In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 18 Economy: Service Sector and Infrastructure Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Economy: Service Sector and Infrastructure

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 18 Text book Exercises

Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Multiple Choice Questions
(Choose the correct answer from the following)

Question (i)
As the economy develops, the share of tertiary sector in the national income – (MP Board 2013)
(a) increases
(b) decreases
(c) increases, first then decreases
(d) decreases first, then increases.
Answer:
(a) increases.

Question (ii)
Help in the expansion of market –
(a) Means of transportation
(b) Means of communication
(c) Banks and financial institutions
(d) All of above.
Answer:
(d) All of above.

Question (iii)
Agriculture is included in – (MP Board 2009)
(a) Primary sector
(b) Secondary sector
(c) Tertiary sector
(d) Secondary and Tertiary both the sectors.
Answer:
(a) Primary sector.

Question (iv)
The tertiary sector provides employment – (MP Board 2009)
(a) Directly
(b) Indirectly
(c) Directly and indirectly both
(d) None of above.
Answer:
(b) Indirectly.

Question (v)
The reason for continuous development of tertiary sector is –
(a) Government interference
(b) Development of agriculture and industries
(c) Change in thinking
(d) All of above.
Answer:
(d) All of above.

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Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. The economy is divided into …………….. sectors. (MP Board 2009)
  2. The service sector is the …………….. sector of an economy.
  3. The total contribution of service sector in the year 200506 was …………….. in the gross domestic product.
  4. Education and health are the part of …………….. infrastructure. (MP Board 2009)
  5. The energy commission was formed in March ……………..

Answer:

  1. Three
  2. Third
  3. 54.2%
  4. Basic
  5. 1980.

Question 3.
Mach the coloumn:
MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Economy Service Sector and Infrastructure img 1
Answer:

(a) (ii)
(b) (iii)
(c) (i)
(d) (v)
(e) (iv)

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 18 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What does that part of the total population of a country called, which involves directly in the activities of production?
Answer:
Primary sector means Agriculture sector.

Question 2.
How does die percentage of occupational distribution of working population remain always?
Answer:
The occupational distribution of working population increases.

Question 3.
Name that sector of economy which cooperate in the execution of agriculture and industry.
Answer:
Tertiary (Service) Sector.

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Question 4.
Which type of services are called die services of doctor, teacher, barber, washerman and advocates? (MP Board 2009, Set A, Set D)
Answer:
Direct services.

Question 5.
What is tertiary sector?
Answer:
The sector of economy concerned with the services like education, medical, transport and communication are called the tertiary sector of national development.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 18 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is relation between the sector of economy and national income?
Answer:
Suppose in a country the income from primary sector is Rs.100 crore: Rs. 75 crores from secondary sector and Rs. 150 crores from tertiary sector, then the Gross Domestic Income will be Rs. 325 crores (100 + 75 + 150 = 325) and net income from foreign is Rs. 10 crores. Thus gross domestic income is Rs. 325 crores + Net income from foreign is Rs. 10 crores therefore National Income = Rs. 335 crores.
MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 18 Economy Service Sector and Infrastructure img 2

By experience we know that with economic development, the income obtained from primary, secondary and tertiary sectors increases and so their comparative contribution also changes. It has been seen that owing to the economic development in a country, the contribution erf primary sector gradually decreases in the gross national income and the contribution of tertiary or service sector increases.

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Question 2.
Explain the primary and secondary sectors of economy with the help of examples?
Answer:
Generally, those activities are called the activities of ‘Primary Sector’ where natural resources are used directly, such as farming, digging of coal from mines or to get wood from forests. In backward and developing countries maximum population is involved in this sector only. But as the development starts in the economy the population shifts from primary sector and gets involved in secondary sector.

In the ‘Secondary Sector’, the natural products are changed into several useful forms through manufacturing, for example, making sugar from sugarcane or making cement from lime stone and then constructing a house. All the industries of this type are kept in secondary sector.

Question 3.
Discuss the contribution of service sector to agriculture and national income?
Answer:
Service sector is helpful in increasing the agricultural production by providing to farmers to buy high yeild seeds. Saving of farmers from natural calamities is done by insurance schemes. The importance of Service Sector is gradually increasing day – by – day with economic development. The activities of service sector are increasing rapidly in all sectors, whether it is urban or rural, i.e., the reason more than half of the national income is obtained from service sector.

Question 4.
Explain any four reasons for the development of tertiary sector in India?
Answer:
The four reasons are:

  1. Increase in employment.
  2. Helpful in expansion of market.
  3. Safety of agricultural crop.
  4. Contribution to national income.

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Question 5.
Describe the types of infrastructure?
Answer:
There are two types of infrastructure:

1. Economic Infrastructure:
It is mainly based on the energy, transport and communication. Railway, road, parks, dams not power station are such an infrastructure.

2. Social Infrastructure:
Education, health and medical facilities we included in this infrastructure. It means social infrastructure is helpful to the development of human resources.

Question 6.
What is the contribution of Indian services to the world?
Answer:
As a result of the development of tertiary (service) sector in the Indian economy, today several types of services are being provided to different countries of the world by India. As a result of new economic policy and liberalisation of foreign trade the importance and share of Indian tertiary sectors within and outside the country is increasing continuously.

The neighbouring countries of India, Europe and the countries of the world like America and England are being benefited by India through its tertiary sector. During last few years, India has shown a rapid progress in the export of its services. The export of services during last few years, has increased thrice.

The trade of service sector has raised upto 61.4 million American Dollars in 2005-06. Thus increase in trade is mainly seen in software services, business and communication services. In the year 2005, the share of India was 1.0 per cent of total export of goods of the world, while the share of India in the export of services was 2.3 percent.

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Question 7.
Explain briefly the importance of energy and transportation?
Answer:
The economic development of any country depends upon the available means of energy. The reason for this is that agriculture, industry, mining, transportation etc all require energy.Transportation occupies an important place in the economy of any country. Transport is important from economic and social both point of views.

Actually, transport is a means of communication. In the beginning, the transport in India was developed mainly from the point of view of commercial and administrative facilities and conveyance. But after independence, during five – year plans the expansion of transport was done with a view of total economic development.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 18 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why the division of economy is needed? Describe the sectors of economy?
Answer:
The manpower of any country performs various types of activities for its livelihood. Some do farming some work in factories or do trade or business. He obtains this income from all these activities only. Therefore it is necessary to understand the economy properly one should study those sectors of economy in which people are working.

1. Primary Sector:
The activities based directly on natural resources are called primary sector. Agriculture can be taken as an example. We have to depend, mainly upon natural resources like soil, rain, sunlight, air etc. to grow crops. Therefore agricultural crop is a natural product.

In the same way forestry, animal husbandry, mining etc. are also included in the primary sector. It can be said in brief that when we produce any commodity by using natural resources directly, then these are called the activities of primary sector.

2. Secondary Sector:
Under the activities of this sector the natural products are transformed into other forms through manufacturing system. For example, to make machine from iron or to make cloth from cotton etc. is the next step after the primary activities.

In this sector goods are not produced directly through nature but are manufactured through human efforts. These activities can be done in a factory or in a house. As this sector is related to sequential increase and various types of industries, therefore it is also called Industrial Sector.

3. Tertiary (Third) Sector:
The activities of this sector are far different from the primary and’secondary sector. The activities of tertiary sector do not produce goods at its own, but assist in the process of production.For example, to sell the goods produced by primary and secondary sectors, trains and trucks are needed to transport them to the whole sale and retail markets Godowns are required to store the goods manufactured by industries.

Loans from banks are required for the production of goods by the primary and secondary sectors. Telephones, Internet, post – offices, courier services are needed for the convenience of production and trade.

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Question 2.
Explain the importance of tertiary sector as a component of Income?
Answer:
The following main components of tertiary sector contribute its share to increase national income:
1. Increase in Employment:
The service sector provides employment to public directly and indirectly in both the forms. For example, 15.77 lakh people are employed in Indian railways. This number is highest in comparision to any other enterprise of the country. The contribution of transport, wholesale and retail trade, banks, teaching institutions, health services, tourism and hotel business is increasing job opportunities to a large extent.

2. Safety of Agricultural Crops and Development of Agriculture:
Saving of poor farmers from natural calamities also done through service sector. The uncertainty and risk of agricultural crops is eradicated by ‘Varsha Beema Yojna’ (Insurance Scheme against rain), ’Fasal Beema Yojna’ (Crop Insurance Scheme) and ‘Rashtriya Krishi Beema, Yojna’ (National Agriculture Insurance Scheme).

Along with this tertiary sector is helpful in increasing the production by providing capital to farmers to buy high yield seeds, fertilisers etc. In this manner tertiary sector improves the economic condition of farmers and helps in increasing farming production.

3. Balanced Economic Development:
In every country some areas get developed comparatively while some areas are left behind as backward ones. The backward areas are developed through the facilities of transport, communication and finance. The development of inaccessible and hilly areas is also possible due to the construction of roadways and railways.

4. Earning (Obtaining of) Foreign Exchange:
A large amount of foreign exchange is coming in the last few years through tertiary sector. We obtain foreign exchange from tourism and financial services along with shipping and air services.

In the recent years, there has been significant development in the sectors of software, call centres, education and health and now foreign currency is obtained through these services also. In the coming years, there is a big possibility of obtaining a large amount of foreign currency from the tertiary sector.

5. Security of the Country:
The tertiary sector has an important place in the security of the country. The means of transport and communications are required to transport the army up to the borders and to make proper arrangements for them. The contribution of tertiary sector is very important in several ways such as delivering army goods, making arrangements for fooding and living of the soldiers and conveying important information etc.

Question 3.
Explain the meaning of tertiary sector and describe the importance of tertiory?
Answer:
1.Tertiary (Third) Sector:
The activities of this sector are far different from the primary and’secondary sector. The activities of tertiary sector do not produce goods at its own, but assist in the process of production.For example, to sell the goods produced by primary and secondary sectors, trains and trucks are needed to transport them to the whole sale and retail markets Godowns are required to store the goods manufactured by industries.

2. Increase in Employment:
The service sector provides employment to public directly and indirectly in both the forms. For example, 15.77 lakh people are employed in Indian railways. This number is highest in comparision to any other enterprise of the country.

The contribution of transport, wholesale and retail trade, banks, teaching institutions, health services, tourism and hotel business is increasing job opportunities to a large extent.

3. Safety of Agricultural Crops and Development of Agriculture:
Saving of poor farmers from natural calamities also done through service sector. The uncertainty and risk of agricultural crops is eradicated by ‘Varsha Beema Yojna’ (Insurance Scheme against rain), ’Fasal Beema Yojna’ (Crop Insurance Scheme) and ‘Rashtriya Krishi Beema Yojna’ (National Agriculture Insurance Scheme).

Along with this tertiary sector is helpful in increasing the production by providing capital to farmers to buy high yield seeds, fertilisers etc. In this manner tertiary sector improves the economic condition of farmers and helps in increasing farming production.

Question 4.
Explain the meaning of infrastructure and state about its parts in brief?
Answer:
Infrastructure means all those facilities, activities and services, which help in the execution, development of the other sectors of production and are helpful in our daily life.

Types of Infrastructure:
Infrastructure on the basis of the activities included in the infrastructure is categorised into two parts.

1. Economic Infrastructure:
Infrastructure, which is mainly related to energy transport and communication, is called economic infrastructure. Railways, roads, ports, airports, dams, power stations etc. are kept under economic infrastructure. They have an important place in the economic development of a country, herefore they are also called basic economic facilities.

2. Social Infrastructure:
Social infrastructure is helpful in the development of human resource and in human capital formation. Education, health and medical facilities are included in it as its main parts. These make efficient, skilled and healthy manpower available” to the society. It improves the working capacity of the manpower due to which the production in the primary and secondary sectors increases rapidly. As a result of it the economy grows rapidly.

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Question 5.
What is the contribution of education and health in the ecdnomic development?
Answer:
Without social infrastructure such as education and health economic development is not possible. But it is seen that in the backward and developing countries due to lack of resources attention is not paid on education training and health.

Education:
Various programmes centred upon ‘Education For All have been implemented in India, right from the beginning, for the expansion of education. From the year 2004, an education cess 2 per cent has been imposed on all direct and indirect central taxes to gather the financial sources for the expansion of education. Along with expansion of basic education, schemes like mid – day meal, girls education, National literacy mission etc. are being implemented with this money. After the independence educational institution of every level have expanded rapidly.

Health:
After independence the government has emphasized specially on the expansion of health services in the country. The number of primary and community health centres was only 725 in year 1951, which raised to 1.72 lakh in the year 2005. The number of modern technique doctors has increased from 0.62 lakh to 6.65 lakh. During this period, programmes are being undertaken to control diseases such as malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, aids, blindness, cancer and mental deformity.

Due to expansion of health facilities in the country on one hand the treatment of several serious diseases has become possible and on the other hand awareness has developed among people towards health. As a result, life expectancy at birth has increased rapidly in the country, for example, the male life expectancy was only 37.2 years in the year 1951 which rose to 63.9 years in 2005. Similarly, the female life expectancy during the same period raised from 36.2 years to 66.9 years.

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Question 6.
Why is the tertiary sector in India expanding? Give the reason for it.
Answer:
The main reasons responsible for the rapid increase in the contribution of tertiary sector in India are as follows:

1. After independence five – year plans were implemented in India. As a result the public sector has expanded rapidly in India. The services like hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph, transport, bank, insurance companies, local institution, defence services, judiciary etc.

have been expanded in the country. As a result, after independence these services have been expanded rapidly and their share in the economy is being increased.

2. The primary and secondary sectors have been expanded rapidly during last years. The green revolution along with industrial revolution has been successful in our country.

It has increased the demand for the facilities like transport, trade, storage and banking which has resulted in the rapid expansion of these facilities.

3. Generally, it is seen that with the increase in the income, the consumption of various services by the people is also increased. The people spend more and more on private hospitals, expensive schools, purchase of new goods, according to changing scenearo, use of vehicles, due to increase in income.

The demand for services has increased in villages along with cities. The share of service sector in the country has increased tremendously.

4. During last few years, several new services based on information and technology have become compulsory for living. Due to this the consumption along with production of these services have been increased enormously.

Tube lights, televisions, cable connections, mobile phones, motor cars, scooters and motor cycles, computers and internets, call centres etc., have expanded the market of consumer goods in India. As a result the contribution of services is increased.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 18 Additional Important Questions

Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Multiple Choice Questions:
(Choose the correct answer from the following)

Question (i)
Money and banking are die example of –
(a) Primary Sector
(b) Secondary Sector
(c) Tertiary Sector
(d) All Sector.
Answer:
(c) Tertiary Sector

Question (ii)
Communication Services in India was started in –
(a) 1737
(b) 1837
(c) 1937
(d) 2007
Answer:
(b) 1837

Question (iii)
‘United Telecom’ is a joint venture of –
(a) Indo – China
(b) Indo – Nepal
(c) Indo – Pak
(d) Indo – Srilanka
Answer:
(b) Indo – Nepal

Question (iv)
‘Swamium Charhtrbhuj’ is related to the means of –
(a) Transport
(b) Science
(c) Agriculture
(d) Industry
Answer:
(a) Transport

Question (v)
Service Sector provides employment –
(a) Directly
(b) Indirectly
(e) Directly and Indirectly Both
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(d) None of the above

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. Agriculture is counted under the …………. sector.
  2. There are …………. major ports in India.
  3. The coastal line of India is …………. km long.
  4. India has to import …………. at total petroleum production.
  5. The activity of primary sector is ………….

Answer:

  1. Primary
  2. 12
  3. 75
  4. 80%
  5. Fisheries

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Question 3.
True and False type questions:

  1. Education and Health are the basic infrastructure.
  2. Half of national income is obtained from tertiary sector.
  3. ATM services are counted under tertiary sector.
  4. There are four sector of economic development in India.
  5. Agriculture is included in primary sector.(MP Board, 2009)

Answer:

  1. True
  2. True
  3. True
  4. False
  5. True

Answer in One-Two Words or One Sentence:

Question 1.
What is the ranking of Indian Economy in the group of world economy?
Answer:
Twelve rank as a big economy.

Question 2.
Most Indian trade takes place with which countries of Europe ?
Answer:
United Kingdom.

Question 3.
How much contribution of primary sector was in 1951?
Answer:
60%.

Question 4.
How much contribution of tertiary sector was in 1951?
Answer:
28%.

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Question 5.
What was the contribution of primary sector in 2006?
Answer:
21.7%.

Question 6.
What was the contribution of teritiary sector in 2005?
Answer:
More than 54.2%.

Question 7.
What is the length of coastline of India?
Answer:
7517 kilometres.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 18 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by National Income’s relation to tertiary sector?
Answer:
The importance of tertiary sector is gradually increasing day – by – day with economic development The activities of service sector are increasing rapidly in all sectors whether it is urban or rural; that is the reason more than half of the national income is obtained from tertiary sector.

Question 2.
What is the basis for calculating the national income and Gross Domestic Product of a country?
Answer:
The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of economy are considered as the basis for calculating the national income and Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P.) of a country.

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Question 3.
What do you mean by communication satellite unit?
Answer:
The communication service which are operated through satellite. Measuring of ground water level, searching of minerals and petroleum materials, and preparing of Maps are implemented by Communication satellite unit.

Question 4.
What is status of Indian Economy regarding the World Bank report?
Answer:
According to the World Bank report, the Indian economy has became 12th big economy in the world based on GDP.

Question 5.
How does the risk factor of agriculture, industry and business remove?
Answer:
Through increasing the facilities of service sector.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 18  Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How is tertiary sector helpful in the expansion of market?
Answer:
Helpful in Expansion of Market:
Tertiary sector is helpful in the expansion of market of the commodities produced by primary and secondary sectors. Have you ever thought how do you get the apples of Kashmir or how do we know the price of camera to be purchased from England This is possible only because of Tertiary Sector. By the facilities of transport the goods and passengers are carried from one place to another. The decision of business deals or booking of hotels are done by the means of communication. All activities have become easy and convenient because of it.

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Question 2.
What do you mean by water transport?
Answer:
The waterways system of India is of two types first internal waterways and second coastal and oceanic waterways. The internal water transport is done through deep rivers and canals and boats and steamers are used for this. The coastline of India is 7517 Kilometre long and there are 13 major ports and 187 small ports on it. The major foreign trade of India is done through major ports.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 18 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the relations between Banking, Insurance and Finance sector?
Answer:
Banking, Insurance and Financial institutions have an important place for the rapid economic growth of the country. The reason is that these institutions make the capital available to the entrepreneurs for investment, by collecting the savings from the economy. Due to this there is expansion of economic activities and as a result, income, employment and the rate of development has increased.

After the nationalisation of the major banks of the country in 1969, the commercial banks have shown an immense progress. By the year 2006, the branches of all the banks of public sector have increased up to 70 thousand approximately. Along with banks of public sector, several commercial banks and financial institutions of private sector are also running in the country. These institutions also provide personal loans for domestic purposes along with industrial and business purpose. The financial institution has expanded rapidly due to decrease in rate of interest during last few years.

Cooperative banking system in the country has also expanded rapidly. In the rural areas, Co – operative Credit Committees provide loans for the development of the agriculture. The organisation of co – operative banks in India is three tier, first at State level is Apex Bank, Second at district level Central Co – operative banks and Primary Co – operative Societies are functioning at the third level.

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Question 2.
Describe the importance of rail transport and road transport ?
Answer:
Rail Transport:
In India railway is the most convenient means of transportation for transporting goods and passengers. The railways was started in 1853, when the first train ran 34 kilometres from Bombay to Thana. After this the all round development of railways took place. Till 2005 – 06, 63.3 thousand Kilometre railways lines were constructed in the country. As a result, now Indian Railways is the largest railway system in Asia and second largest system in the world.

Road Transport:
Roads have a special importance in India. As India is a country of villages, therefore roads have an important place from the viewpoint of increase in production and in the opportunities of employment. The total length of roads in India is approximately 33.4 lakh kilometre. At present, there are several ambitious schemes being implemented in which the ‘Swarnim Chaturbhuj Road’ Scheme is the most important scheme. The private sector is also now included in the construction work of roads.

Question 3.
What are the sources of energy? Discuss the position of electricity in India?
Answer:
Sources of Energy:
There are many sources of energy as electricity, coal, lignite, natural oil and gas etc. Among all these sources electricity is most important. The electricity is generated with the help of three main sources water, coal and atoms and these are known as hydroelectricity, thermal electricity and atomic energy. Hydroelectricity is produced by constructing dams on rivers. Coal is used to produce thermal power. Uranium and thorium are used in the production of atomic energy.

In India, 80 per cent of total production of electricity is produced by thermal power, which is mainly based on coal. The total store of coal in India is estimated to be 21 crore tonnes, but here the quantity of ash is higher in coal. Therefore, high quality coal is imported from Australia. Apart from the production of electricity the coal is used in steel plants, railways and to make bricks.

Natural oil and gas is a leading source of the production of energy. But India has to import about 80 per cent of total requirement of natural oil and petroleum.

Position of Electricity in India:
The demand for electricity in India has increased rapidly due to industrialisation, use of machines in agriculture, increase in urban population, and electrification of villages.

The efforts to increase the production of electricity were made immediately after independence only. As a result the production of electricity increased about 143.8 thousand megawatt in the year 2005 – 06 which was only 2.3 thousand megawatt in the year 1951. But the production of electricity has been low as compared to its demand and so the power crisis arose. At present the position is such that industries and agriculture both are not receiving sufficient electric supply. There is no continuous supply of electricity to cities and villages. Now private sector has also been given, permission to meet the increased demands.

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Question 4.
What do you mean by communication? What is its importance?
Answer:
The Indian Communication System is the largest one in the world. The communication service in the country was started first in 1837. But the expansion of these services has been very rapid only after the independence. The economic reforms, started from the year 1991 have made revolutionary changes in Tele Communication.

This sector has tremendously developed due to the partnership of private sector. Due to this the number of telepnones have increased to 19 crores by the end of the year 2006 and this number will reach up to 25 crores by the end of the year 2007 as estimated by a study.

Now the mobile sets have become very popular in urban as well as in rural areas. Due to the expansion of tele – communication services, India is now improving fast towards the knowledge based society. The rapidly increasing number of the customers of internet broad band is an example of it.

The popularity, and expansion of computers and communication technology has modernised the post – office system also. Due to this only now the Indian Postal network has become one of the developed networks of the world. India has developed the satellite system also, which is a multipurpose system. This is used for weather information, television, radio etc.

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