These MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes for Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements help students to get a brief overview of all the concepts.
MP Board Class 11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements
→ General electronic configuration of group-13 (Boron family) is ns2np1.
→ Boron is a non-metal whereas other members of this group are metals.
→ Aluminium exists in maximum amount in earth’s crust.
→ Boron represents abnormal behaviour than other members of the group.
→ Boiling and melting point of Boron is higher than the other members of the group.
→ Oxides and hydroxides of Boron represent acidic behaviour whereas A1 represents amphoteric nature and other oxides are basic.
→ Boron forms covalent compounds whereas other members of the group show ionic behaviour.
→ Except Boron, other members of the group exhibit +1 and +3 oxidation state.
→ Due to inert pair effect, on moving down the group, stability of +3 oxidation state decreases but stability of+1 oxidation state increases.
→ Boron forms more than one type of hydrides. Mainly there are two series of hydrides whose general formula is BnHn+4 and B„Hn+6.
→ Halides of Boron act as strong Lewis acids.
→ Aluminium chloride acts as a dimer.
→ Boron is the hardest element after diamond.
→ Borazine is known as inorganic benzene.
→ In diborane, a two electron-three centred bond is present which is known as banana bond.
→ Aluminium sulphate forms a double salt with a monovalent metal sulphate which are known
as Alum. .
→ Group-14 of p-block is known as carbon family because the first element is carbon and its general electronic configuration is ns2np2.
→ Of the five elements of this group C and Si are non-metals, Ge is metalloid and Sn and Pb are metals.
→ Diamond: It is a purest crystalline allotrope, very hard, high melting point and bad conductor of electricity and in it carbon is in sp3 hybridized state.
→ Graphite : Good conductor of electricity, soft, crystalline allotrope of carbon with lubricant property. In this sp2 hybridized carbon forms a hexagonal ring.
→ Crystalline forms of carbon : (1) Charcoal, (2) Coke, (3) Gas carbon.
→ 146C of carbon is a radio-active.isotopes.
→ All members of carbon family exhibit +2 and +4 oxidation state. On moving down the group
→ Cause of stability of +2 oxidation state inert pair effect.
→ Silicon exhibits diagonal relationship with Boron.
→ Carbon forms three types of series : (1) Alkane, (2) Alkene, (3) Alkyne.
→ Carbon establishes covalent bond with metals to form organo-metallic compounds.
→ Three crystalline forms of carbon are : (1) Diamond, (2) Graphite, (3) Fullerene.
→ Fullerene is the third crystalline form of carbon whose formula is C60, C84, C70 or C60 is known as Buckminster Fullerene or Bucky ball.
→ Silica (SiO2) is hard, which forms three-dimensional crystalline network. It exists in the form of quartz or sand.
→ Basic unit of Silicate is SiO44- ion which has tetrahedral structure.
→ Orthosilicate (SiO44-), Pyrosilicate (S4O4- ), Cyclic silicate (SiO3)n2n , Chain silicate (SiO3)n2n and Sheet silicate (Si2O5)n2n are basic units.