MP Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions Chapter 12 Democracy

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 12 Text Book Questions

Choose the Correct Answer:

Question 1.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a Democracy?
(a) Government of elected representatives.
(b) Respect of Rights.
(c) Centralization of power in the hands of one person
(d) Free and impartial elections.
Answer:
(c) Centralization of power in the hands of one person

Question 2.
Which is the Democratic concept?
(a) Freedom
(b) Exploitation
(c) Inequality
(d) Individualism.
Answer:
(a) Freedom

Question 3.
Which one of the following is not a demerit of democracy?
(a) Waste of public time and money
(b) Dominance of the wealthy
(c) Partisanship
(d) Public welfare.
Answer:
(b) Dominance of the wealthy

Question 4.
Democracy is a rule of the people, by the people, for the people-
(a) Machaivelle
(b) Lincoln
(c) Roussean
(d) Hautes.
Answer:
(d) Hautes.

Fill in the blank:

  1. Aristotle has called Democracy as the …………….
  2. The propounders of communism was …………… and ………………
  3. A ……………….. constitution is essential for successful Democracy.
  4. There is a wastage of ………….. and …………… in Democracy.

Answer:

  1. Rule of many
  2. Karl Marx and Lenin
  3. written
  4. time, money.

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MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 12  Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What has been mentioned with reference to democracy in the later Vedic Period?
Answer:
During the later Vedic Period the Republican Form of Government and local self-governing institutions were prevalent.

Question 2.
What was the basic unit of administration in ancient India?
Answer:
In ancient India the basic unit of administration was Panchyat.

Question 3.
What right does the Marxist principle of democracy lay emphasis on?
Answer:
The Marxist principle believe that the political power must be rested in the hands of the entire society but for this it is important that the economic power should be rested in the hands of the entire society. This principle lays emphasis on a classless and stateless society.

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MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 12  Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write any two definitions explaining the meaning of democracy?
Answer:

  • Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people.
  • Democracy is a form of government where the ruling community is a comparatively bigger part of the entire nation.

Question 2.
State the importance of Democracy.
Answer:
Democracy is a system of governance based on freedom, equality, participation and brotherhood. It can also be called a social system. Under this the entire life of man is based on the democratic belief that every individual has equal importance in the society.

In political sphere of man’s life democracy means a political system in which the power to take decisions does not vest is an individual but in the hands of representatives of the people. Therefore the rule is based on the feelings pf the people. In the social sphere of man’s life democracy gives a society where there is no discrimination on the grounds of caste, religion, color, gender, race, creed or wealth.

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Question 3.
What do you understand by indirect or representative democracy?
Answer:
When the people participate in the making of law and controlling the working of administration through the elected representatives, it is called indirect democracy. In present times indirect democracy is practiced. In this the people choose their representatives for a definite period who form the legislature and make the laws. In this system the wishes of the people are expressed through the elected representatives.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 12 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you understand by democracy. Write down its chief characteristics.
Answer:
The word democracy has been derived from two Greek word ‘Demos’ and ‘Cretin’ which respectively mean ‘people’ and ‘power’. It means a type of governing system where the power to govern rests with the people and administration is either directly done by the people or through their representatives. It is also reformed to as Loktantra’ or ‘Jantantra’.

Characteristics of Democracy:
1. Accountable Ruling System:
The people can make the Government work in an accountable manner by asking question and criticizing it. Here the power to govern is basically with the people which is handed to the representatives for a fixed term. Therefore the accountability of the governing is essential for the people else the people have the right to hand over the power to any alternative in the next elections.

2. Rule based on Equality:
Democracy is based on the principle of equality. In this form of government all citizens without any discrimination have equal civil and political rights. Elections in a fixed time period are essential for democracy. All adult citizens have equal rights to vote and contest elections as candidates in these elections.

The present democracies emphasis on social and economic equality as well. The basic traits of democracy are equal social and economic opportunities and equal importance to an individual personality. Therefore ‘one person one vote’ is the axis of democracy.

3. Strengthening System of Freedom:
In a democracy various types of freedom are given to the criticizers for their all-round development. Besides political freedom rights to various types of religious and cultural freedoms are also given to the citizens. In a democracy elasticize have the right to vote, get elected, hold public offices, give speeches, freedom to express, form associations, organize meetings, address people or practice any profession or trade.

4. Rule of Law:
By rule of law is meant that everyone is equal before law. Similar punishment is given for similar crime, whatever be the status and position.

5. Independent and Impartial Elections:
Conducting elections only is not enough in democracy but elections must be conducted in an independent and impartial manner so that the possibility of winning or losing election for the people in power is also there. There should be no pressure on the voters during elections and the election process should also be impartial.

The will of the people is supreme in a democracy. In this form of Government elections are held from time-to-time. For forming the Government various political parties and independent candidates also have the freedom to participate in these elections.

6. Existence of Written Constitution:
Definite fundamental principles and procedures of administrative organization is the most important feature of Democracy so that any ruling party on the basis of its majority may not define or change it according to its whims and fancies. The constitution of organs of government, procedures etc.

must be clearly defined in the constitution. Therefore, a written constitution is considered to be very important. Democracy is based on equality and freedom of the citizens. Therefore it is necessary to define them in the fundamental laws of the constitution.

7. Independent and Impartial Judiciary:
An independent and impartial judiciary is of paramount importance for putting into practice the provisions of the constitution. The judiciary has been made supreme to make the government work in accordance with the constitution, secure the rights of the citizens and punish those who violate the constitution. Therefore in order to make democracy practical an independent and impartial judiciary is very important.

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Question 2.
Describe the merits and demerits of democracy.
Answer:
Merits:
1. Based on Highest Values of Humanity:
Democracy is based on higher values like equality, justice and brotherhood and everyone is treated with equality respecting every individuals dignity. It develops virtues like self-respect and self-reliance in the citizens.

2. Public Welfare:
In a democracy the representatives of the people govern who are elected by the people for a definite period. They are always afraid that if they do not work in accordance with the wishes, feelings and need of the people then they will be defeated in the next elections. Therefore, the government is responsible to the people in a democracy and is always vigilant about their interests. Therefore public welfare is always kept in mind in a democracy.

3. Political Education:
Democracy is the best means of political education. People take interest in political field naturally, due to the right to vote and freedom to hold political position. Freedom of expression and the use of means of communication, promote the tendency to exchange ideas among citizens.

4. Growth of Feeling of Patriotism:
Democracy is the rule of the people for attaining public welfare for the people. People feel associated with the Government and state since they are politically conscious. This association promotes the feelings of love and commitment for the nation. This leads to the cultivation of nationalism.

5. Minimum Possibility of Violent Revolution:
Democracy is a philosophy of peace and tolerance. Its based on understanding and consensus. The opposition also has a right to put forth its views. Therefore, the opposition also criticizes and condemns the Government. If the majority of the people are dissatisfied with the ruling class it can easily remove them through constitutional methods. Therefore there is a least possibility of a violent revolution in the democracy.

Demerits:
1. Emphasis on Quantity rather than on Quality:
In a democracy more importance is given to quantity than quality. Only the votes are counted in this system. The vote of every voter has equal value irrespective of whether he is capable or incapable.

2. Rule of the Incapable:
Governance is an art. For this special knowledge and qualifications are required. The aim of welfare of the entire society cannot be realized if the ruler does not have the knowledge of this art. Only a few people have the art, capability and the potential to govern.

But in a democracy there is a rule of the majority and a capable person is also equated with an incapable. In developing countries the situation is even me e pitiable. Therefore critics also call democracy as a rule of the incapable.

3. Waste of Public Time’ and Money:
Only after a long and complex procedure the legislature is formed. Sometimes it takes years to make important laws. Lot of money is spent on the election process. A lot of money is also spent on the members of parliament.

4. Domination of the Wealthy:
To say that everyone participates in the political process in a democracy is only theoretical. Practically the elections have become so expensive that common people cannot even think of participating in the election for any position. To contest elections on money has become a common features of Democracy system. Candidates contesting elections spend a lot of money in campaigning. This has led to the transformation of Democracy from ‘Rule of the People’ to the ‘Rule of the Rich’.

5. Partisanship:
For the regulation of present Democracy political parties are becoming essential. Political parties are formed on the basis of ideologies but their main aim is to acquire power. To influence people and win popularity political parties levy baseless charges against each other opposition for the sake of opposing and not for principles or values becomes the aim of the political parties.

Political parties become a battling ground for those who influence the feelings of the people through negative campaigning and find ways and means to fulfill their selfish motives and establish their supremacy. Their immoral behavior during elections embitters the entire environment. Partisan interests becomes more important than public welfare and they also use political power to fulfill their selfish interests.

6. Weak during Wars and Emergencies:
There is a need to take quick decisions during a war or an emergency, but democracy proves to be ineffective during such times.

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Question 3.
Describe the fundamental principles of democracy.
Answer:
The fundamental principles of democracy are:

1. The Classical Principle of Democracy:
According to this principle the basis of governance is the consent of the people, but if the government does not come up to the expectations of the people, then the people can remove the government through next election. The welfare of the people is the aim of the government. This is also known as the liberal principle of Democracy, because it lays emphasis on the freedom of the people and supremacy of the society.

2. The Elitist Principle of Democracy:
This principle has been propounded in the beginning of the 20th century. It lays emphasis on the basic natural inequalities among man and believes that in all political systems there are two classes the ruling and the ruled. Though the ruling class is in a minority still as a center of power it is an elite class. The power of governing is in the hands of this elite. class.

Generally people think that they are participating in the political process but actually their influence is confined to elections. The basis of elite is selection on the basis of superiority. Their superiority can be on any basis nature, thought, economic status, social and educational background, which makes them different from common people. Elite also consider themselves different and superior but they act and react with the common people.

Secondly this way integration of peoples sovereignty is attained. Elite have an influential role in deciding the policy or in the money and wealth of the society but in a democracy everyone has an equal opportunity to enter this elite class. On the other hand regulated and open election process acts as a hindrance for elite to work for the welfare of the people.

3. Pluralist Principle:
This principle believes that in a democracy a person has the freedom to organize himself into various groups for the fulfillment of various interests. These groups are autonomous in their region and pressurize the Government for fulfillment of their interest. In this way all groups share power to the extent of fulfillment of their interest.

This principle also believes that actually power is divided among these groups therefore its basic concept is decentralization of power. According to this, the state alone does not have the right to supreme power but in a democracy all groups of a society have a share in political power and power to govern.

4. Marxist Principle:
In the later 19th century a new principle of democracy based on the ideology of modern profounder of communism Karl Marx and Lenin came forward. According to this principle for the establishment of true democracy a classless and stateless society should be established first. Resourceful class is empowered with political therefore state itself becomes a group of exploiters.

The Marxist principle believes that the political power must be rested in the entire society but for this it is important that the economic power should be in the hands of the entire society. In such a condition alone will the administration be regulated for all and in the interests of all. This principle of democracy lays more emphasis on economic equality rather than on political and civil equalities. It recognizes that if a person has no food, clothing or shelter then the right to vote or to get elected is meaningless for him.

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Question 4.
Describe the form and importance of democracy in India.
Answer:
Democracy and ideas of democratic institutions are not new for India. It is believed that around 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. during the Vedic period the tradition of representative consultation was prevalent among Indians. During the later Vedic period the Republican form of Government and local self – governing institutions were prevalent. In Rigveda and Atharvaveda a reference of Sabha and Samiti is found.

After the war of Mahabharat big empires started disappearing and many republican states rose. During the Mahajanpad period there was a birth of sixteen Mahajanpads which included Kashi, Kaushal, Magadh, Matsya etc. Some of the Mahajanpads were monarchical and others republic. Mahavir and Gautam Buddha both came from Republic.

Many rules of Buddhist monasteries resemble the rules of modern parliamentary system. For example Seating arrangement, various types of proposals, calling attention quorum, whip, counting of votes, motion thoughts related to justice etc. In the Vajji union everyone assembled for a meeting.

It was a form of direct democracy. Union of Vajji was formed by association of six republics. There was an elaborate system of self-government in villages and cities during the Mauryan period in India. Indian society was predominantly agrarian when the fundamental unit was self-governing and independent villages. The political structure was based on these village communities.

The village was administered by an elected Panchayat. The center of the village was a Panchayat Ghar where young and the old assembled. All members of the village elected the Panchayat every year. These elected Panchayats had ail rights in the matters of the village and the right to administer justice.

Panchayats distributed the land and collected taxes for the Government from the entire village. Some committees were formed from the elected members of the Panchayats. Each committee was formed for one year if any member misbehaved he could be immediately removed. If a member was unable to give a proper account of public exchequer he was declared incapable.

At the central level the king ruled. The king did not have autocratic rights based on Divine rights like kings in Europe. If the king misbehaved the subjects had the right to remove the king. There was a state council to give advice to the king. The king worked in accordance with the wisbs of the people and the advisors of the king (ministers / officers) respected the Panchas at the local levels. Therefore in ancient India the meaning , of Rule of Kings’ was serving the subjects.

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Question 5.
What is the concept of democracy? Describe the present form of Indian democracy.
Answer:
The main concept of democracy is that the entire power of the state vests in the. people and not in any individual, group or dynasty. Therefore participation of the people is the basic , foundation of democracy. All must participate in the taking of such decisions or work which affects everyone.

By democracy is a meant a system of governance where public welfare is of utmost importance. Democracy is not confined to a system of governance. It is a form of state and society. Therefore, it is a mixture of state, society and governance.

Present Form of Indian Democracy:
In present times India is world’s largest democratic country. After getting independence Indian constitution came into force on 26th Jan., 1950. India became a sovereign democratic republic after the enforcement of the constitution. Citizens were given universal adult suffrage in accordance with the fundamental principles of democracy by the constitution.

All adult Indian citizens were given . the right to vote without any discrimination by which the people could elect the representatives of their choice and form a popular Government. Indian citizens have shown an active participation and maturity in all the parliamentary and legislative elections. Barring the exception of emergency (1975-1977) holding of timely and impartial elections is an indicator of perpetual democracy in India.

Besides the elections for Panchayats and in cities municipalities and municipal corporation is also an example of Indian democracy being broad based. There are some challenges to Indian democracy. Indian democracy is getting affected i by illiteracy, caste-ism, linguism, regionalism, separatism, communism, political violence, social and economic inequalities, dominance of money and muscle power corruption and politics of vote banks.

Indian democracy can be freed from these problems by removing social – economic inequalities, expansion of education and establishing moral values. The commitment of Indian people towards democracy is clear from the various time bound elections and through change in power from time – to – time through constitutional methods. Therefore we can hope for perpetuation and success of democracy in India

Project Work

Question 1.
Collect information on the student council elections in your school. Write the process or procedure adopted in the elections of class representatives or student council. Make a beautiful chart of all representatives and office bearers.
Answer:
Attempt yourself.

Question 2.
Collect information on the elections of your village Panchayat. Make a chart of winning and defeated candidates. Write the role of people of the village in the election process of the Panchayat.
Answer:
Attempt yourself.

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MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 12  Other Important Questions

Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
(i) Who called democracy a rule of many’?
(a) Aristotle
(b) Lincoln
(c) Dicey
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) Aristotle

Question 2.
Democratic system believes in –
(a) Inequality
(b) Organised and regular change of the rulers
(c) Classless society
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(b) Organised and regular change of the rulers

Question 3.
Communism was in practice in Soviet Union till –
(a) 1980
(3) 2000
(c) 1990
(d) 2002.
Answer:
(c) 1990

Question 4.
Direct democracy is possible only in –
(a) States with less population
(b) States with big population
(c) Communist states
(d) Society with big population.
Answer:
(a) States with less population

Question 5.
Democracy is a form of government where the ruling community is a comparatively bigger part of the entire nation. Who is related with this statement?
(a) Aristotle
(b) Dicey
(c) Lincoln
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(b) Dicey

Fill in the blank:

  1. ………….. means a ruling system in which welfare of people is prominent.
  2. Democracy is of …………………. types.
  3. At present India is the biggest ……………….. country in the world.
  4. After independence Indian constitution came into force on ……………
  5. A group formed by definite geographical area, population, government and sovereignty is called a ………….

Answer:

  1. Democracy
  2. two
  3. democratic
  4. 26 January , 1950
  5. State.

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MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 12 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The word democracy has been derived from which two Greek words? What do they refer to?
Answer:
The word democracy has been derived from two Greek word ‘demos’ and ‘cratia’ which respectively mean ‘people’ and ‘power’.

Question 2.
What do you mean by direct democracy?
Answer:
When the people residing in a state themselves directly discuss on public issues on the basis of which policies are decided and laws made, then such a governance is called direct democracy.

Question 3.
Why is the accountability of the governing essential for the people?
Answer:
It is essential otherwise the people have the right to hand over the power to any alternative in the next elections.

Question 4.
Mention some freedoms given to the citizens in a democracy to their all round development.
Answer:
Freedom of holding officer, giving speeches, forming associations, organizing meetings, addressing people or practicing any profession or trade.

Question 5.
In which situation can judiciary give verdict against the Government?
Answer:
Judiciary can give verdict against the Government if it works against the constitution.

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Question 6.
Where is direct democracy possible?
Answer:
Direct democracy is possible only in states with less population and small in size.

Question 7.
Where is direct democracy prevalent today?
Answer:
Direct democracy today is prevalent in some cautions of Switzerland and under the Panchyati raj system in the Gram Sabhas in India.

Question 8.
Write any two chief features of democracy.
Answer:

  • Accountable ruling system.
  • Rule based on equality.

Question 9.
On what bases is democratic system established?
Answer:
Democratic system is established on the dignity and equality of citizens, freedom, brotherhood and justice.

Question 10.
What is the fundamental belief of democracy?
Answer:
The fundamental belief of democracy is that the power of the governing must be in the interest of the governed for protecting the rights of the people.

Question 11.
What is democracy?
Answer:
Democracy is a type of governing system where the power to govern rests with the people and administration is either directly done by the people or through their representatives.

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Question 12.
Write the main types of democracy?
Answer:
The main types of democracy:

  • Direct Democracy
  • Indirect Democracy.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 12  Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What suggestions does Marxism give for the establishment of a real democracy?
Answer:
For the establishment of a real democracy Marxism gives the following suggestions:

  • Social ownership of means of production and distribution.
  • Equal distribution of wealth and fulfillment of everyone’s fundamental needs.
  • For representation of people with similar economic interests the complete power to administer must be in the hands of one party. Marxism believes such a democracy to be actual and best democracy.

Question 2.
What do you know about the pluralist principle of democracy?
Answer:
The pluralist principle believes that in a democracy a person has the freedom to organised himself into various groups for the fulfillment of various interests. These groups are autonomous in their region and pressurize the government for fulfillment of their interest. In this way all groups share power to the extent of fulfillment of their interests.

This principle also believes that actual power is divided among these groups. Therefore its basic concept is decentralization of power. According to this, the state alone does not have the right to supreme power but in a democracy all groups of a society have a share in political power and power to govern.

Question 3.
What is the need and importance of a constitution for a democracy?
Answer:
In the present democratic system the government is formed by the elected representatives of the people. The fundamental belief of democracy is that the power of the governing must be in the interests of the governed for protecting the rights of the people.

In a democracy the common people easily get to know the procedure of formation of the Government and rights and duties of the citizens. There should also be a provision to ensure that the constitution may not be easily changed.

In this manner it is important to have a written constitution for safeguarding democracy. Democracy is therefore called the Rule of Law. Here the Law is above an individual or a group of individuals, which is ensured through written constitution. Therefore a constitution is very important for a Democracy. For strengthening democracies, democratic traditions are also important which give flexibility to a written constitution.

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Question 4.
What is the importance of independent and impartial judiciary in the democracy?
Answer:
An independent and impartial judiciary is of paramount importance for putting into practice the provisions of the constitution. The judiciary has been made supreme to make the government work in accordance with the constitution, secure rights of the citizens and punish those who violate the constitution. There fore in order to make democracy practical an independent and impartial judiciary is very important.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Chapter 12  Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write in detail the importance of democracy.
Answer:
Democracy is not only a special type of ruling but it is a special perspective towards life. Democracy is a system of governance based on freedom, equality, participation and brotherhood. It can also be called a social system. Under this the entire life of man is based on the democratic belief that every individual has equal importance in the society. If the importance of a person is only in the political field then democracy will remain incomplete.

For realization of true democracy it is important that individual get equal opportunities of growth in political, social and economic sphere of life. In political sphere of man’s life democracy means a political system in which the power to take decisions, does not vest in an individual but in the hands of the elected representatives of the people. Therefore the rule is based on the feelings of the people.

In the social sphere of mans life democracy imply a society where there is no discrimination on the grounds of caste,, religion, color, gender, race, creed or wealth. Everyone must have equal right and opportunities to grow in one’s life equally without any discrimination and the society must have the underlying feeling of brotherhood and mutual cooperation.

In the economic sphere of man’s life by democracy is mean! a system, where every member of the society gets the freedom and the right to choose his means of livelihood or any profession. An effort to establish such a system is made where there is no exploitation of one by the other.

An effort is made to provide basic facilities so that he may fulfill his minimum economics need and live a dignified life, meaning to provide the facilities of food clothing, shelter, health, education, employment is the basis  democracy. Democratic system believes in an organized and regular change of the rulers.

Democracy also believes that whatever changes have to be done in the political, social arid economic spheres can be done in a peaceful manner. This is the only administrative system which ensures the participation of the people in the political process. Therefore it is valued more than any other system of governance.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Solutions

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