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MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar

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1. Articles
(उपपद):

A,An, The को Articles कहते हैं। Articles दो प्रकार के होते हैं –

(1) Indefinite Articles – ‘A’ and ‘An’ दोनों Indefinite Articles कहलाते हैं क्योंकि ये किसी विशेष व्यक्ति या वस्तु को सूचित नहीं करते।
जैसे – I saw a dog and an ox yesterday.
Note: An’ का प्रयोग उन जातिवाचक संज्ञा के पूर्व किया जाता है जो Vowel (a, e, i, o, u) से आरम्भ होते हैं। जैसे An ox, An eye, an orange.
Note : ‘A’ का प्रयोग consonant से आरम्भ होने वाले एकवचन की जातिवाचक संज्ञा के पूर्व होता है। जैसे a book, a cow, a lion

(2) Definite Articles – ‘The’ definite article है क्योंकि ये किसी विशेष व्यक्ति या वस्तु को सूचित करता है। किसी खास वस्तु, नदी, पहाड़, प्रसिद्ध ग्रन्थ, अखबार आदि के नाम से पहले ‘The’ का प्रयोग करते हैं।
जैसे –

  1. The sun shines brightly.
  2. The Ganga is a holy river.
  3. I saw the Taj Mahal.
  4. My mother met the Principal.

Note: (i) जब ० का उच्चारण wa की तरह और u का उच्चारण yoo की तरह हो तब हम a का प्रयोग करते हैं, an का नहीं जैसे a one rupee note, a useful thing, a university
Note: (ii) जब h बोला नहीं जाता, तब हम an का प्रयोग करते हैं, a का नहीं जैसे – an honest man, in an hour.

Exercise

Fill in the blanks with the correct articles

1. Ramesh is ……….. honest boy.
2. The cow is …….. useful animal.
3. This is …….. umbrella.
4. Sameer brought …….. apple and …….. banana.
5. This is, …….. interesting story.
6. Honesty is …….. best policy.
7. ………. earth is round.
8. Mr. Prasad is ……. teacher.
9. Mr. Harish is ……… M.L.A.
10. Delhi is …………… capital of India.
11. Have you ……. umbrella?
12.  ……… Sun rises in the east.
13. The train is ………… hour late.
14. She is ………. untidy girl.
15. Rajni was ……… blind girl.
16. He is ………. university professor.
17. Reeta reads ……… Gita.

Answers:

1. an
2. a
3. an
4. an
5. an, a
6. the
7. The
8. a
9. an
10. the
11. an
12. The
13. an
14. an
15. a
16. a
17. the.

2. Pronouns
(सर्वनाम):

परिभाषा – जो शब्द संज्ञा के स्थान पर प्रयोग किये जाते हैं, सर्वनाम (Pronouns) कहलाते हैं।
जैसे – Ram is a good boy.
He goes to school.
He का प्रयोग ram की जगह हुआ हैं से यह सर्वनाम हैं For example he, it, she, myself.

Kinds of Pronouns

1. Personal Pronoun
(यक्तिवाचक सर्वनाम)
The Pronouns which stands for the names of persons or things are called personal pronouns.
For e.g. – i, we, you, yours, he, she, it, her etc.
जिन सर्वनामों का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के लिए किया जाये उन्हों Personal Pronouns कहते हैं।

2. Reflexive Pronouns
(कर्तासम्बिधित सर्वनाम)
for e.g. – myself, yourself, herself, itself etc.

3. Demonstrative Pronouns
(संकेतवाचक सर्वनाम)
Pronouns which point out things, are called demonstrative pronouns.
For eg. This, that, these, those.

4. Indefinite Pronouns
(अनिशचयवचक सर्वनाम)
Pronouns which. refers to persons or things in a general or vague way are called Indefinite Pronouns. For eg.Some, many, all, others etc.

5. Distributive Pronouns
(प्रत्येक बोधक)
Pronouns which are used for single person or thing. For eg-each, either, neither.

6. Interrogative Pronouns
(प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम)
Pronouns which are used for asking questions are called Interrogative pronouns. for eg—who, whom, what, which etc.

7. Relative Pronouns
(सम्बिधित सर्वनाम)
Who, whose, whom, which and that are called relative pronouns when they are used with nouns coming before them.

Exercise

Fill in the blanks with suitable pronouns:

1. Jack’s mother gave …………….. an orange.
2. Niti said that …………… had not done …………..
3. Please tell ……………. a story.
4. …………… went to the market.
5. Mother told …………… to return home early.
6. ……………. book belongs to ……………
7.  ………….. love music.
8. John bought a ball and gave ………… to Jeff.
9. …………… told ………….. to go away.
10. i …………. is a shy boy.
11. Ram did the work. ………………
12. I …………….. shall do it.
13. They …………….. went there.
14. ……………. of us has a’ book.
15.  …………… did this?
16. This is the house in ……………. I live …………..

Answers:

1. him
2. she, it
3. me
4. He
5. us
6. This, me
7. i
8. it
9. He, me
10. He
11. himself
12. myself
13. themselves
14. Each
15. Who
16. which.

3. The Prepositions
(सम्बन्धसूचक )

परिभाषा – जो शब्द वाक्य में किसी एक वस्तु का दूसरी वस्तु से सम्बन्ध बतलाते हैं Prepositions कहलाते हैं।
A word used to show the relation of one thing to another in a sentence is a preposition.

Relation expressed by Prepositions.
1. Prepositions of Time – कुछ Prepositions समय सूचक होते हैं जैसे –

  • He came at six.
  • I study for seven hours daily.
  • She is absent from class for three days.
  • They work from 10 to 4.

2. Prepositions of Place – कुछ Prepositions स्थान सूचक होते हैं, जैसे –

  • He was born in America.
  • She was in her room.
  • They are coming home from school.
  • I stood before him
  • The ball is out of the circle.

3. Prepositions of Movement – कुछ Prepositions गति सूचक / स्थान सूचक होते हैं, जैसे –

  • He travelled by train.
  • I came by car.
  • He went there on his bike.
  • He travelled in my car.

Use of Some other Prepositions
1. At, In : At, छोटे स्थान के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है। In, बड़े स्थान के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे

  • He lives at Dholpur.
  • He lives in Madhya Pradesh.

2. In, Into : In स्थिति को बताता है और Into गति का बोध कराता है। जैसे

  • All the boys are in the class.
  • He dived into the river.

3. Why, By : With यन्त्र के साथ प्रयोग होता है और by कार्य करने वाले समय के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है, जैसे –

  • We cut the apple with the knife.
  • The snake was killed by the farmer.

4. Since, For : Since निश्चित समय के लिए (जैसे दिन का नाम या तिथि आदि) और for का प्रयोग समय की अवधि के लिए किया जाता है। जैसे –

  • He has been ill since Monday.
  • Raj Kumar has been absent for three days.

5. Between, Among : Between दो व्यक्तियों तथा Among दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे –

  • Divide these sweets between Raj and Ravi.
  • He divided his property among his four sons

6. On, Upon : On गतीहीनता upon गतीशीलता के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है जैसे –

  • The cat is on the mat.
  • The dog jumped upon the table.

7. In, Within : In समय के अवधि की समाप्ति का बोध कराता है और Within समय के अवधि के भीतर का बोध कराता है जैसे

  • I shall come back in a week.
    (सप्ताह की समाप्ति पर)
  • I shall come within a week.
    (एक सप्ताह समाप्ति होने से पूर्व )

8. Below, Beneath : Below पद को सन्दर्भ में और Beneath स्थान के सन्दर्भ में प्रयोग किया जाता है जैसे –

  • Your brother is below my rank.
  • The lion sat beneath a tree.

9. Beside, Besides : Beside का अर्थ है पास और Besides का अर्थ है अतिरिक्त

  • The boys stood beside the teacher’s chair.
  • Besides the Principal, other teachers spoke in the prayer assembly.

10. With, Without : With का अर्थ है साथ और Without का अर्थ है बिना रहित जैसे –

  • Come to me with your brother.
  • Come to the field without anything.

Exercise

Fill in the blanks with the words given in brackets:

1. Hari has been playing …………. two hours. (for, since)
2. He is angry ……………. me. (to, with)
3. The lion jumped ………….. the deer. (on, upon)
4. I live …………….. Kolkata. (in, at)
5. They reached the Bhil village ……………… 9 O’clock. (in, at)
6. The beggar begs …………….. door to door. (from, by)
7. The cat jumped ……………… the rat. (on, upon)
8. Nagpur is famous ……………… oranges. (of, for)
9. The bird is flying …………….. the sky. (in, on)
10. The ball is ……………… the table. (on, at)

Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions:

11. Lincoln was born ……………. Thursday.
12. He went ……………… the hill.
13. He lives ………………. Bombay.
14. Yesterday Mohan fell ……………… the well.
15. Suman and Rajesh went to see the marble rocks …………….. Jabalpur.
16. The teacher was angry …………….. Rahul.
17. Look …………….. this picture.
18. He met me ……………… 15th August.
19. I don’t want ……………….. take it back.
20. Put your signature …………… ink.
21. Gandhiji was born …………… 2nd Oct. 1869.
22. Once …………. a time, there was a king.
23. I see ………….. my eyes …………..
24. he is afraid ………… snakes.
25. The cat jumped ……….. the river.
26. She’writes ……………. the pen.

Answers:

1. for
2. with
3. upon
4. in
5. at
6. from
7. upon
8. for
9. in
10. on
11. on
12. up
13. in
14. into
15. in
16. with
17. at
18. on
19. to
20. in
21. on
22. upon
23. with
24. of
25. into
26. with.

4. Numbers: Singular & Plural
(एकवचन, बहुवचन):

वह संज्ञा जो किसी एक व्यक्ति या वस्तु के लिए प्रयुक्त होती है एकवचन संज्ञा कहलाती है। (Singular Noun) जैसे – Boy, chair, man अदि वह संज्ञा जो एक से अधिक व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के लिए प्रयुक्त होती है बहुवचन संज्ञा कहलाती है। (Plural Noun) जैसे – Boys, Chairs, men अदि।

Singular से Plural बनाना –
1. By adding s to the singular nouns as : boy –
boys, girl – girls, dog – dogs, etc.

2. By adding es as : brush brushes, box –
boxes, gas-gases etc.

3. By changing y into ies as : pony ponies, –
lady – ladies, city – cities etc.

4. By changing f into ves as : thief-thieves –
calf – calves, leaf – leaves etc.

5. By change in the vowel as : man-men, –
foot – feet, tooth teeth, mouse – mice etc.

Exercise

Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. The police arrested five …………….. (thief, thieves)
2. The ………………. are green. (leaf, leaves)
3. Mr. Prasad has a lovely ………………. (baby, babies)
4. Some ………………… were riding horses. (boy/boys)
5. All the ………………… were ready to go for a picnic. (student, students)
6. When you close your …………………. you cannot see anything. (eye, eyes)
7. I like reading ………………. (book, books)
8. Sardar Patel was one of the great …………….. of India. (leader, leaders)
9. He loved his only …………….. very much.(son, sons)
10. This …………….. is very sharp. (knife, knives)

Answers:

1. thieves
2. leaves
3. baby
4. boys
5. students
6. eyes
7. books
8. leaders
9. son
10. knife.

5. Gender
(परिभाषा):

Noun के जिस रूप से यह पता चले कि Noun पुरुष है, स्त्री है या निर्जीव है उसे Gender कहते हैं।
Kinds of Gender (लिंग के भेद)

1. Masculine Gender
(पुल्लिंग) – इन संज्ञा शब्दों से पुरुषत्व का बोध होता है, जैसे –
Ram, boy, man, father, brother, king etc.

2. Feminine Gender
(स्त्रीलिंग) – इन संज्ञा शब्दों से नारी अथवा स्त्रीत्व का बोध होता है, जैसे –
girl, woman, mother, queen, sister, etc.

3. Neuter Gender (अलिंग) –
इन संज्ञा शब्दों से निर्जीव वस्तुओं का बोध होता है, जैसे –
book, pen, table, room, house, etc.

4. Common Gender (उभयलिंग) –
इन संज्ञा शब्दों से नर व नारी दोनों का बोध होता है, जैसे –
child, teacher, doctor, enemy etc

Change of Gender (लिंग परिवर्तन)
Masculine से feminine बनाने के नियम इस प्रकार हैं –

1.Masculine से बिल्कुल भिन्न शब्द का प्रयोग करके जैसे –

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-1.1

2. Masculine के अन्त में ess लगाकर।

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-1.3

3. Masculine के प्रथम अथवा अन्तिम शब्द को बदल कर।

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-1.4

Some Common Genders:

Baby      –    (बच्चा या बच्ची)
Cousin   –   (चचेरा भाई या बहन)
Pupil      –   (शिष्य या शिष्या)
Child     –   (बच्चा या बच्ची)
Person   –   (पुरुष या स्त्री)
Infant     –   (बच्चा या बच्ची)
Doctor    –   (पुरुष या स्त्री)
Teacher  –   (पुरुष या स्त्री)

Exercise

Write the opposite genders of the following nouns:

  1. Poet, land – lord, lad, God.
  2. Princess, brother, mother, girl, man.
  3. Mistress, aunt, hero, king.

Answer:

  1. Poetess, land – lady, lass, Goddess
  2. Prince, sister, father, boy, woman
  3. Master, uncle, heroine, queen.

6. Tense
(काल):

परिभाषा – The tense of a verb shows the time of an event or action of a verb.
Verb के tense से किसी घटना या कार्य के समय का ज्ञान होता है।
अंग्रेजी में Tense तीन प्रकार के होते हैं –

  1. Present tense
  2. Past tense
  3. Future tense.

1. Present Tense (वर्तमान काल) –
इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य अब या अभी हुआ है। जैसे –
I go to school. (मैं स्कूल जाता हूँ।)

2. Past Tense (भूतकाल) –
इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य बीते हुए समय में हुआ है। जैसे –
I went to school. (मैं स्कूल जाता था।)

3.  Future Tense (भविष्य काल) –
इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य आने वाले समय में होगा। जैसे –
I shall go to school. (मैं स्कूल जाऊँगा।)

प्रत्येक Tense निम्नलिखित चार प्रकार के होते हैं –

  1. Indefinite
  2. Continuous
  3. Perfect
  4. Perfect Continuous.

Present Tense (वर्तमान काल):
1. Present Indefinite Tense – इस Tense में सदा सत्य बातें, आदतें अथवा बार-बार होने वाले कार्यों का वर्णन किया जाता है। जैसे –

(i) The sun rises in the east.
सूर्य पूर्व में उदय होता है।
(ii) I go to school.
मैं स्कूल जाता हूँ।

पहचान – हिन्दी में वाक्यों के अन्त में ता, ती, ते तथा है, हूँ, हो होता है।

2. Present Continuous Tense –
इस Tense dit प्रयोग तब किया जाता है जब कार्य अभी भी चल रहा हो जैसे –

(i) I am writing a letter.
मैं पत्र लिख रहा हूँ।
(ii) They are playing football.
पे फुटबॉल खेल रहे हैं। पहचान-हिन्दी में वाक्यों के अन्त में रहा हूँ, रहा है, रही है, रहे हैं होता है।

3. Present Perfect Tense –
इस Tense का प्रयोग ऐसे कार्य के लिए होता है जो वर्तमान में पूरा हो चुका है जैसे –
(i) I have done my work.
मैंने अपना काम कर लिया है।
(ii) He has written a letter.
वह एक पत्र लिख चुका है।

इसमें I, You, तथा बहुवचन के साथ have तथा एकवचन के साथ has का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
इसमें Verb की III form का ही प्रयोग होता है।
पहचान – हिन्दी में वाक्यों के अन्त में किया है, दिया है, चुका है, चुके हैं, चुका हूँ आदि होता है।

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense –
इस Tense में कार्य पहले से हो रहा है तथा वर्तमान में भी जारी है। जैसे

1. I have been writing a letter for an hour.
मैं एक घण्टे से पत्र लिख रहा हूँ।

2. It has been raining since morning.
सुबह से वर्षा हो रही है।
इस Tense में subject के अनुसार has been या have been तथा मुख्य क्रिया में ing लगाते हैं।
समय के लिए for या since का प्रयोग होता है।
पहचान – हिन्दी वाक्यों के अन्त में रहा हूँ, रहे हैं, रही हूँ तथा कार्य शुरू होने का समय दिया जाता है।

Past Tense (भूतकाल):

1. Past Indefinite Tense – इस Tense में बीते हुए समय में कार्य होता है। जैसे –
(i) He went to the market.
वह बाजार गया।
(ii) I bought a pen.
मैंने एक कलम-खरीदी।

इन वाक्यों में Verb की II form का प्रयोग होता है।
पहचान – हिन्दी में वाक्यों के अन्त में गया, आया, दिया, लिया, किया आता है।

2. Past Continuous Tense –
इस Tense का प्रयोग ऐसे कार्यों के लिए किया जाता है जो भूतकाल में कुछ समय तक जारी रहा हो। जैसे –
(i) I was writing a letter.
मैं एक पत्र लिख रहा था।
(ii) They were playing cricket.
वे क्रिकेट खेल रहे थे।

पहचान – हिन्दी वाक्यों में रहा था, रहे थे, रही थी आदि का प्रयोग होता है। एकवचन में संज्ञा में was तथा बहुवचन में were का प्रयोग होता है।

3. Past Perfect Tense –
इस Tense का प्रयोग ऐसे कार्यों के लिए किया जाता है जो बीते समय में पूरा हो चुका है। जैसे –
(i) He had done his work.
उसने अपना काम कर लिया था।
(ii) They had posted their letters in the post office.
उन्होंने अपने पत्र डाकखाने में डाल दिये थे।

इस Tense में had के साथ Verb की III form का प्रयोग होता है।
पहचान – हिन्दी में वाक्यों के अन्त में लिया था, चुका था, चुकी थी, चुके थे आदि आते हैं।

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense – इस Tense का प्रयोग ऐसे वाक्यों में होता है जहाँ कार्य बीते समय में शुरू होकर कुछ समय तक जारी रहता है। वाक्य शुरू होने के समय ‘से’ का प्रयोग आवश्यक होता है। इसके लिए for व since का प्रयोग होता है। जैसे –
(i) Ram had been reading since morning.
राम सुबह से पढ़ रहा था।
(ii) Ram had been playing for two hours.
राम दो घण्टे से खेल रहा था। इन वाक्यों में had been के साथ Verb की I form + ing का प्रयोग होता है।
पहचान – हिन्दी वाक्यों के अन्त में रहा था, रहे थे, रही थी आदि आते हैं।

Future Tense (भविष्य काल):
1. Future Indefinite Tense –
इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य अभी होगा। जैसे –
(i) I shall go to the market.
मैं बाज़ार जाऊँगा।
(ii) We will play.
हम खेलेंगे।

इस Tense में will, shall का प्रयोग होता है।
पहचान – हिन्दी वाक्यों में अन्त में गा, गे, गी आता है।

2. Future Continuous Tense – इस Tense का
प्रयोग उस कार्य को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है जो घटनाओं के सामान्य क्रम से घटित होता है। इस Tense में will be या shall be के साथ प्रधान क्रिया में ing लगाया जाता है। जैसे –
(i) Hari will be doing his work.
हरि अपना काम कर रहा होगा।
(ii) Meera will not be going to school.
मीरा स्कूल नहीं जा रही होगी।

पहचान हिन्दी के वाक्यों में अन्त में रहा होगा, रहे होंगे,। रही होगी आदि आते हैं।

3. Future perfect Tense –
इस Tense में भविष्य में किसी कार्य के होने की निश्चितता दर्शाई जाती है –
Shall have, will have + verb की III form का प्रयोग होता है। जैसे –
(i) I shall have finished my work before 4 p.m.
शाम चार बजे से पहले मैं अपना काम समाप्त कर चुकूँगा।
(ii) The teacher will have caught the boy before he runs away.
लड़के के भागने से पहले अध्यापक उसे पकड़ चुके होंगे।

पहचान हिन्दी के वाक्यों में अन्त में चुके होंगे, चुका होगा आदि आते हैं।

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
इस Tense में भविष्यत काल में कार्य पूरा होने के साथ-साथ उसके चालू रहने के समय का वर्णन होता है।
Will have been, shall have been के साथ प्रधान क्रिया में ing लगाया जाता है। जैसे –
(i) Dogs will have been barking since one o’clock.
कुत्ते एक बजे से भौंक रहे होंगे।
(ii) Ram will have been writing his poem for four days.
राम चार दिन से अपनी कविता लिख रहा होगा।

पहचान हिन्दी के वाक्यों के अन्त में कर रहा होगा, कर रहे होंगे, कर रही होंगी आदि आते हैं।

Simple Present:

Translate into English

  1. सूर्य पूर्व में उगता है।
  2. मैं चाय पीता हूँ।
  3. मैं प्रतिदिन घूमने जाता हूँ।
  4. माला एक अच्छी लड़की है।
  5. पृथ्वी गोल है।
  6. वृक्ष हमें फल देते हैं।
  7. क्या वे गाना गाते हैं ?
  8. मोहन अपना काम क्यों नहीं करता है ?

Answer:

  1. The sun rises in the East.
  2. I take tea.
  3. I go for a walk daily.
  4. Mala is a good girl.
  5. The earth is round.
  6. Trees give us fruits.
  7. Do they sing a song ?
  8. Why does Mohan not do his work? .

Present Perfect:

  1. मैं चाय पी चुका हूँ।
  2. शीला यहाँ आ गयी है।
  3. उसने पत्र नहीं लिखा है।
  4. वह अपना काम नहीं कर चुकी है।
  5. वे कहाँ जा चुके हैं ?
  6. क्या वे खेल चुके हैं ?

Answer:

  1. I have taken tea
  2. Sheela has come here.
  3. He has not written a letter.
  4. She has not done her work.
  5. Where have they gone ?
  6. Have they played ?

Simple Past:

  1. मैंने एक पेन खरीदा।
  2. वह वहाँ गया।
  3. हमने एक गीत नहीं गाया।
  4. मैंने आम नहीं खरीदे।
  5. क्या हमने खेल खेला ?

Answer:

  1. I bought a pen.
  2. He went there
  3. We did not sing a song.
  4. I did not buy mangoes.
  5. Did we play a game ?

Past Continuous:

  1. शिक्षिका कक्षा में पढ़ा रही थी।
  2. वह नाच रहा था।
  3. क्या वह खेल रहा था ?
  4. राम पत्र नहीं लिख रहा था।
  5.  पिताजी जबलपुर जा रहे थे।

Answer:

  1. The teacher was teaching in the class.
  2. He was dancing.
  3. Was he playing ?
  4. Ram was not writing a letter.
  5. Father was going to Jabalpur.

Simple Future:

  1. मैं उसकी मदद करूँगा।
  2. अध्यापक आज हमें पढ़ायेंगे।
  3. मैं स्कूल नहीं जाऊँगा।
  4. वह गाना नहीं गायेगी।
  5. क्या तुम कविता लिखोगे ?

Answer:

  1.  I shall help him.
  2. The teachers will teach us today.
  3. I shall not go to school.
  4. She will not sing a song.
    Will you write a poem ?

Future Continuous:

  1. वह खाना खा रहा होगा।
  2. राम अपना काम कर रहा होगा।

Answer:

  1. He will be having his meals
  2. Ram will be doing his work.

Translate into English:

  1. यह मेरी पुस्तक है।
  2. उसकी माँ डॉक्टर थी।
  3. मै आगरा जाऊँगा।
  4. माँ खाना बना रही है।
  5. तुम कहाँ रहते हो?
  6. क्या तुम क्रिकेट खेलते हो ?
  7. जया गाना गा चुकी है।
  8. कल छुट्टी का दिन था।

Answer:

  1. This is my book.
  2. His mother was a doctor.
  3. I will go to Agra.
  4. Motor is cooking food.
  5. Where do you live?
  6. Do you play cricket ?
  7. Jaya has sung a song.
  8. Yesterday was a holiday.

7. Three Forms Of Verbs
(क्रियाओं के तीन रूप)।

Group I – ऐसी क्रियाएँ जिनके तीनों रूप अलग हैं –

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-1

Group II – वे क्रियाएं जिनके II form a III form तथा d, ed, t लगाकर बनाते हैं।

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-3
Group III – वे क्रियाएं जिनके रूप तीनों Forms में एक से होते हैं –

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-5

Exercise

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of verb.

  1. Ra-him ……………. Watching T.V. (was, were)
  2. I ………….. a cock there.. (seen, saw)
  3. The bell …………. before we reached the school …………….. (ring) .
  4. The girl, who is …………… a red sweater, is a good singer. (wear)

Answer:

  1. was
  2. saw
  3. had rung
  4. wearing.

8. Adjective And Its Degrees
(विशेषण तथा उसकी डिग्री ):

परिभाषा – An adjective is a word that is used to add something to the meaning of a Noun.
जो शब्द संज्ञा की विशेषता बतलाते हैं, विशेषण कहलाते है। जैसे –

1. Satish ia a tall boy.
सतीश लम्बा लड़का है।

2. She is a clever girl.
वह चतुर लडकी है।

Adjectives कि तीन अवस्थाएँ होती हैं –

  1. Positive degree
  2. Comparative degree
  3. Superlative degree.

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-6

Exercise

Fill in the blanks with correct degree of comparison.

1. Bala is …………… than Ravi. (young)
2. Raji Devi is not as …………….. as her husband. (tall)
3. This is the ……………. flower I have ever seen. (beautiful)
4. Raja is not as …………..,.. as his brother. (intelligent)
5. I am ………………. (strong) than he is.
6. Calcutta is the ……………… city in India. (big)
7. Iron is the …………………. (useful) of all metals.
8. Iron is ……………….. (heavy) than wood.
9. Which is the ……………… (high) mountain in India ?
10. He is ………………. (lazy) than his sister.

Answers:

1. younger
2. tall
3. most beautiful
4. intelligent
5. stronger
6. biggest
7. most useful
8. heavier
9. highest
10. lazier.

9. Adverbs
(क्रिया-विशेषण):

परिभाषा – An adverb is a word which modifies an adjective, verb or another adverb.
जो शब्द किसी विशेषण, क्रिया अथवा अन्य क्रिया विशेषण की विशेषता बतलाते हैं, क्रिया-विशेषण कहलाते हैं।

Kinds of Adverbs:

1. Adverb of Time – ये शब्द कार्य के होने का समय। स्पष्ट करते हैं, जैसे –

  • Ram came early.
  • She gets up in the morning daily.
  • Our shop remains closed on Monday.
  • You may go now.

इस प्रकार के adverbs निम्नलिखित हैं –
Now, then, before, since, ago, soon, early, late, afterwards, today, tomorrow, yesterday etc.
Adverb of Time answers the questions: When? i.e. ये verb में ‘कब’ लगाकर ज्ञात होता है।

2. Adverb of Place ये शब्द क्रिया के होने का स्थान बताते हैं, जैसे –

  • Please come here.
  • Come in.
  • Go out.
  • She sits there.

इस प्रकार के adverbs निम्नलिखित हैं –
here, there, in, out, above, below, inside, outside, far, near, every where etc.
Adverb of Place answers the questions : Where? i.e., ये verb में ‘कहाँ’ लगाकर ज्ञात होता है।

3. Adverbs of Reason –
ये शब्द कारण प्रकट करते हैं, जैसे

  • He therefore left the school.
  • He is hence unable to go.

Adverb of Reason answers the question : Why ? i.e., ये verb में क्यों लगाकर ज्ञात होता है।

10. The Conjunctions
(संयोजक):

परिभाषा – A conjunction is a word which joins words or sentences with each other.
वे शब्द जो शब्दों या वाक्यों को आपस में जोड़ते हैं संयोजक कहलात हैं।

निम्नलिखित कुछ conjunctions the हैं, जैसे –
and (और), as (जैसे), but (लेकिन), before (पहले), because (क्योंकि), after (बाद में), if (अगर), or (या), otherwise (अन्यथा ), that (की), though (यद्यपि), then (जबकि), till (तक), unless (जब तक कि), while (जबकि), which (जोकि), when (जब), therefore (अतः), so (इसलिए), as well as (तथा), either-or (या तो या), neither nor (ना तो-ना ही) etc.

1. Rita and Gita are sisters.
2. I live in Bhopal which is the capital of Madhya Pradesh.
3. Anil is rich but Hari is poor.
4. Walk fast or you will miss the bus.
5. He was so tired that he could not walk.
6. He was ill, therefore he could not come to school.

Exercise

Combine the following pairs of sentences into a single one using and or but:

  1. Mala studied well. She won a number of prizes.
  2. Sheela likes red colour. Geeta likes blue colour.
  3. Rani bought some apples. Raju bought oranges.
  4. I have seen the Taj Mahal. I have not seen the Qutub Minar.
  5. Bala likes birds. She does not like monkeys.
  6. I like cricket. I like football.
  7. Sohan went to Delhi during the vacation. Rohan went to Agra.
  8. He is poor. He is honest.

Answers:

  1. Mala studied well and won a number of prizes.
  2. Sheela likes red colour but Geeta likes blue.
  3. Rani bought some apples and Raju bought oranges.
  4. I have seen the Taj Mahal but not the Qutub Minar.
  5. Bala likes birds, but not monkeys.
  6. I like circket and football.
  7. Sohan went to Delhi during the vacation but Rohan went to Agra.
  8. He is poor but honest.

11. Modals
(सहायक किया):

1. Primary Auxiliaries – Be, have, do.
2. Modal Auxiliaries – will, shall, can, may, must etc.
नोट – यहाँ केवल वही Auxiliaries दी जा रही हैं जो पाठ्यक्रम में निर्धारित हैं –

Have का main verb के रूप में प्रयोग:

1. I have a car. (अधिकार)
2. He has a pen (अधिकार)
3. We had an old car. (अधिकार)
4. We had our meal early today. (ate)
5. I had tea not coffee. (drank)
6. She had a packet from the postman.(received)
7. He has fever. (suffering from)

Use of ‘Shall’ and ‘Should’
Shall –
1. Promise
(वचन) के लिए, जैसे –

  • I shall help you.
  • We shall go to cinema today.

2. Suggestion या advice
(सुझाव) दिखाने के लिए जैसे –

  • Shall we go to school today?
  • Shall I close the door ?

3.  Determination
(दृढ़ निश्चय) के लिए, जैसे –

  • I shall turn you out of the room.
  • He shall reach there by evening.

4. Command
(आदेश) के लिए, जैसे –

  • You shall have to do this work.
  • He shall be punished again.

Should –
(i) Obligation or advisability
(कर्तव्य, सुझाव) के लिए, जैसे –

  • We should respect our elders.
  • You should study the subject first then give your views.
  • You should be punctual.

(ii) Assumption
(पूर्ण धारणा) के लिए

  • That should be Mohan’s cycle.
  • You should be Ram’s brother.

(iii) Lest at ang should ait beim
(a) Walk carefully lest you should fall. Use of ‘Can’ and ‘Could’

Can –
(i) Ability
(योग्यता) दिखाने के लिए, जैसे –

  • I can swim.
  • He can speak English.

(ii) Permission
(आज्ञा), जैसे –

  • You can go home now.
  • You can park your car here.

(iii) Possibility
(संभावना) दिखाने के लिए, जैसे –

  • The students can be notorious.
  • He can come today.

(iv) Power
(शक्ति) प्रकट करने के लिए, जैसे –

  • We can walk so long.
  • Can he bear this pressure ?

Could—
(i) Ability is past
(भूतकाल में क्षमता) दिखाने के लिए, जैसे

  • She could speak English well.
  • He could not pass as he did not work hard.
  • He could swim, when he was a child.

(ii) Possibility
(सम्भावना) व्यक्त करने के लिए। जैसे –
(a) When I was the principal, teachers could meet the girl students in the open.

(iii) Request (प्रार्थना) के लिए, जैसे –

  • Could you give me your pen ?
  • Could you tell your residence ?

Use of ‘May’ and ‘Might’
May –
(i) Permission
(अनुमति) माँगने/देने के लिए –

  • May I come in Sir ? (माँगना)
  • You may go now. (देना)।

(ii) Possibility (सम्भावना) के लिए, जैसे –

  • It may rain today.
  • The principal may not grant me leave.

(iii) Purpose (उद्देश्य) व्यक्त करने के लिए, जैसे –

  • We eat so that we may live.
  • We save so that we may use in future.

(iv) Wish (इच्छा) प्रकट करने के लिए, जैसे –

  • May you live long !
  • May God help you !

Might –
(i) Possibility (सम्भावना) व्यक्त करने के लिए, जैसे –

  • The principal might grant me leave.
  • She might be Suman.

(ii) Permission (अनुमति) माँगने के लिए
(a) Might I borrow your car for a day?

Use of ‘Must

(i) Necessity (आवश्यकता) व्यक्त करने के लिए –

  • We must obey our elders.
  • We must get up early.

(ii) Prohibition (रोकने) के लिए –
(a) You must not leave home before 6 p.m.

(iii) Certainty or belief (पक्का विश्वास) व्यक्त करने के लिए, जैसे –

  • I must finish this book today.
  • He must have gone.

Exercise

Fill in the blanks with suitable modals:

1. We ………….. get up early in the morning.
2. The sky is clear now, it ………….. rain in the evening.
3. He promised me that he …………… preside over our function.
4. …………… you switch the fan off?
5. We …………….do our duty.
6. ……………… I come in Sir ?
7. My friend ……………. arrive at 8 p.m.
8. My son ………….. drive a car.
9. The news ………….. be false.
10. If you disobey, you ………….. be punished.

Answers:

1. should
2. can
3. would
4. Would
5. must
6. May
7. will
8. can
9. may
10. shall.

12. Punctuation
(विराम चिन्ह)।

Punctuation का अर्थ होता है किसी वाक्य में Full stop, comma आदि विराम चिह्न का प्रयोग करना। इनके प्रयोग इस प्रकार हैं।
1. Full stop (.) – हिन्दी के पूर्ण विराम (।) के स्थान पर अंग्रेजी में full stop (.) प्रयोग होता है।

(a) Affirmative, Negative site Imperative वाक्यों के अन्त में –

  1. She is a girl.
  2. She is not coming.
  3. Please come here.

(b) Abbreviations
(संक्षिप्त शब्दों) तथा नामों के प्रारम्भ में। जैसे –
M. A., A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.

2. Comma (.) – Comma (अर्द्ध विराम) का प्रयोग निम्न दशाओं में होता है –

(i) एक ही Part of Speech के कई शब्दों को अलग करने के लिए. जैसे –
He can read, write and sing well.

(ii)And से जोड़े गये एक से अधिक शब्द समूहों को अलग करने के लिए, जैसे –
The minister addressed all, men and women, old and young.

(iii) Yes और No के बाद, जैसे –

  1. Yes, I shall do it.
  2. No, I can’t go there.

(iv) Reported Speech के शेष वाक्य को अलग करने के लिए, जैसे –
He said, “The sun rises in the East.”.

(v) Noun और Phrase in apposition को अलग करने के लिए, जैसे –
Milton, the great poet,,was blind.

(vi) दिन, दिनांक या वर्ष को पृथक् करने के लिए, जैसे –
Monday, 6th June, 2006.

3. Question Mark (?)
प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों के अन्त में लगाया जाता है, जैसे –
What is your name?

4. Exclamation mark (!) – इस चिह्न का प्रयोग
(i) Interjection
(विस्मयादिबोधक) शब्दों के बाद होता है, जैसे
Oh! Alas ! Hurrah !

(ii) उन वाक्यों के अन्त में भी होता है जो गहन संवेग व्यक्त करते हैं, जैसे
What a beautiful picture !

5. Inverted Commas (“….”) – Direct speech में किसी के द्वारा कहे गये यथार्थ शब्दों को शेष वाक्य से अलग करने के लिए Inverted commas का प्रयोग होता है, जैसे –
He said, “I shall win.”

6. Apostrophe (‘) इनका प्रयोग होता हैं जैसे –

  • अक्षर के लोप को को प्रकट करने को लिए – Don’t, can’t, won’t, didn’t.
  • Possessive case बनाने के लिए Sita’s doll.
  • अक्षर तथा संख्याओं का बहुवचन बनने को लिए And three 4’s and two 3’s.

7. Capital Letters – इनका प्रयोग निम्न होता है –
(i) वाक्य के प्रथम शब्द का प्रथम अक्षर लिखने के लिए –
He is my brother.
(ii) Proper Nouns और उससे बने हुए Adjectives के प्रथम अक्षर को लिखने के लिए –
Asha, Delhi, Indian.
(iii) Pronoun Ion frana forte I am a teacher.
(iv) God, Almighty, Lord शब्दों के प्रथम अक्षर लिखने के लिए।

Exercise

Punctuate the following sentences:

  1. he sits next to his friend sonu his father teaches geography.
  2. Come here Sonam i have a rupee for you said rajan.
  3. is this your final decision asked ramesh.
  4. during our journey to delhi we slept read and played cards.
  5. don’t worry said akash i will give the pen to him.

Answer:

  1. He sits next to his friend, Sonu. His father teaches Geography.
  2.  “Come here, Sonam. I have a rupee for you.” said Rajan.
  3. “Is this your final decision ?” asked Ramesh.
  4. During our journey to Delhi, we slept, read and played cards.
  5. “Don’t worry”, said Akash, “I will give the pen to him.”

13. Compound Word
(सयुक्त शब्द)

परिभाषा – दो शब्दों को मिलाकर जब एक शब्द बनता है,

  • Base +ball → Baseball
  • Post + man → Postman
  • Milk + maid Milkmaid
  • Pocket + money → Pocket money
  • Water + melon → Watermelon
  • Friend + ship → Friendship

कभी-कभी hyphen (-) से भी compound words बनते हैं, जैसे –

  • Bell + like → Bell – like
  • Re + create → Re – create
  • Day + dream → Day – dream
  • Bus + conductor – Bus – conductor
  • Dark + haired → Dark – haired

14. Interrogative Sentences
(प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य):

वाक्यों को Interrogative बनाने के लिए. सहायक क्रिया (Auxiliary verb), (Main verb) प्रश्नवाचक शब्दों की सहायता ली जाती है जैसे –
1. उसके पास नई कार है।
She has a new car. (Simple)
Has she a new car? (Interrogative)

2. वह एक अच्छा लड़का है।
He is a good boy. (Simple)
Is he a good boy ? (Interrogative)

Exercise

Change the following sentences into interrogative –
1. Seema is going to Delhi.
सीमा दिल्ली जा रही है।

2. He can come here
वह यहाँ आ सकता है।

3. Ram has written a letter.
राम एक पत्र लिख चुका है।

4. She writes a letter.
वह एक पत्र लिखती है।

5. She sang a song.
उसने एक गीत गाया।

6. This is a book.
यह एक पुस्तक है।

7. She is playing hockey.
वह हॉकी खेल रही है।

8. He is driving a car.
वह एक कार चाल रहा है ।

9. I love my brother.
मैं अपने भाई से प्यार करता हूँ।

10. I gave a book to Lata.
मैंने लता को एक पुस्तक दी।

11. I like to live in Agra.
मुझे आगरा में रहना पसन्द है।

12. Shahjahan built the Taj.
शाहजहाँ ने ताजमहल बनवाया।

Answers:

1. Is Seema going to Delhi?
2. Can he come here ?
3. Has Ram written a letter ?
4. Does she write a letter ?
5. Did she sing a song ?
6. Is this a book ?
7. Is she playing hockey ?
8. Is he driving a car ?
9. Do you love your brother ?
10. Did you give a book to Lata ?
11. Do you like to live in Agra ?
12. Did Shahjahan build the Taj ?

Exercise

Change the following sentences into interrogatives:

  1. Nehru was honored every where.
  2. Time and tide wait for none.
  3. No man is mightier than God.
  4. ‘Everybody loves his motherland.
  5. He would like to be free.
  6. They played a hockey match.
  7. Girls were dancing.

Answer:

  1. Was Nehru honored everywhere ?
  2. Do time and tide wait for anyone ?
  3. Is any man mightier than God ?
  4. Does anybody not love his motherland ?
  5. Would he not like to be free ?
  6. Did they play a hockey match ?
  7. Were girls dancing ?

15. Negative Sentences
(नाकारात्मक वाक्य):

How to change affirmative sentences into negative sentences:
1. जब स्वीकारात्मक वाक्य में verb “to be के रूप 1619 is, am, are, was, were तथा verb ‘have os के रूप have, has, had का प्रयोग Full verb की तरह हो तो negative sentence बनाते समय इनके बाद not लगाते हैं। जैसे –
(a) He is a good boy.
He is not a good boy.

(b) They were players.
They were not players.

2. जब स्वीकारात्मक वाक्य में Primary Auxiliary (be, do, have) और Modal Auxiliary का प्रयोग एक साथ हो तो Negative sentence बनाते समय इनके बीच में not लगाते हैं जैसे –
(a) He may be a good boy.
He may not be a good boy.

(b) I can do this work.
I can not do this work.

3. Interrogative Sentences को negative में बदलते समय Subject (कर्ता) के बाद not लगा देते हैं। जैसे –
(a) Is he a good man ?
Is he not a good man ?

(b) Will you go home ?
Will you not go home ?

4. Imperative को negative में बदलते समय verb से । पहले don’t लगा देते हैं। जैसे –
(a) Go there.
Don’t go there.

(b) Bring water.
Don’t bring water.

Exercise

  1. You play cricket daily.
  2. This is a cow.
  3. I have seen the Taj.
  4. I lost my cycle.
  5. She lives in a good house.

Answer:

  1. You don’t play cricket daily.
  2. This is not a cow.
  3. I have not seen the Taj.
  4. I did not lose my cycle.
  5. She does not live in a good house.

16. Active And Passive Voice

अंग्रेजी भाषा में दो प्रकार की voice होती हैं –
Active and Passive voice. We drink milk. (Active voice)
हम दूध पीते हैं।

Milk is drunk by us. (Passive voice)
दूध हमारे द्वारा पिया जाता है।

मुख्य बातें:

1. केवल कर्म (object) वाले वाक्यों को Passive voices में बदला जा सकता है। बिना कर्म वाले वाक्यों को Passive voice में नहीं बदला जा सकता है जैसे-He sleeps, Radha is weeping, इन वक्यों में object नहीं है इसलिए इन्हें Passive में नहीं बदला जा सकता है।
2. Perfect Continuous वाक्यों को Passive वाक्यों में नहीं बदला जता जैसे – She has been waiting for me.
3. Future continuous वाक्यों को passive में नहीं बदला जा सकता है। – I shall be going to Delhi.
4. Passive Voice में Past participle (Third form of the verb) प्रयोग होता है।
I sing a song (Active)
A song is sung by me. (Passive)

Tense wise Change of Voice:

1. Simple Present Tense:
I water Plants. (Active)
Plants are watered by me. (Passive)
Hint – is, am ,are + III form of verb

2. Present Continuous Tense:
I am singing a song. (Active)
A song is being sung by me. (Passive)
Hint – is, am, are + being + III form of verb

3. Present Perfect Tense:
I have watered the plants. (Active)
The plants have been watered by me. (Passive)
Hint – has, have + been + III form of verb.

4. Simple Past Tense:
I watered plants. (Active)
Plants were watered by me. (Passive)
Hints – was, were + III form of verb

5. Past Continuous Tense:
I was singing a song. (Active)
A song was being sung by me. (Passive)
Hint – was, were + being + III form of verb.

6. Past Perfect Tense:
He had drunk milk. (Active)
Milk had been drunk by him. (Passive)
Hint – had been + III form of verb

7. Simple Future Tense:
I shall drink milk. (Active)
Milk will be drunk by me. (Passive)
Hint – will be / shall be + III form of verb

How to Change Interrogative Sentences into Passive Voice

1. Sentences starting with Helping verbs
(सहायक क्रिया से आरम्भ होने वाले वाक्य)
Did you water plants ? (Active)
Were plants watered by you ? (Passive)
Hint – Helping verb + Object + III form of verb and question mark.

2. Sentences Starting with “Why’ (‘Why’ से आरम्भ होने वाले वाक्य)
Why did you leave the room? (Active)
Why was the room left by you? (Passive)
Hint – Why + helping verb + object + III form of verb and question mark.

3. Sentences starting with ‘Who’ (‘Who’से आरम्भ होने वाले वाक्य)
Who watered the plants ? (Active)
By whom were the plants watered ? (Passive)
Hint-By Whom + helping verb + object + III form of verb and question mark.

How to Change the Sentences with can, should, must etc., into Passive Voice
1. I can help you. (Active)
You can be helped by me. (Passive)

2. You should obey your elders. (Active)
Your elders should be obeyed by you. (Passive)

3. You must drink milk. (Active)
Milk must be drunk by you. (Passive)
Hint-Can, should, must + be + III form of verb.

How to Change Imperative Sentences into Passive Voice
1. Open the door. (Active)
Let the door be opened. (Passive)

2. Clean the glass. (Active)
Let the glass be cleaned. (Passive)
Hint-Let + object + Be + III form of verb.

3. Please bring me a glass of water. (Active)
You are requested to bring me a glass of water. (Passive)
Hint-You are requested + to + sentence.

Exercise

Change the Voice:

1. My father brought a new car.
2. He was writing a letter.
3. You are eating oranges.
4. He called them.
5. She is making tea.
6. Do it.
7. Mala sold the books.
8. Flowers are liked by me.
9. People do not play cricket in America.
10. Sona sings a song.
11. A letter was written by Amit.
12. A car was driven by Ramu.

Answers:

1. A new car was bought by my father.
2. A letter was being written by him.
3. Oranges are being eaten by you.
4. They were called by him.
5. Tea is being made by her.
6. Let it be done.
7. The books were sold by Mala.
8. I like flowers.
9. Cricket is not played in America.
10. A song is sung by Sona.
11. Amit wrote a letter.
12. Ramu drove a car.

17. Direct & Indirect Narration

अंग्रेजी में किसी के कहे हुए वचन को दो प्रकार से प्रकट कर सकते हैं –
1. यदि किसी व्यक्ति के वही शब्द लिखे जायें जो उसने कहे हैं और उनमें किसी प्रकार की तब्दीली न की जाये तो उसे Direct Speech कहते हैं। जैसे –
“Rama said, “She is a good girl.” यहाँ बोलने वाले के ठीक-ठीक वही शब्द दिये गये हैं। Direct Speech में निम्न बातों का ध्यान रखना चाहिए –
(a) बोलने वाले के असली शब्दों को inverted Commas (“….”) में लिखते हैं।
(b) बोलने वाले के असली शब्दों को Reported Speech कहते हैं।
(c) जो Verb (क्रिया) ‘Reported Speech’ के सम्बन्ध में कुछ बताता है उसे Reporting verb कहते हैं।

2. जब हम बोलने वाले के असली शब्दों का प्रयोग नहीं करते परन्तु उनका तात्पर्य या अर्थ लिखते हैं तो उसे Indirect Speech कहते हैं। जैसे –
Rama said that she was a good girl. “Indirect speech में निम्न बातों का ध्यान रखना चाहिए –

  • इसमें कोई inverted commas नहीं होते। बोलने वाले के ठीक वही शब्द नहीं लिखे जाते। उनमें कुछ परिवर्तन किया जाता है।
  • Reporting verb के बाद कोई comma नहीं लगाया जाता।
  • Reported Speech से पहले Conjunction that’ का प्रयोग होता है।
  • Reported speech की क्रिया को बदलते हैं।

जब हम Direct Speech को Indirect speech में बदलते हैं तो निम्न बातों का ध्यान रखते हैं जैसे –
(1) Said को told में बदल देते हैं। Persons में परिवर्तन निम्न रूप में करते हैं। I person के Pronoun (I, we, us, our) का परिवर्तन Direct Speech के Subject (कर्ता) के Person के अनुसार होता है। II Person के Pronoun (You, Your) का परिवर्तन Object के अनुसार होता है तथा III Person के Pronoun (he, she, it, her) में कोई भी परिवर्तन नहीं होता है।

(2) निकटता प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों में परिवर्तन निम्नलिखित रूप से किया जाता है –

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-8

(3) Tense (काल) के परिवर्तन –

  • Reporting Verb के Present या future Tense में होने पर Reported verb के Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता।
  • Reporting verb के Past Tense में होने पर Reported Verb के Tense में परिवर्तन होता है –

(i) Simple Present का Simple Past हो जाता है।
He said, “She works hard.”
He said that she worked hard.

(ii) Present Continuous at Past Continuous हो जाता है। जैसे –
He said, “She is reading a book”.
He said that she was reading a book.

(iii) Present Perfect at Past Perfect हो जाता है। जैसे –
Hema said, “Ram has done his work.”
Hema said that Ram had done his work.

(iv) Present Perfect Continuous cat Past Perfect Continuous हो जाता है। जैसे –
Sham said, “Ram has been working for two hours.”.
Sham said that Ram had been working for two hours.

(v) Simple Past का Past Perfect हो जाता है। –
Sita said, “Rita read a book.”
Sita said that Rita read a book.”

(vi) Past Continuous cft Past Perfect Continuous हो जाता है। जैसे –
Gopal said, “Govind was singing a song.”
Gopal said that Govind had been singing a song.
Shall का should, may, का might, can का could हो जाता है तसदा सत्य व ऐतिहासिक तथ्यों का Tense नही बदलता।

Interrogative Sentences:
Direct – Rahul said to Rama, “Is it easy to ride a bicycle ?”
Indirect – Rahul asked Rama if it was easy to ride a bicycle.
Direct – The bird said to the Prince, “Why are you weeping ?
Indirect – The bird asked the Prince why he was weeping.

Command and Orders:
Direct – Father said, “Get Some sleep.”
Indirect – Father told him to get some sleep.
Direct – Hari said to me, “Please help me.”
Indirect – Hari requested me to help him.

Exercise

I. Rewrite the following sentences in indirect form of narration:

1. Amit says, “I like travelling.”
2. The teacher said, “The earth is round.”
3. The teacher said to the boy, “Shut the door”
4. He asked me, “Where is the bus stand ?”
5. Savita’s mother says, “I think it is good to travel.”
6. Sita says, “I went to the cinema.”
7. The teacher said, “What is your name ?”
8. “Who is your father ?” The policeman asked the girl.
9. He said to me, “I live in Delhi.”
10. He said, “Two and two make four.”

Answers:

1. Amit says that he likes travelling.
2. The teacher told that the earth is round.
3. The teacher asked the boy to shut the door.
4. He asked me where the bus stand was.
5. Savita’s mother says that she thinks that it is good to travel.
6. Sita says that she went to the cinema.
7. The teacher asked me what my name was.
8. The policeman asked the girl who her father was.
9. He told me that he lived in Delhi.
10. He said that two and two make four.

Exercise

II. Change the following into Indirect Narration:

1. Savita said, “I am going to Delhi today.”
2. Mohit said, “I can’t come. I have to stay with my brother.”
3. Seema said, “I am going home.”
4. Teacher said, “The sun rises in the east.”
5. Vivek said, “I am busy.”
6. Ramesh said, “I cannot drive scooter.”

Answers:

1. Savita said that she was going to Delhi that day.
2. Mohit said that he couldn’t come, he had to stay with his brother.
3. Seema said that she was going home.
4. Teacher said that the sun rises in the east.
5. Vivek said that he was busy.
6. Ramesh said that he could not drive scooter.

18. Antonyms
(विपरीतार्थक शब्द):

विपरीत अर्थ वाले शब्द विपरीतार्थक शब्द कहलाते है

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-9

19. Synonyms
(समानार्थक शब्द):

समानार्थक शब्दों का अर्थ है समान अर्थ वाले शब्द

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-12

20. Homophones
(समोच्चारित शब्द):
Homophones are words that sound alike but have completely different meaning. –
(Homophone शब्द उच्चारण में समान लगते हैं परन्तुअर्थ में भिन्न होते हैं।)
I use
1. Sea, See –
Sea -The ship is sailing on the sea.
See – I see with my eyes.

2. Sale, Sail –
Sale – Bachoomal has the largest sale.
Sail – Children sail boats in a pond.

3. Sell, Cell –
Sell – He sells vegetables.
Cell – He lives in a small cell.

4. Knew, new –
Knew – He knew my name.
New – We wear new clothes on Diwali.

5. There, their –
There – There are four students in the class.
Their – They do their work.

6. Peace, Piece –
Peace – There was peace in the forest.
Piece – He gave me a piece of cake.

7. Blue, Blew –
Blue – The sky is blue.
Blew – He blew a whistle.

8. Heard, herd –
Heard – I heard a great noise.
Herd – A herd of cows was grazing.

9. Right, write –
Right – He knew the right answer.
Write – I write with my left hand.

10. Hare, hair –
Hare – Hare runs very fast.
Hair – have long and smooth hair.

11. Fair, Fare –
Fair – I went to a fair with my family.
Fare – Train fare is increasing rapidly.

12. Quiet, Quite –
Quiet – You must be quiet in the class.
Quite – He waited for quite a long period.

13. Plain, Plane –
Plain – He is wearing a plain blue shirt.
Plane – I flied by a plane to Delhi.

14. Hear, Here –
Hear – We hear with our ears.
Here – Please come here.

15. Ate, Eight
Ate – He ate two ice creams.
Eight – Octopus has eight legs.

16. Bye, Buy –
Bye – He bade good bye to his friends.
Buy – I went to market to buy books.

17. Weak, Week –
Weak – He is a weak boy.
Week – There are seven days in a week.

18. One, Won –
One – One comes before two.
Won – He won a prize in academics.

19. I, Eye
I – I am a beautiful girl.
Eye – We see with our eyes.

20. Hour, Our
Hour – He is a late by one hour.
Our – The name of our country is India.

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-15

21. One Word Substitution
(अनेक शब्दों को लिए एक शब्द):

1. One who takes care of your teeth. Dentist
2. A person who uses a type writer. Typist
3. One who flies a plane. Pilot
4. A person who sells medicines. Chemist
5. One who travels in public transport like bus, train or plane. Passenger
6. A person who pays rent for the use of a house. Tenant
7. One who sells goods for his company. Agent
8. One who makes wooden furniture. Carpenter
9. A woman expecting to give birth to a baby. Pregnant
10. Place where you were born. Motherland
11. A person who fights cases in court. Lawyer
12. An official letter to make an arrest or search. Warrant
13. A person in an officer or shop who is in-charge of money. Cashier
14. One who teaches. Teacher
15. The flight of birds from one part of the world to another. Migration
16. A person who makes breads, cakes etc. Baker
17. One who is in-charge of a part of a news paper and magazine. Editor
18. A person who cuts hair. Barber
19. A cook in a hotel, restaurant. Chef
20. A person who writes poems. Poet
21. A person who grows or sells flowers. Florist
22. Animals that live in water. Aquatic
23. A person who believes that there is no God. Atheist
24. A disease which spreads by contact. Contagious
25. A disease which spreads rapidly among many people in the same place for a time. Epidemic

22. Prefix:

It is a letter or a group of letters placed at the beginning of a word to alter its meaning. (वे शब्दांश जो किसी शब्द से पहले जोड़े जाते हैं उन्हें उपसर्ग कहते हैं। ये शब्द का अर्थ बदल देते हैं।)
Dis + agree = Disagree

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-16

23. Suffix:

A letter or group of letters added at the end of a word to form a derivative.
जो शब्दों श primary word के अन्त में जोड़े जायें उसे Suffix कहत है।

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-19
24. Silent Latter:

वे शब्दांश जो लिखे तो जाते हैं पर बोले नहीं जाते, मूक शब्दांश कहलाते हैं। जैसे –

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-21

25. Sound of Animals:

MP Board Class 8th General English Grammar-23

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