………….. you. (on, by, with)

Conversion of Sentences

(1) Statements into Questions

  1. I see a bird – Do I see a bird ?
  2. He did his work. – Did he do his work ?
  3. The boy is writing a letter. – Is the boy writing a letter ?
  4. The teacher has taught the boys. – Has the teacher taught the boys ?
  5. She will come here. – Will she come here?

EXERCISE 7

Change the following setences from Statement into Questions :

  1. She is a good girl.
  2. The dog has a bone.
  3. The teacher is beating the boy.
  4. She will be reading the newspaper at this time.
  5. The horse was running.
  6. My mother had cooked food before 4 O’clock.
  7. The patient could not move.

(2) From positive into Negative

  1. Positive : I have a book.
    Negative : I have not a book.
  2. Positive : The girl is singing a song.
    Negative : The girl is not singing a song.
  3. Positive : He loves me.
    Negative : He does not love me.
  4. Positive : I bought a book yesterday.
    Negative : I did not buy a book yesterday.
  5. Positive : You will do this work today.
    Negative : You will not do this work today.
  6. Positive : I have done my work.
    Negative : I have not done my work.
  7. Positive : I play daily.
    Negative : I do not play daily.

EXERCISE 9

Change the following sentences from Positive to Negative :

  1. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was a great leader.
  2. My grand-father was a rich man in the village.
  3. She has a good doll to play with.
  4. I have three brothers and two sisters.
  5. You had a good time in Kashmir.
  6. The boys play hockey in the evening.
  7. Children like sweets.

Change of Voice

Voice दो प्रकार की होती है

  1. Active Voice,
  2. Passive Voice.

Active Voice: जब Verb द्वारा Subject की प्रधानता प्रकट होती है तो उसे Verb in the Active Voice कहते हैं। इस प्रकार के वाक्य में Subject स्वयं कार्य करता है।

जैसे-

  • He did his work.

Passive Voice : जब Verb द्वारा Object की प्रधानता प्रकट की जाती है तो उसे Verb in the Passive Voice कहते है।

जैसे-

  • His work was done by him.

Subject तथा Object की प्रधानता समझने के लिए निम्नलिखित वाक्यों पर ध्यान दीजिए :

  1. Active Voice : The cat killed the rat.
  2. Passive Voice : A rat was killed by the cat.

पहले वाक्य में Subject, Cat है, जो स्वयं कार्य करती है, परन्तु दूसरे वाक्य में उससे काम कराया गया है (अर्थात चूहे को मरवाया गया बिल्ली के द्वारा)। इस प्रकार दूसरे वाक्य में Rat को जो पहले वाक्य में Object था Subject बना दिया गया।

Active Voice से Passive Voice बनाने के नियम

  1. Active Voice के Object को Passive Voice में Subject बना दिया जाता है।
  2. Active Voice के Subject को Passive Voice में Object बना कर उससे पूर्व लगा दिया जाता है।
  3. Passive Voice में Main Verb सदैव अपनी Third Form में प्रयोग किया जाता है।
  4. Main Verb की Third Form के पूर्व Tense के अनुसार सहायक क्रिया प्रयोग की जाती है।

Tense के अनुसार क्रिया

1. Present Indefinite Tense : Is, are, am.

  • Active Voice : He writes a letter.
  • Passive Voice : A letter is written by him.
  • Active Voice :The girl sings songs daily.
  • Passive Voice : Songs are sung daily by the girl.
  • Active Voice : Harish helps me.
  • Passive Voice : I am helped by Harish.

2. Past Indefinite Tense : Was, were.

  • Active Voice : The boy wrote a letter.
  • Passive Voice : The letter was written by a boy.
  • Active Voice : The boy wrote two letters.
  • Passive Voice : Two letters were written by the boy.

3. Future Indefinite Tense : Will be, shall be.

  • Active Voice : He will write a letter.
  • Passive Voice : A letter will be written by him.
  • Active Voice : She will help me.
  • Passive Voice : I shall be helped by her.

4. Present Continuous Tense : Is being, are being, am being.

  • Active Voice : A letter is being written by him.
  • Passive Voice : A Letter is being written by him.
  • Active Voice : He is praising me.
  • Passive Voice : I am being praised by him.

5. Past Indefinite Tense : Was being, were being.

  • Active Voice : The man was selling eggs.
  • Passive Voice : Eggs were being sold by the man.
  • Active Voice : He was reading a book.
  • Passive Voice : A book was being read by him.

6. Present Perfect Tense : Has been, have been.

  • Active Voice : The boy has written an essay.
  • Passive Voice : An essay has been written by the boy.
  • Active Voice : The boy has eaten ten mangoes.
  • Passive Voice : Ten mangoes have been eaten by the boy.

7. Past Perfect Tense : Had been.

  • Active Voice : She had done her work.
  • Passive Voice : Her work had been done by her.

8. Future Perefect Tense : Will have been, shall have been.

  • Active Voice : The teacher will have taught the lesson.
  • Passive Voice : The lesson will have been taught by the teacher.

EXERCISE 9

Change the Voice :

  1. The boy writes a letter.
  2. The cat killed two rats.
  3. The teacher will beat me.
  4. Hari has killed a snake.
  5. He is plucking mangoes.
  6. He was not obeying his mother.
  7. Raj will have written the essay.
  8. The train had left the station before I reached there.

The Articles

A, An और The को Articles कहते हैं। ये भी Noun की विशेषता Adjective की भांति बताते हैं। Articles दो प्रकार के होते हैं
1. Indefinite Article : ‘a’ तथा ‘an’ दोनों Indefinite Articles हैं, क्योंकि ये सामान्य वस्तु की ओर संकेत करते हैं। जैसे

  • A dog bit a boy.
  • I saw an owl on an apple tree.

संकेत- ‘An’ का प्रयोग उन Nouns के पूर्व किया जाता है, जो Vowel से आरम्भ होते हैं। जैसेAn eye, an angel, an inkpot, an umbrella.

2. Definite Article : केवल The definite article है। यह विशेष वस्तु की ओर संकेत करता है। जैसे
(i) My father met the Principal.
(ii) Arun went to see the Taj which stands on the right bank of the Jamuna.

EXERCISE 10

Fill in the blanks with a, an, and the

  1. Hindi is …………………………………………. easy language.
  2. …………………………………………. English defeated …………………………………………. Germans
  3. …………………………………………. horse is …………………………………………. useful animal.
  4. He bought …………………………………………. camel …………………………………………. ox and …………………………………………. bullock.
  5. Give him …………………………………………. orange.
  6. …………………………………………. rose is …………………………………………. king of flowers.
  7. …………………………………………. hint to …………………………………………. wise is enough.
  8. She returned after …………………………………………. hour.

Direct and Indirect Narration

किसी अन्य व्यक्ति द्वारा कही हुई बात हम दो प्रकार से लिखते हैं-
(1) कहने वाले के मूल (असली) शब्दों में ज्यों का त्यों रखना। इसे Direct Speech कहते हैं। यह सदैव Inverted Commas “…….” में रखी जाती है।

जैसे-

  • Kamal says, “I am going.”

(2) कहने वाले की बात को अपने शब्दों में बदलकर रखना। इसे Indirect Speech कहते हैं।

जैसे-

  • Kamal Says that he is going.

संकेत-Indirect Speech में Inverted Commas नहीं दिये जाते हैं।

Direct Speech के दो भाग होते हैं

  1. Inverted Commas के पहले वाला भाग। इससे वाक्य को आरम्भ करते हैं। इसे Reporting Verb कहते हैं। उपर्युक्त वाक्य में Kamal says, Reporting Verb हैं।
  2. Inverted Commas के अन्दर लिखे हुए शब्द। इसे Reported Speech कहते हैं। उपर्युक्त वाक्य में “I am going”, Reported Speech है।

Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलने के सामान्य नियम

  1. Reported Speech के Inverted Commas को Indirect Speech में हटा देते हैं।
  2. Reporting Verb तथा Reported Speech के बीच के Comma को हटा दिया जाता है।
  3. Reported Speech का प्रथम अक्षर जो सदैव Capital होता है, Indirect Speech में Small letter हो जाता है।
  4. Reprorting Verb तथा Reported Speech को that लगाकर जोड़ दिया जाता है।
  5. Reported Speech की क्रिया (जब Reporting Verb, Past Tense में होता है) Past Tense में बदल दी जाती है।
  6. Pronoun का Person बदल जाता है।
  7. समीपता प्रकट करने वाले शब्द बदल कर दूरी प्रकट करने वाले शब्द बन जाते हैं। नोट- अन्तिम तीन प्रकार के परिवर्तन कुछ नियमों के अनुसार किये जाते हैं, जिनका वर्णन आगे किया जा रहा है।

Rules For
The Change Of Tenses

Rule 1. यदि Reporting Verb, present अथवा Future Tense में होता है, तो Reported Speech के Verb का Tense, Indirect Speech में नहीं बदलता है।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-20

Example :
Direct : He says, “Mohan is a good boy.”
Indirect : He says that Mohan is a good boy.
Direct : She is saying, “The teacher went away.”
Indirect : She is saying that the teacher went away.
Direct : He will say, “The school will be closed.
”Indirect : He will say that the school will be closed.

2. जब Reporting Verb, Past Tense में होता है, तो Reported Speech के Verb का Tense, Indirect Speech में निम्नलिखित रूप में बदल जाता है-
Present Indefinite – बदलकर – Past Indefinite हो जाता है।
Present Imperfect – बदलकर – Past Imperfect हो जाता है।
Present Perfect – बदलकर – Past Perfect हो जाता है।
Present Continuous – बदलकर – Past Continuous हो जाता है।
Past Indefinite – बदलकर – Past Perfect हो जाता है।
Past Imperfect – बदलकर – Past Perfect हो जाता है।
Past Imperfect – बदलकर – Past Continuous हो जाता है।
Shall – बदलकर – Should या would हो जाता है।
Will – बदलकर – Would या Would हो जाता है।
May – बदलकर – Might हो जाता है।
Can – बंदलकर – Could हो जाता है।
Do not a does not – बदलकर – Did not हो जाता है।
Did not – बदलकर – Had not हो जाता है।
Is done u are done – बदलकर – Was या were done हो जाता है।
Was done – बदलकर – Had been done a To do (Infinizive) नहीं बदलता है।

EXAMPLES :
Direct’: Ram said, “Shyam runs.”
Indirect : Ram said that Shyam ran.
Direct : I said, “He is running.”
Indirect : I said that he was running.
Direct : I said, “He ran.”
Indirect : I said that he had run.
Direct : I said, “They will go.”
Indirect : I said that they would go.
Direct : I said, “He wants to go.”
Indirect : I said that he wanted to go.

3. परन्तु यदि Reported Speech, की क्रिया सदैव सत्य रहने वाला तथ्य अथवा आदत प्रकट करती है तो उसकी क्रिया Indirect में भी वर्तमान काल में रहती है।
जैसे-
Direct : He said, “The sun rises in the east.”
Indirect : He said that the sun rises in the east.”
Direct : He said, “Ram takes exercise daily.”
Indirect : He said that Ram takes exercise daily.

Rules For The Change Of Pronouns
1. Direct Speech at Indirect Speech में बदलते समय Reported Speech में First Person के Pronoun बदलकर Reporting Verb के Subject के Person के अनुसार हो जाते हैं, जैसे-
Direct : I said “I am going.”
Indirect : I said that I was going.
Direct : You said, “I am going.”
Indirect : You said that you were going.
Direct : He said, “I am going.”
Indirect : He said that he was going.

2. Reported Speech के Second Person के Pronouns, Indirect Speech में बदल कर Reporting Verb के Object के Person के अनुसार हो जाते हैं,
जैसे-
Direct : My father said to me, “You are a good boy.”
Indirect : My father told me that I was a good boy.
Direct : My father said to you, “You are a good boy.”
Indirect : My father told you that you were a good boy.
Direct : My father said to him, “You love your sister.”
Indirect : My father told him that he loved his sister.

3. Direct Speech of third person & Pronouns, Indirect Speech sf third person en
Direct : She said, “He has gone back.”
Indirect : She said that he had gone back.
Direct : He said, “They went to Africa.”
Indirect : He said that they had gone to Africa.

4. Reported Speech में जब ‘We’ कहने वाले तथा सुनने वाले दोनों के लिए आता है तो Indirect Speech में भी We ही रहता है।
जैसे-
Direct : I said to him, “We are friends.”
Indirect : I told him that we are friends.

3. Rules For The Change Of Words Showing Nearness
Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलते समय Reorted Speech के निकटता प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों को दूरी प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों में इस प्रकार बदल दिया जाता है।
जैसे-

Examples :
Direct : He said, “Mohan will come now.”
Indirect : He said that Mohan would go then.
Direct : He said, “He is here today”.
Indirect : He said that he was There that day,

EXERCISE 11
Turn the following into Indirect narration :

  1. I said, “I am sick.”
  2. You said, “I shall write a letter today.”
  3. Hari said, “I broke my slate yesterday.”
  4. Raj said to Hari, “You are in the wrong on this point.”
  5. I said to hin, “You will go to the market now.”
  6. The teacher said to Radhey, “You have brought bad name to your school.”
  7. The teacher said, “Everybody knows that the earth is round.”
  8. The man said, “This is my house and that is yours.”

Opposite Words
(Antonyms विपरीतार्थक शब्द)

MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-21
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-22
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-23
MP Board Class 6th Special English Grammar img-24

Exercise :
Give the antonyms (opposites) of the following :
Cold, beautiful, light, pure, narrow, small, difficult, careful, export, friend, high, cool, day, white, timid. easily, happy, fine, near.

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