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MP Board Class 9th General English Grammar Reporting

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अंग्रेजी में किसी के कहे हुए वचन को दो प्रकार से प्रकट कर सकते हैं

(1) यदि किसी व्यक्ति के वही शब्द लिखे जाएँ जो उसने कहे हैं और उनमें किसी प्रकार की तब्दीली न की जाए तो उसे Direct Speech कहते हैं। जैसे

Rama said, “She is a good girl.”
यहाँ बोलने वाले के ठीक-ठीक वही शब्द दिए गए हैं।

Direct Speech
में निम्न बातों का ध्यान रखना चाहिए

(a) बोलने वाले के असली शब्दों को inverted commas (“…”) में लिखते हैं।
(b) बोलने वाले के असली शब्दों को Reported Speech कहते हैं।
(c) जो Verb (क्रिया) ‘Reported Speech’ के सम्बन्ध में कुछ बताता है उसे Reporting verb कहते हैं।

(2) जब हम बोलने वाले के असली शब्दों का प्रयोग नहीं करते परन्तु उनका तात्पर्य या अर्थ लिखते हैं तो उसे Indirect Speech कहते हैं जैसे
Rama said that she was a good girl.
Indirect speech में निम्न बातों का ध्यान रखना चाहिए

Rama said that she was a good girl.
Indirect speech में निम्न बातों का ध्यान रखना चाहिए

(a) इसमें कोई inverted commas नहीं होते। बोलने वाले के ठीक वही शब्द नहीं लिखे जाते। उनमें कुछ परिवर्तन किया जाता है।
(b) Reporting verb के बाद कोई comma नहीं लगाया जाता।
(c) Reported Speech À ved Conjunction that का प्रयोग होता है।
(d) Reported speech की क्रिया को बदलते हैं।
जब हम Direct speech को Indirect speech में बदलते हैं तो अग्रांकित बातों का ध्यान रखते हैं;

जैसे-

(1) Said को told में बदल देते हैं। Persons में परिवर्तन निम्न रूप में करते हैं।
I person के Pronoun (I, we, us, our) का परिवर्तन Direct Speech के Subject (कर्ता) के Person के अनुसार होता है II Person के Pronoun (You, Your) का परिवर्तन Object के अनुसार होता है तथ III Person के Pronoun (he, she, it, her) में कोई भी परिवर्तन नहीं होता है

(2) निकटता प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों में परिवर्तन निम्नलिखित रूप से किया जाता है-

  • Now – then
  • This – that
  • Ago – before
  • Tonight – that night
  • Last night – the previous night
  • Here – there
  • these – those
  • A year ago – a year before
  • Today – that day
  • Tomorrow – the next day
  • Yesterday – the day before
  • Just – then
  • Come here – go there
  • Next week – the following week

(3) Tense (काल) परिवर्तन-
(a) Reporting Verb के Present या Future Tense में होने पर Reported verb के Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता।

(b) Reporting verb के Past Tense में होने पर Reported Verb के Tense में परिवर्तन होता है-

(i) Simple Present का Simple Past हो जाता है।
He said, “She works hard.”
He said that she worked hard.

(ii) Present Continuous का Past Continuous हो जाता है जैसे-
He said, “She is reading a book.”
He said that she was reading a book.

(iii) Present Perfect का Past Perfect हो जाता है

जैसे-
Hema said, “Ram has done his work”.
Hema said that Ram had done his work.

(iv) Present Perfect Continuous का Past Perfect Continuous हो जाता है जैसे-
Shyam said, “Ram has been working for two hours.”
Shyam said that Ram had been working for two hours.

(v) Simple Past का Past Perfect हो जाता है।

जैसे-
Sita said, “Rita read a book.”
Sita said that Rita had read a book.

(vi) Past Continuous का Past Perfect Continuous हो जाता है।

जैसे-
“Gopal said, “Govind was singing a song.”
Gopal said that Govind had been singing a song.

Shall का should, may का might, can का could हो जाता है तथ सदा सत्य व् ऐतिहासिक ताद्यों का नहीं बदलता

(1) Interrogative Sentences
Direct-Rahul said to Rama, “Is it easy to ride a bicycle ?”
Indirect-Rahul asked Rama if it was easy to ride a bicycle.
Direct—The bird said to the Prince, “Why are you weeping?”
Indirect—The bird asked the Prince why he was weeping.

Commands and Orders
Direct—Father said, “Get some milk.”
Indirect—Father told him to get some milk.
Direct—Hari said to me, “Please help me.”
Indirect—Hari requested me to help him.

Statements…

Exercise-1

Change into indirect speech.
1. Hari Babu said, “This porter carries the luggage with great care.”
2. The doctor said, “The patient does not take medicine.”
3. He said, “The man has been talking for a long time.”
4. She said, “I am drawing a picture.”
5. Pratap said, “I have fought a long battle.”
6. You said to me, “I gave you my pen.”
7. You said, “I was not saving money.”
Answer:
1. Hari Babu said that that porter carried the luggage with great care.
2. The doctor said, that the patient did not take medicine.
3. He said that the man had been talking for a long time.
4. She said that she was drawing a picture.
5. Pratap said that he had fought a long battle.
6. You told me that you had given me your pen.
7. You said that you had not been saving money.

(2) Interrogative Sentences

Exercise-2

Change into indirect speech.
1. My father said to me, “Are you going to Kanpur today?”
2. He said to me, “Do you go to cinema very often ?”
3. His brother said to me, “Was Gopal sitting on the bench ?”
4. Mr. Gupta said to me, “Will you take me too with you ?”
5. The guest said to the boy, “Did you see this film ?”
Answer:
1. My father asked me if I was going to Kanpur that day.
2. He asked me if I went to cinema often.
3. His brother asked me whether Gopal had been sitting on the bench.
4. Mr. Gupta asked me if I would take him too with me.
5. The guest asked the boy whether he had seen that film.

(3) Imperative Sentences (Commands and Requests)

Exercise-3
Change into indirect speech.
1. The old man said to the boy, “Get out of the room.”
2. He said to me, “Please do it first.”
3. I said to him, “Don’t open the box.”
4. The clergyman said to him, “May God recover you soon.”
5. She said to me, “How clever you are !”
6. The actor said, “What a beautiful scene it is !”
7. They said, “Alas ! Our beloved leader is departed !”
Answer:
1. The old man ordered the boy to get out of the room.
2. He requested me to do it first.
3. I asked him not to open the box.
4. The clergyman wished that God might recover him soon… !
5. She exclaimed with admiration that I am very clever.
6. The actor exclaimed with joy that the scene was very beautiful.
7. They exclaimed with grief that their beloved leader was departed.

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