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MP Board Class 9th General English Grammar Tenses

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परिभाषा- The tense of a verb shows the time of an event or action of a verb.

Verb के tense से किसी घटना या कार्य के समय का ज्ञान होता है।

अंग्रेजी में Tense तीन प्रकार के होते हैं-
(i) Present tense
(ii) Past tense
(iii) Future tense.

(i) Present Tense (वर्तमान काल)—इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य अब या अभी हुआ है। जैसे
I go to school.
(मैं स्कूल जाता हूँ।)

(ii) Past Tense (भूतकाल)—इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य बीते हुए समय में हुआ है। जैसे
I went to school.
(मैं स्कूल गया।)

(iii) Future Tense (भविष्य काल)—इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य आने वाले समय में होगा। जैसे
I shall go to school.
(मैं स्कूल जाऊँगा।)

प्रत्येक Tense निम्नलिखित चार प्रकार का होता है
1. Indefinite,
2. Continuous,
3. Perfect;
4. Perfect Continuous.

Present Tense (वर्तमान काल)
(1) Present Indefinite Tense-इस Tense में सदा सत्य बातें, आदतें अथवा बार-बार होने वाले कार्यों का वर्णन किया जाता है। जैसे

(i) The sun rises in the east.
सूर्य पूर्व में उदय होता है।

(ii) I go to school.
मैं स्कूल जाता हूँ।

पहचान-हिन्दी में वाक्यों के अन्त में ता, ती, ते तथा हैं, हूँ, हो होता है।
Structure -Subject + I form of verb + s, es, ies + object.

Like :
(i) Ram calls Mohan.
(ii) I eat guavas daily.

Exercise-1

Rewrite the following using correct form of the verb given in the brackets.
1. Shyam ………….. up at 6’0 clock. (get/gets)
2. They………. football in summers. (play/plays)
3. Geeta ……………. Physics from Mohan. (study/studies)
4. The sun …………….. in the east. (rise/rises)
5. One of you ………….. with me. (come/comes)
Answer:
1. gets,
2. play,
3. studies,
4. rises,
5. come.

Making the Verb Emphatic or Strong
इस tense में do या does सहायक क्रिया + I form of __verb से verb को emphatic या strong बनाया जाता है। अगर वाक्य में verb की I form है तो केवल do जोड़ा जाता है व verb की I form के साथ s, es, ies जुड़ा हो तो does जोड़कर verb में से s, es, ies हटा दिया जाता है।

Making Negative Emphatic Verb
Negative बनाने के लिए subject के बाद do not या does not + verb की I form प्रयोग करते हैं।

जैसे-
(i) I do not eat potatoes.
(ii) She does not speak French.

Exercise-2

Rewrite the following in negative form.
1. Sohan eats bananas.
2. Kamla goes to school.
3. We drink milk.
4. Mala dries clothes.
5. Each one of them works hard.
Answer:
1. Sohan does not eat bananas.
2. Kamla does not go to school.
3. We do not drink milk.
4. Mala does not dry clothes.
5. Each one of them does not work hard.

Making the Interrogative form—
Interrogative बनाने के लिये Do/Does का sentence के प्रारम्भ में प्रयोग करते हैं व अन्त में प्रश्नवाचक चिह्न लगाते हैं। जैसे-
(i) Do you play hockey?
(ii) Does she bring coffee?

Exercise-3

Rewrite the following sentences into interrogative.
1. She sings songs.
2. I speak the truth.
3. She calls her parents.
4. Sunita and Ram read well.
5. Cats drink milk.
Answer:
1. Does she sing songs?
2. Do I speak the truth?
3. Does she call her parents?
4. Do Sunita and Ram read well?
5. Do cats drink milk?

(2). Present Continuous Tense
इस Tense chat प्रयोग तब किया जाता है जब कार्य अभी भी चल रहा हो; जैसे
I am writing a letter.
मैं पत्र लिख रहा हूँ।

पहचान-हिन्दी में वाक्यों के अन्त में रहा हूँ, रहा है, रही है, रहे हैं होता है।

Structure—Subject + am/is/are Verb + ing + object etc. Negative ha fet am/is/are o are not STIRI GIAI. Subject + am/is/are + not verb + ing + object.

☆ Interrogative बनाने के लिए-
Am/Is/Are + Subject (not) verb + ing + object.

Exercise-1

Write the following sentences in Present Continuous Form. 1. You …….. the bicycle. (ride)
2. I ……. a pen. (buy)
3. She ……… a letter. (write)
4. They ……. T.V. (watch)
5. Anita ……… late for school. (get)
Answer:
1. are riding,
2. am buying,
3. is writing,
4. are watching,
5. is getting.

Exercise-2

Make the sentences negative.
1. She is cutting the vegetables.
2. Radha is going to the shop.
3. Meena is working hard for the examinations.
4. I am calling you.
Answer:
1. She is not cutting the vegetables.
2. Radha is not going to the shop.
3. Meena is not working hard for the examinations.
4. I am not calling you.

Exercise-3

Make following sentences interrogative.
1. He is not walking quickly.
2. Mala is writing carefully.
3. People in India are living peacefully.
Answer:
1. Is he not walking quickly?
2. Is Mala writing carefully?
3. Are people in India living peacefully?

(3) Present Perfect Tense-इस Tense of im ऐसे कार्य के लिए होता है जो वर्तमान में पूरा हो चुका है।
जैसे-
(i) I have done my work.
मैंने अपना काम कर लिया है।

(ii) He was written a letter.
वह एक पत्र लिख चुका है।

इसमें I, You तथा बहुवचन के साथ have तथ एकवचन के साथ has का प्रयोग किया जाता है इसमें verb की III form का ही प्रयोग होता है।

पहचान-हिन्दी में वाक्यों के अन्त में किया है, दिया है, चुका है, चुके हैं, चुका हूँ आदि होता है।

Structure-subject + has/have + verb III form | (past participle) + object

Negative बनाने के लिए have/has के बाद not का प्रयोग होता है।
Interrogative बनाने के लिए Have/Has को sentence के प्रारम्भ में subject से पूर्व प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Exercise-1

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb.
1. I ……… the bell. (ring)
2. Seema ……… her work. (begin)
3. People ……… on him. (shout)
4. They ……… the shop. (close)
Answer:
1. have rung,
2. has begun,
3. have shouted,
4. have closed.

(4) Present Perfect Continuous Tense- इस Tense में कार्य पहले से हो रहा है तथा वर्तमान में भी जारी है। जैसे-

(i) I have been writing a letter for an hour.
मैं एक घण्टे से पत्र लिख रहा हूँ।

(ii) It has been raining since morning.
सुबह से वर्षा हो रही है।

इस Tense में subject के अनुसार has been या have been तथा मुख्य क्रिया में ing लगाते हैं। समय के लिए for या since का प्रयोग होता है।

Structure-subject + have been/has been + verb + ing + object-since/for time.

Exercise-1

Fill the following sentences in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense.
1. She ……… (write) a book ……… yesterday.
2. He ……… (play) the game ……… an hour.
3. The mob ……… (revolt) ……… years.
Answer:
1. has been writing, since,
2. has been playing, for,
3. has been revolting, since.

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