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MP Board Class 8th Special English Grammar Clause

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1. Look at these sentences:
I shouted and he ran up.
I called her but she gave no answer.
(i) प्रथम वाक्य में I shouted और he ran up में एक-एक subject और एक-एक finite verb हैं।
(ii) उसी प्रकार दूसरे वाक्य में I called her तथा she gave no answer में भी एक-एक subject और एक-एक finite verb हैं।
(iii) इस प्रकार प्रत्येक subject+verb वाले अंश को clause कहते हैं।
(iv) ऊपर के वाक्यों में and तथा but से दोनों clauses को जोड़ा गया है।
clause शब्दों के उस समूह को कहते हैं जो किसी वाक्य का अंश (part) हो और जिसमें एक Subject और एक Finite verb हो।

Kinds of Clauses

Clause मूलतः तीन प्रकार के होते हैं –
(i) Main clause या Principal clause
(ii) Subordinate clause या Dependent clause
(iii) Co-ordinate clause

Main Clauses

2. Look at these sentences:
This is the pen which I like.
Sunday is the day when I am least busy.

(i) इन वाक्यों में This is the pen/Sunday is the day – Main clauses हैं। Main clause it Principal clause या Independent clause भी कहा जाता है।
जो Clause स्वस्तः पूर्ण अर्थ रहता है, और किसी अन्य clause पर आश्रित नहीं रहता, उसे main या principal clause कहते हैं।

Subordinate Clauses

3. Look at these sentences:
I do it because I like it.
I hoped that was true.
Don’t talk while she is singing.
He must stay where he is.

(i) ऊपर के वाक्यों में टेढ़े अक्षरों में लिखे हुए clauses Subordinate clauses हैं।
जो Clause अपने अर्थ की पूर्णता के लिए Main Clause या अन्य Clause पर आश्रित रहता है उसे Subordinate (या Dependent) Clause कहते हैं।

(i) निम्नलिखित Conjunctions से शुरू होने वाले clauses Subordinate clauses होते हैं: as, because, since, before, till, after, while, when, if, unless, though, although, lest, in order that, as soon as provided, that, as if, that, whether, which, where, why, how, as much as, according as, than इत्यादि

Co-ordinate Clauses

4. Look at these sentences:
Govern your passion or they will govern you. (2 clauses joined by or)
I came, I saw, I conquered. (3 clauses separated by comnas)
To err is human : to forgive; divine. (2 clauses separated by a semicolon)
(i) जो clauses एक ही rank या order (सामान महत्त्व) के होते हैं. Co-ordinate clauses कहलाते हैं।
(ii) ये साधारणः Co-ordinate conjunctions and, or but इत्यादि द्वारा जुड़े रहते हैं या कभी-कभी conjuctions के बदले comma या semi-colon का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
(iii) मुख्य Co-ordinating conjunctions निम्नलिखित हैं; and, but, or, still, yet, as well as, both….and, either ….or, however, neither….nor, neither, nor, otherwise, else, for, so, not only….but also, nevertheless इत्यादि।

Compound Sentence

1. Look at these sentences:
God made the country – Simple sentence
Man made the town – Simple sentence
(i) यदि इन दो Simple sentences को किसी conjunction से जोड़ दें तो इनमें प्रत्येक को clause कह सकते हैं। जैसे:
God made the country and man made the town. इस वाक्य में दो clauses हैं और यह Compound sentence है:
(i) God made the country.
(ii) (and) man made the town.

Use of Co-ordinating Conjunctions

आगे कुछ Co-ordinating conjunctions का list और उनसे शुरू होने वाले compound sentences के उदाहरण दिए जा रहे हैं:
and : Man discovered fire and learnt to cook.
but : We knocked at the door, but no one answered.
or : Hurry up or you will be late.
Yet : He is poor, yet he is happy.
still : The best doctors are attending on him, still he is not out of danger.
for : The only lady does not go out in the winter, for she feels the cold a great deal.
so : The man had a stomach pain, so we took him to a doctor.
otherwise : You should better go now, otherwise you will miss your train.
either…or : You may either stay in the hostel or stay at home.
not only…bot also : The enemy not only captured the city, but aslo killed several soldiers.
as well as : He was punished as well as fined.
therefore : He is laborious, therefore he will succeed.
neither…nor : The old man could neither read nor write.
nor : He cannot speak, nor can he write.
else : Walk quickly, else he will overtake you.
nevertheless : I did my best, nevertheless I failed.

Complex Sentence

1. Look at these sentences :
I know the reason why he was so angry.
That is the house that I would like to buy.
(i) ऊपर के वाक्यों में I know the reason तथा That is the house Main clauses हैं।
(ii) इन्हीं वाक्यों में why he was so angry तथा that I would like to by subordinate clauses हैं।
(iii) Subordinate clauses why तथा that से शुरू हुए है। Why तथा that Subordinate conjunctions हैं।
ऊपर के दोनों वाक्य Complex sentences हैं।

जिस वाक्य में एक Main clause (या Principal clause) और एक या एक से अधिक Subordinate clauses रहें उसे Complex Sentence कहते हैं।

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