These MP Board Class 11th Biology Notes for Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom help students to get a brief overview of all the concepts.
MP Board Class 11th Biology Notes Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom
→ Annuals : Plants which live for one season and complete their life cycle in a single favourable season.
→ Algae : They are large assemblage of autotrophic plants which are predominantly aquatic.
→ Land plants are divided into two divisions, i.e., Bryophytes and tracheophytes.
→ Bryophytes are the amphibians of plant kingdom. In them, the gametophyte is the dominant phase and sporophyte is short-lived.
→ Tracheophytes include pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
→ Tracheophytes are characterized by the presence of vascular tissue.
→ Gymnosperms are woody plants with naked seed but without flowers.
→ Angiosperms are the flowering plants and their seeds are covered by the ovary wall.
→ The flower is a special modified reproductive shoot and is composed of four whorls namely calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium.
→ Bryophytes serve as a connecting link of aquatic algae and terrestrial pteridophytes.
→ Thallophyta have thallus like body and constitute algae and fungi.
→ Bryophytes may be thalose or foliose and found in moist and shady places.
→ In bryophytes, zygote develops into sporogonium which is further distinguished into food, seta and capsule.
→ On the basis of number of cotyledons, angiosperms are divided into two following major groups : (i) Monocotyledons : Bear only one cotyledon and (ii) Dicotyledons : Bear two cotyledons.
→ Heterospory : The production of spores of two different sizes and two different developmental patterns is called as heterospory. e.g., Selaginella.
→ Formation of fruit without fertilization is called parthenocarpy and the fruits are called parthenocarpic fruits.
→ Bicollateral vascular bundles : When both phloem and cambium occur twice once on outer side of xylem and then again on its inner side. The sequence is outer phloem, outer cambium, xylem, inner cambium and inner phloem.
→ Concentric vascular bundles : Vascular bundles in which xylem is covered by phloem or vice versa are called as concentric vascular bundles.
→ Radial vascular bundle : Vascular bundles in which xylem and phloem occur in separate patches on alternate radii as in roots are called as radial vascular bundle.
→ Polyembryony : Presence of more than two embryo in a seed is called as a polyembryony.
→ All eukaryotic, photosynthetic (autotrophs) multicellular organisms are included in kingdom plantae.
→ Plant kingdom is classified into three groups : (i) Algae, (ii) Bryophyta and (iii) Tracheophyta. Algae is divided into three subdivisions : (i) Rhodophyta, (ii) Phaeophyta and (iii) Chlorophyta.
→ Bryophyta and tracheophyta together are called as embryophyta.
→ Reproductive organs of embryophyta are multicellular.
→ Bryophytes are amphibian.
→ Higher vascular plants are evolved from bryophytes.
→ Flowering plants are called as angiosperms.
→ Flower of rafflesia is the largest flower.
→ Bryophytes serves as link between aquatic algae and terrestrial pteridophytes.
→ Main plant of bryophytes are gametophyte.
→ Main plant of pteridophytes are sporophyte.
→ Gymnosperms are naked seeded plants.
→ The flower is a special modified reproductive shoot and is composed of four whorls namely, calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium.
→ The ovary develops into fruit and the ovule develops into seed.