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MP Board Class 12th Special English Essay Writing

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Essay is an attempt which gives expression to one’s thought on a given subject. It is a written composition in well-arranged paragraphs. It deals with one particular subject. Students at school level are not required to write elaborate essays in which great learning and loftiness of language is required. It is enough if they can write English in a clear, simple, and correct style.

Remember the following rules to acquire a good style:

  1. Simplicity. It means expression of thoughts in simple language and simple words. High sounding words and complex sentences have no place in expression.
  2. Clarity. Ideas are to be expressed in such a clear language that it can easily convey the meaning to the reader.
  3. Originality. The language must consist of original English words and structure of sentences. Foreign words, Latinised style, colloquial phrases, and slang in expressions must be avoided.
  4. Accuracy. Words and phrases should be exact. Wrong words and inaccurate expression give wrong or different meanings. Generally, they mislead the readers.
  5. Brevity. Brevity means to use the least number of words in expressing the ideas. Conciseness makes the language idiomatic and forceful.
  6. Unity. Sentences of a paragraph should have only one main idea. Unnecessary details must be left out. It saves the time of the reader as well as yours.
  7. Order. Clauses and sentences should have proper connection with one another. Loose phrases of sentences destroy the beauty of the style and add to its ugliness.

The following hints should be kept in mind while writing an essay.

  1. Use short sentences and write short paragraphs. They should vary in length.
  2. Be vivid in your description of anything. For this purpose comparisons and contrasts may be used. They do not destroy the beauty of your description.
  3. Say everything that is necessary on the subject. Always keep your aim clear before you. Never write vague things. Vagueness corrupts our habit of writing to the point.
  4. Be clear and concise in your remarks.
  5. Write a neat and legible hand-writing. It is the key to success.

When you are asked to write an essay on some particular subject, begin as follows:

  1. Understand the Subject Fully. Have a clear idea of what you are going to write. Do not set to work before you understand the particular aspect of the subject.
  2. Collection of the Material. By putting intelligent questions to yourself upon the subject, collect material for your essay in hand. Note down the ideas as they strike you. After writing them to arrange them in order.
  3. Planning. Having collected ideas, begin preparing the outline. Group together the allied ideas and reject the unnecessary ones. Arrange them under a few main headings and draw up a”scheme.
  4. Having written the outline, begin writing the essay. Divide your essay in a few paragraphs. Each paragraph should deal with one heading.

An essay can be divided into three parts:

  1. The Introduction.
  2. The Body.
  3. The Conclusion.

1. The Introduction : The introduction of the essay should be brief. A short quotation or a proverb serves a good purpose. The first sentence should be striking and interesting. It should be a keynote.
2. The Main Body : The beginning should lead naturally to the main body. We should deal with the necessary and relevant facts. The body is the longest and the most important part of the essay. It should be split up into suitable paragraphs of different lengths. The end of one paragraph should prepare the reader for the next paragraph.
3. Conclusion : The end of the essay must be as striking arid interesting as the introduction. The last sentence should strike the attention of the reader. It should leave a lasting impression on his mind. The end should be natural and not abrupt.

Avoid the following errors while writing an essay:

  1. Definitions, except in the case of any elaborate essay.
  2. Introductory remarks by way of showing one’s humility and thus exacting the sympathy of the examiner.
  3. Quotations, except from very familiar authors.
  4. Use of too many metaphors and similes.
  5. Repetition of words and ideas.
  6. Colloquial phrases or slang expression.
  7. Foolish abbreviations.
  8. High sounding words.

Now let us see the examples of essays.

1. India of My Dreams
(M.P. Board 2010, 2012)

India was great in ancient time. Students from China, Portugal, Japan, Greece used to come to study here. Cities of Nalanda and Takshshila were famous as educational centres. Every one wants to see their country at the peak of glory. I am not an exception. I have sweet and beautiful dreams of my country. I am a resident of India. It is my beloved motherland’.

I wish that my country may rise to a great nation. It should help its neighbours and may give them the message of peace. I wish that my country should become militarily strong and be fully prepared in this nuclear age for defence. I wish that no foreign country may dare attack again, like the plundering raids of the olden times. Hence, I wish it should become the first-rate world power in terms of military strength.

I wish that there would be no illiterates in India of my dream. I wish that India should introduce such a system of education as should enable every citizen to earn his or her living. I wish that my government should educate each citizen. Adult education, female education and education for children should be made compulsory. I wish that India should become a highly industrialised nation. It should start cottage industries in villages and heavy industries in cities. India will make great progress in the field of science and technology. Education will be free for all. There will be no illiteracy. Every person will enjoy free medical treatment.

I wish that our country should make great progress in science. India should make use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. It should send rockets to the space and should advance in the field of science and make her own military requirements. We should establish big factories to produce all sorts of machines. India will have a strong army to safeguard its frontiers. It will neither commit any aggression nor tolerate any aggression.

I wish that in India there should be no poor person. As Gandhiji said, “We have to wipe away every tear from every eye.” Freedom becomes meaningful only if we help the poor folks to rise in prosperity.

I would like to see India as a great nation in the world. These are my dreams about its future. There would be no corruption, adulteration, ill use of drugs and social, evils. Every one would like India, his motherland and would be ready to sacrifice every thing for this motherland.

2. Role of Newspapers and Media (M.P. Board 2010)
Value of Print Media in Our Society

It is our natural instinct to know what is happening around us. Nobody wants to live in ignorance. Hence, newspapers have become part and parcel of our life. We cannot live without them. The morning newspaper is as indispensable for a good start to our day as the i morning cup of tea. It is our mental breakfast and unless we go through the ‘headlines’, we feel uneasy. What to talk of the city-dwellers, even the people living in the villages are seen [ eager to go through the newspaper to know what is going on in the world. Therefore, a newspaper is the basic need of the common people.

A newspaper, in the modern society has great social and educative value. It is a common t media of giving news along with views. Its principal aim is to supply news, information with different views through comments, articles, and editorials. It is, therefore, called the ‘people’s university’. Different people expect different things from the newspaper. A businessman i wants to know the market trends, a farmer is eager to know the weather report, a book reader wants to know about the latest arrivals. A newspaper satisfies them all like an intimate friend.

It is evident that a newspaper holds a great power in a democratic country. It maintains a close connection between the government and the people. It deeply influences public opinion. It spreads political awareness among the mass, the most important function done i by the newspaper in a democracy. It ‘exercises’ such tremendous influence that it not only bring about major changes to the lives of ordinary people but can even overthrow a government. The editors of the newspapers have, therefore a heavy responsibility.

A newspaper becomes a power of evil if it distorts truth, and presents only the negative side of a thing. Sometimes, it has been said that the newspaper publishes false reports in hatred and enmity between communities and nations, subjects, and sovereigns. Some of the newspapers take interest in provoking class hatred. They poison the mind of public with communalism. In order to win cheap popularity, baseless gossip is spread. This misleads the public. A good newspaper should not misquote or misrepresent, the facts. It should promote the feeling of national integration instead of encouraging fissiparous tendencies.

Overall, newspapers have become a thing of necessity in modern times. Therefore the government should give as much liberty to them as it may be possible to give. The only restriction that the government should impose on them, should be that they should not be allowed to publish sensational news and dirty advertisement. If this is done, newspapers will surely do valuable service to the country by maintaining its objectivity and fair standard.

3. Afforestation The Need of Today
Trees and Human Life [M.P. Board 2012]
Trees are Good Friend to Humanity (M.P. Board 2013)

In the early periods of civilization, large parts of our country were covered with forests. The increase of the population of our country has led to the shrinking of the forest area. The forests which purify air have been cut down and new cities and industries have been established in their place. The cutting of the forests cause what is called “The Green House Effect”. It results in the heating of the earth’s surface or global warming which has serious consequences on life of this planet. As a result coming generations are likely to suffer from incurable diseases. And what is extreme, even the existence of human kind might be in danger. Afforestation is the only measure that can be taken to avoid these disastrous havocs.

We know that Chipko Movement was started by Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna to stop indiscriminate felling of trees in the Himalayas. However, an all-out effort is needed. We can’t thrust this responsibility only on the government, on the public institutions, or on any particular person. It is the duty of all and all must work together to make it a success. A planned government effort is needed in every state. The government must invest in the afforestation of hilly and desert areas. It must raise green belts in areas which are subject to rapid erosion.

However, at the same time, awareness among the common people is greatly needed. Steps must be taken to create massive people’s movement, with the involvement of women, to achieve the objectives and minimise pressure on existing forests. People, as a whole, must be motivated for plantation and protection of trees as their social duty. Saplings are planted every year, no doubt, but in absence of proper care they die by the next monsoon. Who is to look after them? It is the general public, whose pious duty is to water and save every plant growing on the land in their neighborhood.

Educational institutions can play a key role in this regard. They can instil in the younger generation, the need for planting trees. There are many social organisations which should come forward and encourage common people for plantation. These organisations should also help the government so that it may implement its various programmes on conservation of forests successfully and rapidly. Our existence is bound up with the trees and therefore trees must be planted, especially, on the road side and near railway tracks.

Forests are very important for us. It is unfortunate that we are ignoring its significance and are playing havoc with this one of the most vital part of the nature. Hence, we must be aware of this fact and save trees to save our lives and our existence. We very often talk about environmental pollution but do nothing in this regard. Let’s take a pledge to plant trees in more and more numbers and promote others for this noble cause.

4. Science and Civilization
(M.P. Board 2009, 2016)

Science has been a wonderful phenomena for mankind. It has considerably altered the world by its wonderful discoveries and inventions. Revolutionary changes have been brought about which could not have taken place in the absence of science. It is science that produced and developed human civilization. The process of science and development of human civilisation have run parallel. Science has been a potent factor to shape the history of man’s civilisation on earth. Our forefathers lived a primitive life and we are now living in an atomic age. This long leap from the jungle to the atomic civilisation has been possible only through science.

The concept of civilization is different from that of culture. Civilization includes the physical development while culture signifies the inner growth. All the industrial, agricultural, and technological developments are the essential parts of a developing civilisation. We are now living in a world of dazzling glitter. Machines have reduced much of the human labour and suffering. They are serving humanity like faithful servants. Ours is a push-button civilisation, which depends upon tools, implements and machines.

There are specific features that make a civilization complete. The entire structure of civilization stands on some solid factors. The first condition for a true civilisation is that it must include the fulfilment of the primary human necessities just as food, clothing and housing. It is a matter of proud privilege that the present generation is enjoying better living conditions. We have better clothes to wear, better and nourishing food to eat and a better house to live in than our ancestors. In this respect, we can assume an easy superiority over them. There is no denying in the fact’that it is science which has made our living conditions better. We must be grateful to science for its many advantages.

The other factor which makes a civilization meaningful and useful is leisure. If a civilisation cannot provide leisure to the people, it is not a civilisation of human beings but of brutes. If a person is busy filling his belly, from morning to evening, he does nothing different from what an animal does. The poor fellow struggles for his survival throughout his whole life and this is what the people of hunting and pastoral age did.

Science has bestowed numerous gifts on mankind. Means of transport and communications, medical facilities, electricity, agricultural machinery, recreational facilities etc. are such gifts of science to man. The blessings of science have made human life smooth and easy. Unfortunately, the gifts of science have not been shared by all human beings equally. No civilisation is complete unless the gifts of science are enjoyed by all. The gap between the rich and the poor, has widened. This has hampered the uniform development of our civilisation.

Science has invited lethal weapons which can destroy mankind in the twinkling of an eye. The atomic weapons have multiplied. Science can take away from us in a moment what it has given to us during the last several ages.

The terror of war is always hanging up on our heads like the Sword of Democles. The survival of humanity is facing a horrible peril. The future of our civilization is uncertain if the atomic weapons spark the Third World War. If science has made civilization strong on one hand, it has made it weak on the other. If the gifts of science are not properly used, time is not far when we shall see the end of human civilization.

5. The Burning Problem of India
The problem of Unemployment In India
Any Burning Problem (M.P. Board 2009, 2010, 2012)

Unemployment has emerged as a major national issue. During the last many decades, it has been increasing day by day. It is the burning question of the day. We find long queues before the Employment Exchanges. This problem of unemployment has been baffling our planners ever since we attained freedom. The population of India has already crossed the dangerous mark of 1200 million. Such enormous and abnormal growth of population has belied all calculations and plans.

There are several factors or reasons that are responsible for the large-scale unemployment in the country. First, the population is increasing very rapidly. Employment opportunities have not increased with the rise in population. The rise in population must be controlled in order to end unemployment.

Education has reached the remotest villages of India. Educated persons run to the cities in search of jobs. We find many graduates and matriculates running after white-collared jobs.

They do not like to work in factories, mills, or in the fields. This has given rise to unemployment.

With the advent of automatic machines, employment opportunities in offices have declined. Moreover, educated people do not like to work in the villages. To end this tendency, factories should set up in the villages. The youngmen would, then, stop coming to cities.

India is predominantly an agriculture country. There is no dearth of raw materials in India. We must make India an industrial country if we wish to control the mounting pressure of unemployment.

The government must plan in such a waythat men and women should be greatly benefited. Our system of education is not employment oriented. There is no vocational training in our schools or colleges. Most of the people do not like to work with their own hands. Small scale or rural industries have been badly neglected. Cottage industries can absorb most of our unemployed youth. Had we taken to rural industrialisation, cottage and small-scale industries instead of establishing big multi-crore industrial projects, the problem of unemployment would have been solved to a large extent.

Our government is fully aware of the serious results of the problem of unemployment. New Education Policy lays stress on vocationalisation and de-linking of degrees from jobs. Small-scale industries are being set and educated youths are being given all possible encouragement to set up their own enterprises.

Importance of Games and Sports Essay for 12th class

6. Importance of Games and Sports (M.P. Board 2010, 2011, 2012)
The real education is one which can make a student intellectually sharp, physically strong and morally sound. It develops and strengthens the three aspects of our personality—mind, body and soul. In this sense, games and sports are the basic needs of life. Unless the development of the mind and body goes hand in hand with a corresponding awakening of the soul, the former alone would prove to be a poor, lop-sides affair. Therefore, games and sports must form an integral part of the education of our youth.

So far, physical education has been neglected in our educational system. Games and sports have been woefully neglected in our schools and colleges. Our education has been concerned only with earning degrees and diplomas. No wonder then our young men have started hating physical labour. Our graduates who come out of universities with gold medals are physical wrecks. It darkens their future completely.

Hence there is a need to change our attitude towards games and sports. Some people think that sports and games are unimportant things that people do, at times, when they are not working. They consider them only as amusement like the cinema or radio, such things, they think are harmful for the studies of a student who must at all times, continue to stuff his brain with facts and figures. In fact, sports and games are of great value, especially to students who work with their brains most of the day.

Sports and games make our bodies strong and keep us healthy. Little brain work can be done by an ailing person. A sound mind resides only in a sound body. Physical exercise is essential for health. Every nerve, every sinew and every joint of the body gets strengthened through games. However, a good health is not the only thing we get through them. They give us a valuable practice in making eyes, brain, and muscles work together. In tennis, for instance, our eyes see the ball coming, judges its speed and direction and pass this information on to the brain. The brain has then to decide what to do, and to send its order to the muscles of the arms, legs, and so on, so that the ball is met and hit back where it ought to go. All this must happen with very great speed. Only those who have had a lot of practice at tennis can carry out this complicated chain of events successfully.

Sports and games are also very useful for character training. In their lessons at college, boys and girls may learn about such virtues as unselfishness, discipline, and love of one’s country’but what is learnt in books cannot have the same deep effect on a person’s character as what is learnt by experience. Games inculcate in the players the habits of teamwork, discipline is being guided by a captain, obedience to the rules of the games are interpreted by the referee or umpire and spirit of sportsmanship in taking the defeats along with victories with a smile. If we want a disciplined nation, we must give due encouragement to games and sports in our schools and colleges.

Recreational value of sports and games cannot also be denied. After a tiring day in the class-room, in the laboratory, or at your desk, there is nothing more refreshing than an hour in the field. A hot game of hockey, a fast match of football, and an exciting cricket takes off our fatigue. One feels fresh once again for any amount of work.

Games and sports thus must be compulsory for all students. Colleges and schools should have proper equipments and facilities for the students. The teams may win or lose, games play their wonderful role in making students active and agile in their life.

7. Communal Harmony
(M.P. Board 2009)

Amity between different communities in the country and absence of any friction and tension among them is known as communal harmony. In countries like India, it is very important, being a precondition to internal peace, which is essential for progress and development of the country. As we know, India has got multiplicity of religions and very nature of the culture is composite. However, religion has never been a source of conflict between the communities in Indian society. Mutual tolerance and high regards for other religions is an age-old tradition of the country, still the vested interest has always been active to create disharmony between them. There were, however, not a single instance some years back where obstruction in religious performance had been a cause of communal riots. This phenomenon in the Indian context is politically motivated and has always been engineered by vested interests. It was there at the time of the foreign rule as well as in the post-independence era.

Communal harmony as such is a highly sensitive issue and cannot be soft-pedaled any more in view of our traditional values, composite cultural heritage and secular character of our state but the main problem is how to maintain communal harmony at administrative and social levels. There is lack of political consciousness among the common people due to illiteracy. Secondly, anti-social and professional criminals have been playing a key role in communal riots and flare-ups as agents of vested interests and their hirelings. Finally, there is a need of an effective mechanism to deal with it. Present mechanism is not so smooth. It lacks coordination and people’s involvement. The intelligence agencies report in advance to the District and State authorities about the communal tension and the element actively associated with growing tension and potentials of disturbances etc., but generally no action is taken and authorities wait for the riots. It is only thereafter that police moves .in for action and curfew, is clamped to control the situation. During curfew arrests are made for violations.

For the last seventy years, Ram Janambhoomi-Babri Masjid issue has been a major root of communal disharmony. Muslims and Hindus are face-to-face on this issue. Earlier, the communal riots on this issue have taken many lives in Gujarat. Three bogies of a train in which Ramsevaks were returning from Ayodhya were burnt by a mob of 2,000 Muslim fundamentalists at Godhra railway station. As a result, 58 persons were burnt alive. Suddenly in reaction to it, Hindus started burning the properties and men and women in different areas of Gujarat.

To begin with, therefore, the first thing is to have a fresh look at it and amend our approach accordingly. Foremost in the process, thus, is resolute toil on the part of the government to protect the foundation pillar of the Indian state. We must tackle the situation wisely.

With fresh approach to the problem, fresh measures should also to be taken to deal with it effectively. The measures would include suitable amendments in the existing applicable law, pertaining to apprehension of breach of peace and criminal conspiracy against the state and people of India. Anew mechanism involving individuals and social organisations on different levels to watch over the situation replacing existing local peace committees will have to be evolved to help the administrative machinery in taking preventive and follow-up action in cases of attempts and conspiracy of breach of communal harmony. This will lead our country to the path of glory.

8. Wonders of Science
Science and Human Happiness (M.P. Board 2010)
Science: A Good Servant but a Bad Master (M.P. Board 2011)
Science in Our Daily Life (M.P. Board 2014)

Science is a tremendous concept. It has done wonders for us. It has gifted a number of wonderful objects. There are reasons to consider science to be a blessing. Science has helped men to conquer the forces of nature. It has added new comforts to the life of men. It has made men superior to all other creatures. It has made the rulers powerful because of gun powder. The life during the dark ages was unsafe. In those days looting and murders were common after sun-set.

Faster modes of travelling and improved means of communication have established order and security. Today, we can have lunch in India and supper in London. It has conquered distance. Similarly telephone, telegraph and wireless have helped us to save time and send messages at any moment. The modern devices help us and save our time from kitchen to fields. Now, man has a greater amount of leisure.

Science has brought success in every field of our life. Man has almost conquered diseases. He has checked polio and plague. Surgery can now show miracles. By applying science to industries, men have been able to raise the living standard of common people. Most of the people were naked in ancient period. They were very poor. They had no food to fill their bellies. They died like cats and rats due to starvation, cold, and excess of work. Science has now made large scale production. Almost every one is provided with the common necessities of life.

As a matter of fact, a scientific invention cannot be blamed for the tragedy of man. After all, an atom bomb does not prepare itself or explode on its own account. A discovery of science is lifeless, obviously, it can never control man. Seeing in this light, science can never turn out to be a master, it is always a slave. But is has blinded man who thinks everything is possible, thus ihvents and discover more.

Men should always think of both the positive and negative aspects of discoveries of science. When man loses the moral values in life, then he thinks of destroying innocent people. He also becomes one of its victims. Nobody should be a slave to science and an enemy to human civilization. It should always be used for peaceful purposes. It must be tackled wisely because any kind of mishandling can bring a doom to our life. Its devastating aspect is almost beyond control.,

9. Computerization: Its Advantages and Disadvantages
Computer that Changed Our Life

Science has gifted us so many wonderful things that have affected our style of living and made life easy going. Computer is one of them, it has played an important role in improving the conditions of advanced nations. We can effectively realise our dreams through proper use of computers.

India declared its computer policy in November 1984. It has opened a new beginning of computer revolution in the history of India. The first computer in India was built in 1966 by Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. After a while Bhabha Atomic Research Centre added to computers in a series. Computer is now manufactured on a commercial basis. This has given a further momentum to the computer revolution in India. The establishment of the Electronics Corporation of India was a momentous event.The use of electronics will not accentuate the problem of unemployment. On the other hand, it will provide employment to a lot of people. Electronics can be safely and carefully made use of in agriculture weather-forecasting and soil testing.

The ruling party made use of computer in the last Lok Sabha and Assembly elections. Computer played a great and important role in the analysis of election results.

The Government has established National Information Centre in New Delhi under Electronics Commission, which is fitted with the most advanced and accurate computers.

The use of computer has proved to be very beneficial in banks. Computers, at all the branches of all banks, have been installed. It is being increasingly used in transport system. The international airlines have already got it.

Its use in Post and Telegraph, military and corporate houses has revolutionised the working of these departments. It has been found of immense use in the statistical department for the purpose of data analysis.

Indeed, advantages of computer are many. It makes calculations much faster and more accurate than in all industrial countries of Europe and USA, on a large scale. If data are correctly fed into a computer, then it can check and correctly examine answer books at a much faster rate. That is why computer is in use in all the educational institutions of the developed countries of the world and developing countries like India are making abundant use of it.

However, on the other hand, we can’t deny that computer has made us crippled. We are now completely dependent on it. Sometimes, computer data are corrupt and everything is lost that we store in it. So, we need to be more careful with computer while handling data as hackers can easily mishandle important information.

10. A Visit to a Historical Place (M.P. Board 2014)
A Visit to the Taj Mahal (M.P. Board 2015)

I had a great desire to see the Taj Mahal, the most graceful and matchless tomb at Agra. So, I made use of the kind invitation sent to me by my dear friend in the summer vacation. I had heard much about the beauty of the Taj Mahal and had heard of how Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan, had at a great cost built the world famous tomb for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal, as a token of his great love for her. It is said that it took twenty years to build it, and that twenty thousand men were employed to complete it.

I, with my friend, reached the Taj in the evening just before sunset. We went into the beautiful garden to enjoy its straight walks, tall dark cypress trees, smooth green lawns, beds of glowing flowers and its flashing fountains. There rose up before us the wonder of the world. I found it all of white marble. I enjoyed the sight of a splendid white dome rising up in the midst with four tall white marble minarets around it, one at each corner of the raised platform on which the great tomb stood.

At a little distance, the Taj Mahal looked small and delicate like a fairy palace but as I got nearer, I saw how large and stately it was. When we went up the marble steps, the dome seemed to soar high up into the blue sky and the clouds which were red and gold with sun-set light. The movement stood on the bank of the river, Yamuna. The water of the river was all gold in the sunset glow and made the building look more beautiful than ever.

We went inside. We saw the marble tomb within. They were decorated with precious stones and the beautiful screens of carved marble. There, we thought of the beloved queen whose body lay below and the great love of the king who had spent his wealth in putting up the lovely memorial to her. The real tomb of the queen laid in a small room which one could reach by descending some steps. The hall was charming for its most beautiful patterns of marble work. The pavement was made with the squares of white and black marble. Everything in this hall, i.e. walls, screens, and tombs, are all covered with inscriptions from the Quran. There are also flower designs inlaid with beautiful and precious stones of different colors.

When it was full moon, I persuaded my friend to take me again to see the Taj. We enjoyed the wonderful moon. It looked like a building of pearl or a palace made of silver. It seemed to be made of white cloud. The shining white marble, the black shadows, the soft moonlight, the silence, and the sweet-scented garden all made it a. sight never to be forgotten.

The Taj has been described differently by the poets. It has been described as a “Poem in Marble” or a “Dream in Marble”. The late world-famous and Nobel Prize winner poet, Rabindranath Tagore wrote many poems on the Taj Mahal which are very excellent. No photographic description or portrait can describe its full beauty.

It is no wonder if visitors come from far and near in thousands to have a look at the Taj Mahal every year. It is, indeed, one of the seven wonders of the world.

11. Corruption in India
Corruption—A Cancer of Society

Corruption is a deep-rooted menace that has eaten into the vitals of our society. There is hardly any sphere of social, economic, political and religious activity that is free from corruption of some kind. Corruption has become so common that most of the people have come to accept it as a part of their life.

Bribery and corruption have increased greatly after 1947. The growth of democracy and industry, the system of licences and permits for setting up enterprises, securing quotas of raw materials, imports and exports and exapansion of trade and commerce are responsible for the increase in corruption. Stringent laws against corruption have proved to be effective in curbing this evil.

Corruption flourishes as long as there are people who are prepared to give bribe and accept it, directly or indirectly. Each one of us has a weakness for easy money. People are prepared to do anything or stoop to any extent of taking graft in order to maintain their so-called standards of living. People who indulge in corruption maintain double standards. On the one hand, they accept bribe and on the other, they urge people to be honest and pure. Such hypocrisy compounds the offence.

It is not difficult to locate the causes of corruption. Corruption generally breeds at the top and then gradually filters down to the lower levels. Gone are the days, when people who joined politics were fired by the spirit of serving the nation. Those who suffered for the sake of getting their country freed from the foreigners, only knew how to make sacrifices. They had never expected any compensation for their sacrifices. Those were the times when only the selfless people joined politics. However, unfortunately, the present day politics has become a business like any other. The modern politicians are no longer motivated by any lofty ideals. In order to win elections, they spend huge sums of money with the hope that after they are elected, they would recover much more than what they had spent. When the people in power indulge in unscrupulous practices, a common man also indulges freely.

Government after government have made promises to root out corruption from our public life but this evil has persisted. Of course, there are honest officials but they are in minority. Let us as a nation, contemplate seriously as to what will happen when our public life is loaded with corruption. A certain amount of introspection by those who are in power can only initiate the process of minimising the evil of corruption in our country. If the public in general is indifferent, corruption wil continue to grow like cancer in our society destroying all the goodness. If corruption persists, our country will become a diseased country and continue to be a developing country.

12. My Favourite Game

Game is a part of my life. Right from my childhood, I have been a good player. I take part in all the outdoor games. Everyone has his or her own choices. Some like hockey, others like football, while many others consider cricket to be their best game. The game which I like the most is football. I have my own reasons for liking this game.

Now, you can ask me why I prefer football to any other game. It can be easily explained. The main object of all the games is to give us some exercise. This is one reason why football is my favourite game. It helps our body to grow. It brings a sense of discipline and a habit of endurance in us. A good football player is sure to succeed in any walk of life. He can make a great soldier to defend his country. He can be a clever statesman to run the government. He can continue to be a good sportsman if he is dedicated to his game. He can be anything because his endurance and sense of discipline has taught him to be himself and be independent of his mind.

However, is there no other game which gives hard exercise? Surely none other except, perhaps, hockey but hockey carries many risks for the life of a player. It also makes the player quarrelsome. He uses stick as his weapon. On the other hand, in football, no such risk is involved. One can go on playing without hitting anyone seriously.

Another reason for my choice is that it is very economical. It does not require elaborate and costly equipments. A ball and a well-levelled ground is all that is required to start the game and then it is easy to pick up its rules. We do not require any special coach for it is learnt so easily by boys that they begin to play it in a very young age, long before they are ready to play hockey or cricket. It would not be an exaggeration to say that football is a game which one learns at a very early stage of one’s life.

Like hockey or cricket, football is played by two teams of eleven boys. A team consists of five forwards, three half backs, two full backs, and one goal keeper. The player kicks the ball with his feet and he may touch it with any other part except, of course his hands. The goal keeper, however, can use his hands as well. As a player may be tempted to push an opponent or go for a head of the ball near the opposite goal, so pushing and off side are regarded as a foul play. The penalty for a foul is a risk by a player of the opposite team. The fewer fouls you make, the more chance you have to win the game easily.

The game of football gives us good exercise. We have to be vigilant and alert. It encourages team spirit. It gives a very good exercise to all the limbs of our body It keeps us fit for all the times. No wonder, then, I have a special preference for my favorite game football.

13. A Cricket Match

Cricket is one of the most popular games’of the present century. Of late, it has become quite popular in our country Wherever you may go, when the cricket match is on, people are glued to their transistors or television sets. It appears as if the entire machinery of the Government has come to a standstill and people are concentrating on to the performance of our national heroes, the cricketers.

Cricket has introduced in India a long time ago. Previously, this game was played only by a few aristocrats. The Rajas and Maharajas only could afford this costly game.

In the last spring holidays, a friendly cricket match was played between the teams of filmstars and cricketers. It was played at the Indira Gandhi Stadium. A large number of spectators were gathered there to watch the match. I am also very fond of this game. I also went to see the match.
The match started at 10 a.m. Messrs Derby and Dick acted as umpires. The Cricketers Plus team won the toss and began to bat. The captain sent in Rohan and Chetan, the two good opening batsmen to face the bowling by Govinda and Rakesh.

They had a good start. Rohan could not face the strong and sharp bowling by Govinda. He was bowled before the score was ten. In the next fifteen minutes, Chetan was also caught in the slips.

The batsman, who followed them, played a steady game. Soon one of them opened his ; account with a boundary. He punished loose balls. He squarecut the off-balls beautifully to the boundary. He did not take liberty with the straight balls but he delighted the spectators by hitting hard the loose ones. The bowlers tried their best to dismiss the players. They kept good 1 length and line of the ball. The batsmen remained at the crease till they had scored 60 runs.

Rohan had caught one of them at the corner. The second wicket also fell quickly. After this our bowlers had an easy time. Our opponents could not stand against our hard hitting balls. There was a regular going in and coming out of the players. There were no less than five ducks. The rot did not stop till the whole team was out for a paltry 100 runs.

The second innings started with a new zeal after the interval. Our opening pair hit up 29 when one of them was caught in the slips. Rohan filled up vacancy and scored five boundaries. He was raising the score steadily when his companion went forward to hit a slow ball. He lost his balance and he was stumped by the wicket keeper.

Our next player was a good hitter. He had sent the ball over the boundary thrice and scored a dozen runs quickly. The score went up to 70. Runs came in boundaries and occasional singles were also cleverly stolen between the players. Zafar and Ajay hit out powerfully between , them and the score increased rapidly. It was a fine performance indeed. They were well set when one of the deliveries bumped dangerously high and Zafar, in trying to hit, gave an easy catch to the wicket keeper. Ajay was also caught in the slips. The rest were easily dispersed off and when the game came to an end, Film Plus team won by ten runs and three wickets. It was a hard fought victory for the our players. We returned home clapping our hands and jumping merrily.

14. Democracy in India

India is said to be the largest democracy in the world in terms of numbers. Democracy is the form of government in which people’s will is supreme. At the present day, in big countries, it is not possible for the entire population to gather at one place, deliberate, and control the whole affairs. Government is, therefore, carried on by the elected representatives of the people. Of all the political forms of governments, democracy is considered to be the best. Democracy is therefore, the most cultured and civilised political institution.

Democracy is the temple in which there is only one idol to be worshipped and that is the idol of the people. Democracy provides to its people freedom of thought, speech and action. Elections are held after a certain period. General Elections have been held in India for several times. It shows that the foundations of democracy here are stable. In comparison to most of the neighbouring countries, like Pakistan and Bangladesh, sudden overthrow of governments have been witnessed. Army rules have been imposed on these countries, which curtail people’s freedom.

It is not mere holding of elections that is important but people in India have developed i mature judgement. When they find that a particular political party failed to represent their feelings, people of India have voted that party out. In 1977, the Congress (I) was defeated at the polls. Within two and half years, when the Indian people felt that the Janata Government was unable to deliver the good, they brought back Congress again. In the recent past also, many surprising political changes have been witnessed in the State elections. In Haryana and Punjab, the Congress was defeated at the elections. This is despite the fact that the majority of the electorate is still not very highly educated. However, by and large, people in India have developed mature judgement which is imperative for the success of democracy. The Indian electorate has once again voted the Congress out of power in the recent General elections. Very recently a new trend of governance has emerged, in the sense that no political party could gain majority which resulted in the formation of coalition government continuously for two consecutive terms, first by the NDA and second by the UPA.

It is a matter of serious concern that many drawbacks have crept into our democratic structure. Majority of the political leaders in our country has become corrupt and self-seeking. At times, one finds that democracy in our country is no longer the government of the people, for the people, and by the people. It is only a handful of self-seeking leaders who are ruling the country without any regard to the public welfare, which should be the important aspect of any democracy. Once elected, the ruling party forgets the voters and starts filling up their own coffers. This is certainly not healthy for the continuance of democracy. When we compare Indian democracy with that in England, we wonder at our public morality. The politicians, here, feel reluctant to leave their seats of power once voted by the people. For the success of democracy in our country, what we require is clean public life of the politicians. The recent scandals about the 2G scam have given a shock to the democratic set-up in India. If the people of our country are vigilant, only then there lies some hope for the future of democracy in India.

15. Television and Education
Educational Value of Television

Television is a wonder to our life gifted by science. It has become a craze in the present day world. It has both advantages as well as disadvantages. The educational importance of television cannot be underestimated. In all the developed and developing countries 6f the world, television is increasingly being made an important aid to education. Its audio-visual quality makes educational programmes more effective and interesting. Schools are making full use of its potential for imparting education. In our country, television is. not confined only to the cities but it has gained popularity among the villages. In all the schools in Delhi, television is being freely used as a useful means of education.

Everyone would acknowledge that television is the most effective means of imparting scientific education. The best teachers can teach the largest number of students in the most effective way at a particular given time. In subjects like Science and Geography, there are many things which can be shown on television rather than taking the students to the actual places. For example, the student can have the actual glimpse of snow-fall on the mountains through television. This demonstration of the real things is sure to have a lasting impression on the minds of the students, rather than merely telling them about those things. Scientific experiments can be shown to the students with the help of the television.

Students can be shown the celebration of important national events like the celebration of Independence Day and Republic Day. The students can listen to the important speeches of the national leaders on television. The actual scene along with the particular gestures of the leader will be remembered more vividly by the students.

Physical education is becoming an important aspect of modern education. Certain games can be taught with the help of television. Expert physical instructors can demonstrate the various body movements in various physical exercises. The popular T.V. programme presented by famous cricketer, Sunil Gavaskar has become very popular among the budding cricket players. The 24 x 7 channels makes it a point to show the direct telecast of all important national and international sports events. Test Matches on T.V. virtually hold the entire nation’s work for the duration of the match. Television can be very useful in imparting technical education to the students. Hence, one can’t deny the fact that television serves a major role in the field of education effectively.

16. If I Were the Prime Minister of India

Dreams often are unreal. Becoming the Prime Minister of a country like India may sound strange, yet if, given a choice, I would like to be one, if fortune favours me and if the public of oUr country elect me. As the Prime Minister, I would like to achieve the ideals of real democracy by bringing out many new reforms in the present set-up.

The first thing, I would like to introduce is moral education in our schools and colleges. At present, there is lack of morality. People are selfish and corrupt. Moral education to the youngsters would make them selfless and inculcate in them the idea of service to people. The youngmen and women are the future leaders and statesmen of our country. If the young people are selfless, they can inspire others by their personal example.

My second ambition after becoming the Prime Minister is to remove the curse of poverty from our society. I will have to introduce reforms in agriculture, so that more and more young men get attracted towards it. I shall provide suitable incentives and loans to the young people to start their own enterprises. I shall ensure that employment is given at least to one member in i a family, so that none starve.

Most of our countrymen are superstitious and ignorant. This is due to lack of education , and enlightenment. I shall make education absolutely free. It shall be controlled by the State. shall devise ways and means to screen the boys and girls at regular stages and provide them the.right type of education-according to their aptitude. Higher education will be restricted only to those who excel in their studies. I shall change the entire education system so that most of the young men do not run after white-collar jobs.

My efforts as Prime Minister would be directed to knit our country as a united and strong nation. I shall not give any importance to religion. In fact, I would see to it that religion remains only a personal affair of an individual. The State would not give any importance to religion as such. I will see to it that people do not fight in the name of religion and that no political party exploits the religious sentiments of the people for their advantage.

I shall set such an example of selfless and dedicated service to the people that my successive Prime Minister may emulate my example. Such is my vision if I ever get an opportunity to become the Prime Minister of India.

17. Any Burning Problem (M.P. Board 2009,10, 11,12, 15)
Growing Population: India’s Menace
The Problem of India’s Increasing Population :
Any Current Burning Problem of India (M.P. Board 2013, 14)

Indian life has turned to be critical. There are so many problems that have made us panicky. I Increase in population is one of them. Famines, floods, earthquakes, and riots often occur. The government is doing its best to solve these problems but the problem of increasing population is the most dangerous. The population explosion has taken a rapid stride in India. According to the Census of 1971, the population of India was 54.8 crores. It became 68.4 crores in 1981 and 84.4 crores in 1991. It has crossed 100 million according to the 2011 census report. This presents a horrible situation. The explosion of population has complicated the problems of poverty, illness, unemployment, and many others.

The population in India is growing rapidly. The advancement and expansion of medical science has resulted in lower death rate. Along with it, the illiterates of our country give no thought to the national problems created by this rapid growth of population. The children are thought to be the gifts of God.

The population explosion in India has brought about many severe consequences. The health of the mother runs, down and that results in the rearing or weakening, which make a weak, dull, illiterate, and poor nation. Therefore, for the welfare of the family and the nation as a whole, it is very necessary to check the growth of population. Every citizen of India should try to limit his family. For this ‘Family Planning’ or ‘Family Welfare’ is needed.

Growth of population may be prevented by observing celibacy and self-control. However, in the present day atmosphere, it is rather impossible. So, the negative check has been chalked out by the government. Loops, Nirodh and contraceptive tablets have been invented. The government is making a vigorous propaganda for it. People are being encouraged to go under vasectomy or tubectomy operations. Family Welfare Centres have been set up in all parts of the country where ‘Nirodh’ and contraceptives are sold on nominal charges or distributed freely. Operations are also managed there.

We should realise that the children are products of choice, not of chance, or God’s gift. ‘We two and ours two’ slogan should be maintained by every citizen. We should be watchful for the future progress and prosperity of the nation and observe ‘Family Welfare’ programmes. People should be educated to be wise enough to control this situation. There is a need for public awareness which alone can solve this problem, otherwise a time will come when there will be no place even to stand on the Indian land and no food to eat for anyone in India.

18. Value of Discipline

Discipline is a way which follows the order. No nation can be great unless its people are disciplined. Discipline in life leads to success. No country, school, college, or home without discipline can function properly. Thus, it is necessary in all walks of life. Discipline starts from home. To respect the authority is the base of discipline. Children must obey their parents and elders. Parents should guide them properly.

Discipline is very necessary for the continuance of a well-regulated and orderly life. It is needed in every phase of life. Its importance in our country today is very great. The freedom of the nation can be safe only when we learn the lesson of discipline. Discipline is required for the progress and betterment of individual in his life. It is the guide and the guardian of a man’s life. All the great men have risen to the heights of success and glory by being disciplined in their lives. Loose discipline in family, in the classroom, in the army, and the field will lead to the path of ruin.

An indisciplined army is unmanageable. It will suffer defeat in the battle field whereas a disciplined army fights unitedly and comes out victorious. The discipline of Indian army is well known all over the world.

In a classroom, no teacher can teach his or her students. It is for the class to maintain discipline. One learns discipline first at home and then at school. To obey set rules is discipline.

In a family, the head can’t run it smoothly if the members don’t maintain it. In an assembly, all the members must observe discipline if they want to do any good job successfully in time.

Discipline should be the way of life without which we. would face, complete chaos. We will make no progress at all. It would provide an order and perfection to our life. If there is no discipline in any field of life, there will be no progress. Even in family, if we lack discipline, it is sure to be doomed. Hence, we need to discipline our life.

Infact, discipline is very essential in all walks of life. In its absence there will be utter disorder, confusion, and chaos. No nation can progress in its absence. It is the key to success. Hence, it must be followed by all.

19. Politics of Coalition
Indian Politics Today

At present, Indian politics is under the process of development. Although right from the time of the freedom movement, the process is on but during the last twenty years, there have been a lot of changes. Due to the selfish motto of political parties, the aim of getting power to rule things has gone the worst.

Indian politics has lost the real component of fair practice. The means should be right and pure to achieve the object but in our country, now the attraction of power is so much that no body cares for the mean. For example, for winning the election they, adopt all those malpractices which are immoral in our society. After election, horse-trading goes on to capture power. Ministers, officials and leaders of political parties adopt immoral ways and means to earn money.

After 1985 many cases of corruption were detected in public life in which leaders, – government servants, contractors, brokers, and anti-social elements were involved. The fashion and tradition of commission increased the corruption in all walks of life. During‘the last ten years, there were a lot of scandals in which so many ministers, secretaries, directors, government officers and servants are found involved. The cases .of share scandal, hawala, urea and chara are the worst which have opened the new chapter of corruption in public life. Though these scandals are mere examples, there are a lot of such scandals which are still to been brought into light. Indeed there is a lot of corruption in our public life. Bribery has become a courtesy. No work is done without it. Almost all the measures adopted to control it have failed head long because most of our leaders, political workers, government officers, public servants, contractors, brokers, businessmen, traders, industrialists are directly or indirectly involved in the cases of corruption. Some of them have been caught while the others are still beyond reach.

At present, even the representatives of people such as some of the MLAs; MB*s, ministers, government officers and servants are following the path of corruption and they are making hay while the sun shines. The whole system has become so spoiled and corrupt that it needs well planned serious efforts.

As, now-a-days, no party is getting absolute majority at the centre, so the politics of coalition is going on. It is giving us a weak government. Moreover, the country has to fall into mid-term polls due to coalition politics. This new trend now seems to be the way of Indian politics. In coalition form of government, no single party gets a majority. Many of the parties form the government. It becomes very critical for one to run the government and control the parties of different ideas. For example, two successive governments had ruled India—one, the UPA and now the NDA. This trend is not at all good to the nation.

20. The Role of Opposition Parties in a Democracy

In a parliamentary system of government, the party or the group of parties commanding majority forms the government and remains in power as long as it enjoys the confidence of popularly elected House. Regarding seating arrangement, the House is divided into two wings. On the right hand side of the Speaker, the ruling party or the parties are allotted seats and in parliamentary terminology these are called as treasury benches while on the left hand side of the Speaker,*the opposition party members or parties are allotted seats. Parties and group on either side have their own elected leaders. The Prime Minister is also the leader of the House ., while the leader of the largest opposition party enjoys the status of the leader of Opposition in _ the House. There is a prescribed procedure for this and they are accorded recognition of their status by the Speaker as per the rules and regulations and established norms in respect, thereof.

The government is free to determine the policies and programmes and make decision, so long as it retains power that is again subject to the approval of the House in a prescribed manner.

The Opposition parties play very significant role in a democracy as representatives of the people who have returned them to the House to safeguard their interests. With this view, they criticise the government in case, the latter ignores them or conceals facts and they resort to protestation in the House and at the public level. It counts very much for the awareness among the people over the specific issues of national importance and raises levels of political consciousness among them.

Most impressive and dominant role of the Opposition in a democracy is that of a ‘watch dog’ of the system. In such countries, where there is a two-party system in vogue, the opposition party forms a ‘shadow cabinet’ to exercise vigil over the performance of the government. This is more true in case of United Kingdom. Two-party system is also in vogue in United States of America. Since there is no parliamentary system of government, the Opposition party in the House of Representatives of the US Congress (the lower House of the Parliament) forms as many committees as the ruling party does and presents their views over the policies and performance of the US administration in national and international affairs before the official – committees. Joint committees are also formed on important subjects or issues.

In countries where there is multi-party system in vogue including India, the Opposition . parties try to cooperate among themselves over particular issues. Arbitrary and despotic behaviour of the government is checked by the Opposition parties demanding information and debate in the House. It is the opposition in the Parliament that has a very important role of check and balance to play in the larger public interest and correct democratic practices.

Members of the Opposition parties are also included in the advisory committees attached to the respective ministries. All the measures of the government connected with the respective ministries are discussed and finalised by them. Opposition plays a significant role in it through its recommendations.

Therefore, in shaping of the legislative measures, Opposition has a say or at least influences , it. Still, if their recommendations are ignored/they have another chance, when the bill is I introduced in the House and debated.

Opposition in the Parliament enjoys a good status and the members of the House have a privilege of raising such issues that are more relevant to the cause of public; more particularly when the government overlooks them or conceals the facts related to them. It is very clear, therefore, that the role of opposition parties is more vital to the healthy growth of democracy and in the larger public interest.

In extreme eases of confrontation, if the government is all powerful to crush the Opposition, the latter is potent enough to make a stir against the former and force them to exit by means of mass movement and agitation. Only then they can save the democracy. Plato has rightly said, “The punishment of wise men who refuse to take part in the affairs of the government, is to live under the government of unwise men.

Though the real role of the Opposition parties is to appreciate the government in its progressive works and to oppose and control its negative role but now the concept seems to have changed completely. To oppose the government has become their only prominent role. It mars the progress of the nation.

21. Pollution: A Threat to Our Life (M.P. Board 2016)
Pollution: Need for Environmental Consciousness
Environmental Pollution (M.P. Board 2011)

The unsustainable lifestyles and consumption patterns of the industrialized countries have led to the worst environmental degradation. As far back as in 1992, Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro 1 highlighted the facts adding that poverty is the main setback in controlling and reforming of the environmental pollution for the poor and developing countries. It called for a global partnership for environmental protection. Agenda 21 adopted at Rio de Janeiro addressed the pressing problems of the day with over 2500 recommendations for action in social and economic areas, such as combating poverty, changing patterns of production and consumption, conserving and managing natural resources, protecting the atmosphere, oceans and biodiversity, preventing deforestation, and protecting sustainable agriculture.

The major problems of the environment are recognised as global climatic change, ozone depletion, water and air pollutions, deforestation, arid resource degradation. 23 billion tons of carbon dioxide is released in the air by burning fossil fuels causing Greenhouse effect. The greenhouse gases are mainly contributed by the industrialized nations. By the middle of the 21st century, earth’s temperature at present level of heat emission would go up by one to three degree Celsius and the sea level would rise between 30 to 100 centimetres.

India has witnessed alarming environmental degradation in the last two decades. It is the sixth largest and the second fastest producer of greenhouse gases. The key environmental pollutions related to industries in India are water pollution, soil erosion, groundwater : contamination, and deforestation. Indian rivers are also suffering from high level of pollution due to enormous municipal wastes, industrial effluents, and agricultural run-offs. According to expert findings, 70 per cent of India’s surface water is severely polluted. As per the government statement in 1992, three fourths of the total waste water generation is due to the municipal waste which is half of the total pollution load.

Consequent to it, fresh water resources are depleting very fast and water-borne diseases , are on an increase, which account for 2/3rd of the total illness in India. Air pollution in India is the highest by vehicular sources to the extent, of 64 per cent, 16 percent by thermal power, 13 percent and 7 per cent by industry and by climatic sector . respectively. The average level of suspended particulate matter in Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi is very high and these are included in the list of ten metropolitans of the world in respect, thereof. These cities have reached critical level while Kanpur, Nagpur, and Ahmedabad are hitting the same. Chennai is found to be moderate.

With respect to land pollution, it is the disposal of solid and toxic municipal and industrial wastes. The average per capita solid waste generation in India is to the order of 360 to 400 grams per day. This waste leads to affliction of respiratory diseases.

In case of pollution control for environmental reform it is very important to note that a partnership of highly industrialized nations with the poverty stricken and developing countries is a must for sustainable development. It implies the help of the former to the latter, which includes transfer of the latest non-pollution technology. This has been the main stress in the Rio-Declaration. In June 1997, Earth plus five summit was held in New York to review the programme adopted in ‘Agenda 21′. the conference concluded that the targets were’ not achieved—annual emission of carbon dioxide, blamed for global warming, continued to rise, freshwater scarcity remained, and depletion of forest cover was not being checked. Another conference was held in a Japanese resort, Kyoto, in December 1997, to check global warming. Participants agreed to meet binding target between 2008 and 2012.

The steps to control pollution in India included environmental clearance for major industrial activities based to impact assessment before site selection. Introduction of unleaded petrol, low-sulphur diesel, and higher emission norms throughout the country in a phased manner is the second significant step. Besides this, efforts are to be intensified further to control ” pollution in 22 industries in various towns and cities that are critically polluted. The industries are to comply with such emission and effluent standards as may be notified in a time-bound manner.

22. Pollution and Human Life

Man is an important part of the biosphere. He has an intricate relationship with forests and trees. The biosphere and ecosystem are self-sustaining. Nature maintains a balance in land, ‘ water, air and all the living organisms in the world. Any imbalance in the biosphere is called environmental pollution. The grand industrial development, green revolution, transport expansion, rapid growth of cities and accidental management of natural resources have badly affected environmental balance. The pollution of air and water will soon reach a point when no place on the earth will remain safe. Due to large scale industrial and human settlements on grand scale, many rivers have become gloomy and dark. The large scale industrial water and oil poured in the sea have started killing marine life.

Undoubtedly, the modem technological development has been the main cause of polluting our air, oceans, and rivers, etc. It is a matter of great importance that our rivers are becoming dark. Fishes are rotting on the sea shores. Trees are withering and cities are filled with foul air. Toxic chemicals are finding their way into our food. When the normal composition of air is changed, air becomes polluted.

The main causes of air pollutions are combustion, manufacturing processes, agricultural ‘ activities, use of solvent, and nuclear energy programmes. Combustion can be described in three types. Fuel burning, transportation, and refuse 1 burning. All these three kinds of combustion release several types of gases. These gases pollute 1 air. They also cause pollution. Chemical plants, combustion plants and plants for waste recovery come under this category. The polluted things released from these processes make the air unfit for human consumption. Agricultural activities are another source of air pollution. The use of chemical fertilizers and manures and burning of field waste pollute the atmospherical air.

Several types of solvents are used in spray-painting, polishing of furniture/dyeing, printing, and dry cleaning. The solvents produce hydrocarbons which pollute air. Various measures can be adopted to control pollution. To trap smoke particles, chambers should be made. Lofty smoke stakes should be built. Gases should be discharged through exhaust pipes higher in the air. Chemical industries should not be allowed to be set up on the banks of rivers. Waste materials should be subjected to anti-pollution treatment.

In view of the great-danger to mankind, many countries in the world have passed laws to prevent pollution. However, it has been seen that anti-pollution laws are not being obeyed. Terrorism is the most talked-about news item in today’s life. Every morning, we come across sensational news and reports of the acts of terrorism committed by terrorists in the world. Sometimes, it is a murder of an eminent politician, sometimes it is the kidnapping of an envoy by terrorists in order to blackmail a government to concede to their just or unjust demands. Hijacking of aeroplanes is a common phenomenon nowadays. Bomb explosion, taking place in crowded areas, is yet another criminal act of the terrorists.

There are many other forms of anti-social or anti-national, inhumane activities. Fish plates are removed from the railway tracks, and the wells or water tanks are poisoned by the terrorists.

These anti-social or anti-national activities are performed by the terrorists in order to call the attention of the National Government or the world community to a certain problem and to get their just or unjust demands fulfilled.

Terrorism is an international problem which has clouded our lives and made them insecure. We do not know at what moment we may be the victims of a bomb explosion, or a railway accident or the hijacking of an aeroplane. No one has forgotten the Bombay bomb-blasts, the Godhra incident, Akshardham attack, WTC attack, and the Russian Massacre.

We may classify terrorism into two categories: positive and negative. Positive terrorism is one in which the aims are good. For example, a number of Indian patriots took to terrorism against the British government to force it to grant freedom to India. The terrorism of South Africa and North Ireland, etc. may be included in this category. This type of terrorism is understandable since its aims are good for mankind but we would not recommend such means for even right ends. In order to secure the achievement of noble ends, right means must be employed, as Mahatma Gandhi did.

Negative terrorism is one in which an unsatisfied section of a community holds the entire community to ransom in order to get its unacceptable demands fulfilled.

Terrorism has neither boundaries nor any caste, creed or culture. It can occur anytime, anywhere in the world, sometimes without any intension. Terrorists have no humane heart. They spare none not even the innocent little children. No doubt terrorists are the people who have been created by our society. It is the misguided zeal of a few genius who are spreading it into the world. We must handle .them with care, otherwise the whole world will be doomed. There is a need to spread a public consciousness.

The whole world should fight against it unitedly.

24. Dowry System—A Social Evil

Since the da\vn of civilization, dowry system has been prevalent in our society in one or the other form. It is one of the biggest evils of our society. It is an insult to the sacred institution of marriage, Parents pay huge sums of money, so that their daughter may live a happy married life. The groom’s parents try to get the maximum from the bride’s parents. Unreasonable demands have been made by the groom’s parents and sometimes, the marriage ceremony is abruptly stopped in the absence of sufficient dowry. Fabulous amount.of cash, refrigerators, cars, coloured television sets, scooters and even houses are demanded in dowry. The parents of the girls have to incur heavy debts in order to meet the demands of the greedy in-laws of their daughters. No wonder, then the, birth of a daughter is not liked by any Indian parents.

Giving dowry is a very old custom. Even in the past, the parents of the girl have been giving dowry in the form of gifts. Its supporters give a number of arguments to justify it. According to them, it is, a fine method of setting up an establishment for their newly-weds. Some say that a daughter-in-law who brings adequate dowry with her commands better respect from her in-laws. Op the other hand, a bride without sufficient dowry feels insecure and uneasy.

All these are absurd arguments and cannot, in any way, justify this social evil. There is no point setting up one establishment by upsetting the establishment of the bride’s parents. Modern girls are educated and in many cases, are not dependent upon their husbands for their upkeep. In such cases, it is foolish to insist on dowry as the regular earnings are no less than dowry. A girl can gain confidence only from her merits and not from the dowry.

It is the duty of all enlightened citizens of our country to fight out this evil. We must get rid of our society of this curse. Anti-dowry Act has been enforced but if the people do not co-operate, the evil of dowry cannot be eliminated. As a matter of fact, all dowry seekers and givers should be boycotted socially. Educated boys and girls should bow not to marry the sons or daughters of those who demand dowry.

This social evil is eating up the foundation of our society. In a country like India, it is foolish of us to promote and become a part of dowry which brings us down and make us still a developing country.

25. Politics of Religion :

‘Politics’ and ‘Religion’ are two separate concepts which have no connection. One is purely a worldly affair while the other is beyond this world. One is the human creation while the other relates to the supernatural. Let us understand in a more clear way. The term ‘religion’ applies to the belief and the way how and to whom one worships. Its origin dates back to the origin of mankind. It means to say that it grew along with the growth of human being. Primarily, there have been four major, religions—Hindu, Islam, Christianity, and Sikhism. All these religions take human beings to their salvation. The followers of these different religions follow different Gods and different ways of their worship. With the growth of humanity, a number of other sub-religions have been born but one thing is very clear that followers of all the religions believe in a superpower and try to get its blessing. It means that religion is the super concept that relates the physics to the metaphysical but there has been a very dangerous turn in the idea of religion. Politics has changed the meaning of religion and religion is being used for politics.

According to our Constitution, India is a secular country which provides all its citizens the freedom of faith and worship in their own way but in the present scenario, this religious freedom is being misused. Religious appeals are made by the leaders for securing more and more votes. Religious feelings of the people are aroused for political gains. The demolition of the disputed structure in Ayodhya is one of the examples of the misuse of religion. As a result ? there were communal riots all over the country. It was as if people had lost their mental balance and were out to destroy their religious rivals. It was forgotten at that time that India is a land of many religions and all religions are given equal respect and weightage. However, the issue was handed over to the Supreme Court and the Government was bound to follow its judgement.

Ag our life has completely been politicalised, religion has taken a prominent place in every field of our fife. Politics is the way through which we occupy the government, rule the country and establish contacts with the mass. On the other hand, religion is the most sensitive way through which we take ourselves to a completely different world which is transcendental. While politics is completely a physical phenomenon related to this world, religion is completely related to a metaphysical phenomenon which has in no way any relation to this world. It means both stand apart. However, in the present context of our way of life both have been intermingled I which has created a chaotic situation and we are completely confused.

This chaotic situation is the outcome of selfish attitude of the politicians. Today, politicians are not concerned with the welfare of the nation. Instead they think only for the next election. Hence they try to create their vote banks in either way. For this they apply every possibility and make all efforts to win over the majority of the people in their favour. They use money, caste- factor, regionalism, lingualism, etc. for this purpose. They have not spared the pious religion. Time to time religious issues are raised to blackmail the sentiments of the people following a particular religion. -There are a number of examples which our country has witnessed in recent years. Advani’s Somnath Yatra, Godhra Carnage, Mumbai blast, 1984 riots, operation blue-star, demolition of Babri Masjid are some of the well-known incidents which have haunted our minds and we are compelled to think over the misuse of religion for vested interest of a few misguided leaders or political parties. Very recently, we have witnessed the hue and cry over the arrest of Jayendra Saraswati, the Shankaracharya of Kanchikamkoti Pith. He has been the prime suspect of a murder of one of his assistants. Some of the leaders have raised their voice of protest against it. How much are these protesters justified in protecting an accused of murder? Should such persons not be treated like other criminals? It is a time for retrospection to think over the misuse of religion for such purposes. Religion should not be the way to get votes. It should be kept apart from politics. It should not be corrupted with politics.

26. Growing Fashion among the Youths
Evils of Fashion

Fashion is the term which applies to the trend and style that youths adopt according to the changing world. It sets our dress, behaviour, food, likes and dislikes, etc. in order to match with the changed scenario. In old days, people mostly followed the traditional pattern of living set by our predecessors on the basis of their religious values and beliefs. So, the names like Dasharatha, Rama, Krishna, Radha were the most common in the society but now Tom, Dick, and Harry are in fashion. Now, the fashion is set according to the Bollywood and Hollywood. Actors and Actresses of the films have become the role models. Now it is very difficult to distinguish whether’Puppy’is your pet baby dog or your own son or daughter.

Fashion is not a word that is unknown to anyone today. The whole world has become crazy for fashion and tries to go ahead in this race. The Western countries in general are the homes of fashion. France is known for the latest fashion throughout the whole Europe and now our India too is in the grip of fashion where people, in general, and youth, in particular, have become so mad after it that they hardly think about decency. They must have their clothes cut according to the latest rogue, their hair made up according to the latest style. They never bother about the expenditure on their fashion.

The youths copy the actors and actresses. Some of them see a film to copy the latest fashion. They make a liberal use of cosmetics and beauty-aids. They do it in a competitive spirit to look smart, up-to-date and attract their friends. The girls are perhaps the worst sinners in this regard. They don’t hesitate to put on tight clothes, as light as possible, even though the dress is entirely inconvenient. They just wish to look like their favourite actresses. Even parents too are not less faulty. They buy the dress according to their daughter’s choice. As a result the girls have become fashion conscious, so much so that they have no time to think that the dress they have put on is decent or not. Similar is the case with young men. Wearing tight pants with latest hair-style and holding a cigarette in between the fingers feeling themselves as very smart.

These fashion-loving young men and women never realise that they are wasting their precious time and energy which are to be used for study to make life brighter. They carry their pocket combs to their classroom and comb their hair even in the course of a lecture. They put burden on their parents and spoil their hard-earned money. By and by, they become the prey of bad habits. They start drinking as a mode of fashion and sometimes they even take drugs too.

The cinema and T.V. are the most important sources of fashion. They circulate the latest style of dress and hair among the youths. These fashions exercise strong fascination over them. Most o£the cinemas and serials are exclusively based on fashion. The female characters expose their body in minimum clothes while the male characters try to overpower the young minds sometimes with their hair styles, sometimes with their art of speaking, walking, attacking their enemies, etc. All these are baseless.

Fashion no doubt is the up-to-date mode of living but one must be conscious of one’s culture and background. Everything is not acceptable everywhere. The fashion which we follow in our society- is not meant for us. So, it appears to be odd and instead of taking the young generation the right path it leads them to some kind of perversion and moral degradation. The previous generation doesn’t promote this western culture, as they think it corrupts our society’s values. Exposing dresses of girls are questioned as the men of our society did not take it as a trend. We must stop such practices by way of moral education and proper care to our young generation.

27. Energy Crisis

The growth of human being has travelled a long journey. It was the greatest achievement of primitive man when he discovered fire with the help of a stone. With this, human history moved very fast. Later on, a number of discoveries and inventions were made which changed human life completely. Energy is such a great invention which made our life more and more comfortable. It has become the -most needed necessity for us. It has created a crisis also.

In the industrially advanced world of today, the demand for energy is increasing day by day. We have machines and factories, we have buses, cars, trains and planes, and ships and submarines. Energy is needed to run them but this is not all. Man hankers for a cosy and comfortable life. Hence, he has become a little but lazy. He does not like even to wind his watch. So, energy is being used for running clocks and watches, typewriters, shaving razors, and many more things. It seems as if everything will be paralysed if there is no energy. Wood, later on, coal was the first source of energy. Then came oil and passing through the stage of atomic energy, man is now looking forward to solar energy.

We are naturally anxious to think about our future because we know the bitter truth that < a*day will ultimately come when we will have no more coal or oil. It will mean energy crisis, for which we ourselves are responsible. People who have made careful calculation feel that at present level of exploitation, the coal deposit will last till 2080 and it is also true that the poor quality coal with the carbon content of 40 per cent only, is not conducive to generate electricity.

It is also very difficult to harness the uneven distribution of coal. Hence, man is on look out for other sources of energy. Our present hope seems to rest on nuclear power.

Nuclear energy can be obtained both through fusion and fission processes. Enormous amounts of energy is released from small quantity of fuel in both these processes but we must be aware of the fact that nuclear power is full of risks. The use of nuclear energy gives rise to pollutants and hence pollutes our environment. In fact, the pollution caused by the use of nuclear energy from fission process is much more damaging than the pollution caused by burning fossil fuels. The dangerous nuclear radiations can damage and cause irreparable damage to cells and, in some cases, even lead to death.

The world will thus face with serious energy crisis. The condition of India is no better. With growing population, the demand for energy is increasing day-by-day. Since India has limited coal and oil reserve and power generation from coal and oil is also very costly, the government is taking steps to supply energy for non-commercial purposes from various sources such as bio-gas.

Scientists all over the world are trying to meet the challenge. They are trying to harness solar, water, and air reserves. Hydro-electric’power is cheaper, so are air mills. Solar energy too has bright hopes for man. However, it is very expensive to establish the necessary infrastructure for tapping solar energy. Giant discs are made to concentrate the sunlight on the thermal generators which use this sunlight to produce energy.

Thus all possible efforts will have to be made to save us from total darkness.

28. Distance Education

Distance education is a new trend of education which generally takes place when a teacher and student (s) are not face-to-face but are separated by physical distance and various electronic media are used to bridge the instructional gap. Before ten years, this system or trend was not thought as a means of education because ‘to take degree’ was not the sole aim of a student. Instead, people thought that regular classes provide real knowledge to the students and therefore, there should not exist any alternative to it but with the progress of science, electronic media, new electronic equipment, the situation has been changed. Through TV’s, educational programmes, the correspondence education can be made to be understood in a better way.

Research comparing distance education to traditional face-to-face instruction indicates that teaching and studying at a distance can be as effective as traditional instruction when the method and technologies used are appropriate to the instructional tasks, there is student to student interaction, and when there is timely teacher to student feedback. As regards with experiments in the laboratory, students can have better understanding than in school labs. Now distance education is covering the whole field of education from academic to technical fields.

Population is increasing rapidly and in this age of science, education is considered a must for all to maintain the standard and status of a happy man. Trends in education are, therefore, changing fast to make it (education) reach to everybody. As a result distance education system is getting popularity day by day and now it has been a popular mode of learning not Only for the formal courses but for professional courses too. MBA, MCA, CA, ICWA, BCA, and many other professional courses are available through distance learning these days. The modern students have accepted this new mode without hesitation due to its various advantages. The contribution of TV programmes regarding distance education is praiseworthy.

Distance education is full of possibilities. Its growing popularity itself explains the truth. Nowadays many prestigious universities and institutions are serving the society through this system. It is a boon for those students who really want to pursue their education but have no time to attend regular classes. Distance education provides them opportunity for this. It is an effective option to continue education.

However, one trend is alarming in the system. Almost all the institutes conducting this system are merely interested in inducting students and providing degrees. That’s why some say that this is merely a system to obtain degrees, anyhow but education does not mean degrees only, it is much more than that. At present this despondent method has taken a unique place.

The electronic media, new electronic equipments, conferencing facility, etc. have provided ample scope for distance education to emerge as a strong alternative, especially, in India. The key to effective distance education is focusing on the needs of the learners, the requirements of the content, and the constraints faced by the teacher, before selecting a delivery system.

However, its success depends on the integrated efforts of students, faculty, facilitators, support staff^and administrators.

29, Role of the Citizens in a Democracy

India is a country with-the largest democracy in the world. Democracy means a government by the people, of the people and for the people. They do this by electing their representatives of the government. All those citizens of the country who have attained their adulthood have the right to vote in. a democracy. This is perhaps one of the most important rights because it determines the kind of government that comes to power. Obviously, the role of the citizens is of great importance in a democracy. They have to be conscious of both rights and duties. They have to know what they should expect from their elected representatives. The citizens should be aware of the problems of their region as well as of the whole country. Only then they can understand whether the government is taking the right steps for their welfare or not. It is possible only when we give importance to our education and acquire knowledge about current events and policy making through newspapers, magazines, televisions, public meetings, etc.

As democracy allows its citizens to express their opinion in public, therefore, the citizens have full right to freely criticize the government, if they feel that it is not discharging its duties properly. However, their way of opposing the government must be decent. They should not take violent steps for this purpose. The government on the other hand should give due respect to the views of the people speaking out against it.

Sometimes, it has been seen that people neglect voting in the elections. They feel that their vote will not make any difference to the outcome. If they do not involve themselves in the electoral process, dishonest and self-seeking candidates are likely to get elected. Hence, the citizens must exercise their right to vote in a proper way. As good citizens, they must take interest in the welfare of their country. They must always remain ready to help for good causes. Democracy can be strengthened if its citizens have a clear view of their own rights and the rights of others. A democratic State particularly depends on the quality of its citizens. If citizens do not take interest in politics, a democratic State might also become undemocratic day by day. Hence, all the citizens must be loyal to their country in the best possible way.

Good citizens always respect the laws of their country. They keep an eye on the enemies who break these laws. They are, therefore, always ready to put down crime and help the guardians of law in arresting criminals. Not only this, they respect other religions too. They keep in their mind that India is a secular country and that they have to maintain its essence.

In a nutshell, the citizens must be honest, trustworthy, dutiful, and vigilant. A democratic nation can flourish only then.

30. India’s Nuclear Policy

India has always believed in peace and she has always promoted it by all mean. She was never in favour of manufacturing a nuclear bomb which only brings ruin and disaster to millions of people. However, as many countries, whether developed or developing, have conducted many nuclear tests, it became a necessity for our country to go nuclear. Further, the rising trend of intervention by the industrialised nations in the internal affairs of developing nations among which India is also one, was one of the main reasons which compelled India to divert her nuclear resources towards nuclear weapons. There was an urgent need to protect our national security because national development depends on it. Development is inseparable from national security. Finally, India conducted three nuclear tests on May 11, 1998 and two more tests on May 13,1998 in Pokhran.

However, India’s stand on the role of nuclear weapons is quite dear. She is not in race ; with any other nuclear power. She has exercised her nuclear option without violating any international obligations in order to deter the threats that would have compromised her national ’ security. India is very much clear on this point that she will employ nuclear energy for peaceful purposes only and what is more important is that India affirms her commitment to no-first-use of nuclear weapons and not using these weapons against those countries which are non-nuclear weapon States. Nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian territory or on Indian forces elsewhere. Thus, India’s main objective to have nuclear weapons is to provide a solid base to the national security system. She is sure that she will never misuse her nuclear capability.

Thus, India’s nuclear policy is very much responsible. It aims at providing minimum credible deterrent. The most significant aspect of the policy is that it is intimately tied up with continued commitment to total nuclear disarmament, which is*the need of the hour. Nuclear Weapons are deadly and nuclear war would result in total destruction as the whole planet would be totally devastated and survivors would face terrible conditions. Hence, it is necessary to speak out against the nuclear armament. Nuclear energy must be used for peaceful purposes and India wishes arms race should be stopped by all meAnswer:

I However, it is unfortunate that the five major nuclear powers are reluctant to give up their monopoly over production and deployment of nuclear weapons while denying a similar ’ privilege to other countries. Under these circumstances, it is really an admirable step for India to have nuclear weapons so that others may not befool us or they may not take an aggressive turn against us.

Thus, India’s nuclear policy is highly appreciating and others should follow it in order to maintain peace in the world but we have Pakistan in our neighbourhood which has no belief in the principle of no-first use of nuclear weapons. Pakistan maintains the first strike option in its nuclear policy and has refused to sign an agreement on no-first-use. Whatever may be the attitude of other countries, India is firm in her decision and is not going to misuse her nuclear capability.

31. Science and Peace

Science has made wonders in recent times. It has revolutionised the life in every field such as travel, transport, communication, recreation, agriculture, industry, medicine, trade, and commerce. We have electricity which has made our life comfortable in various ways. We have atom bomb, a great source of power. Now, it is up to us whether we use science for good purposes or take undue advantage of it. No doubt science has placed in the hands of man extremely destructive weapons which may ruin the whole world in seconds but it neither compels man nor creates a situation to make use of them. It is our greed and madness for power that urge us to use destructive weapons because we want to finish each other.

Undoubtedly science has contributed a lot towards world peace to which we must be obliged. Science has given quick means of transport and communication which help us in winning wars more quickly. Hence no long war is possible. Railways, steam ships and aeroplanes make it easy to send troops and food supplies to distant places in a very short time. Thus, the enemy is promptly checked.

The means of communication such as telegraph, telephone and wireless play a significant role in checking war or war-like situation. The speedy means of communication help the administrators in bringing the critical and violent situation under control. Once Eisenhower, the than President of America, had told that atom and hydrogen bombs have secured world peace in a more viable way. The people of the world could not apprehend the meaning and were greatly surprised to read this comment but the President was very much right. It is a fact that nuclear weapons are destructive. If war breaks out and these deadly weapons are used, then it is certain that the whole civilisation will come to a complete destruction. This horror of modern science compels the nations to think several times before going to war.

The means of recreation can be used for establishing peace in the world. The horrible scenes of war, the miserable conditions of people after war, and the scenes of destruction can be depicted on the screen so that the people can take some lessons from them. The after effects of war can be broadcasted from the radio. All these things can make man to determine not to wage war.

Scientific inventions have given us valuable machines. With their help, production has been increased manifold and now even the backward and poor countries have begun to enjoy a better standard of living. War is no doubt a curse and it must be avoided at any cost. It is possible when the good of each individual is brought out to the fore. We do not suffer with split atom but from split mind. It is in the mind of man where war is first fought, then on field. When the sense of brotherhood passes away from mind and when we forget kindness, goodness and fellowship, we enter into wars. So, we are responsible for wars, not science. However, man today has become more conscious of the necessity of world peace than ever before. He has begun to use his scientific knowledge for peaceful purposes.

32. Status of Women in Society

There are two main pillars of human life-man and woman. Both share equal responsibility in the making of society and hence, both are supplement to each other but from the very beginning, there has been a big question mark on the status of women in our society. Everyone talk about their role and responsibility but none care for their position. They have been exploited and ill- treated right from the beginning of the creation.

No doubt in the days of the epic age, women enjoyed great respect among people. Even in the great modern books, their position remained respectable. In Manusmriti, it has been said, “God resides where women are respected” while in modern age Napoleon Bonaparte told, “The hands that rock the cradle rule the world.” However, the reality is something else. Women have been put behind walls from ages. ‘Sati Pratha’ is the bitter truth which shows to what extent our women folk has been exploited. Child marriage and a contemptuous attitude towards the widows are another examples of women exploitation. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the first who raised voice against these unhealthy systems prevalent in Indian society. He took up the cause of the women and worked hard to abolish ‘Sati Pratha.’ It was due to his courageous work that Indian women dared to come out of Purdah. They got education which provided them opportunities to develop themselves at all levels and in due course, they surpassed the men. Today, we see women in every field. They are marching shoulder to shoulder in every walk of life.

Apart from teaching school children, women are now pilots, receptionists, police officers, doctors, engineers, etc. The elevation in the status of the women sometimes creates confusion among us if Sita and Draupadi had been born in the same country. The previous condition was due to the lack of education but now the spread of education among jvomen has completely changed the scenario. They are occupying key positions almost every field of society. Our country is progressing undoubtedly in this way but sometimes, it appears that over-exposure of women is a suicidal attack for our future. On the one hand, we are not still ready to forget the image of Sita and Savitri and on the other, we are tempted to watch the over exposed movies on TV screen with the little kids of our family. Our modern progressive girls are imitating the fashion very fast which is still not acceptable in our society. As a result it creates lots of problems in society. We must allow women to stand by themselves but they should also be taught our culture arid civilization.

This imitation creates problems since the society is still standing on those controlling customs which has only suppressed women. Women are controlled but the men who cast their lustful eyes on are spared saying the clothes were too appealing for men to handle.

33. The Place of English in Modern India

After India got Independence, a controversy was at its peak whether English should continue or not. There were two views which gave their own arguments for and against the existence of English in India after freedom. Some people opposed English because they thought that it Was a foreign language, the language of the British and therefore, with the end of their rule, their language should also be abolished but it was not easy to abolish it at once. Hence it was given a lease of fifteen years and after that it was to be replaced by Hindi as the national and official language of the country. However, when the time for the replacement of English by Hindi came, there were lots of opposition from all sides, especially from the South. Nothing could be done in such an atmosphere and finally it was decided that English would remain the official language along with Hindi.

English, thus got a permanent position in India. It was also felt that in a country where there are many languages, cultures and religions, English would be used as a link language. It was necessary for the existence of unity of our country. In the present scenario, English has . become the most influential language. Anybody who has good knowledge of English can easily establish himself or herself in the society.

In the field of education, science, technology, engineering, law, medicine, commerce, , industry and the diplomatic services, English continues to enjoy commanding position. Without English we can’t imagine to enter in these fields. Most of the books are available in English. , Hence, its knowledge enables us to read more and’more books on different subjects.

English is also an international link language. This is the only language which is used to 1 establish communication all over the world. It is the library language too. Most of the books of technical subjects, science, history, etc. have been originally written in English. It is used as code and instruction in the management of library. Hence, to gain more and more efficiency in * any field of life only English language can be helpful.

English has become the only widely accepted means of communication in the world. It makes interaction easy. Interaction among the people, living in different parts of the world, ‘ promotes enrichment of culture. We learn differentway^of living and we update our knowledge only through interaction. Thus English has occupied the most significant place in India. Once Nehru said that we should keep our windows open to see the world. English is that window which shows us the world. English has become our necessity. We can neither do nor improve without it. It is the second widely spoken language. Hence, we cannot ignore it if we wish to achieve great success in life. It must be there for its practical advantages.

34. The Educational Value of Travelling
The Advantages of Tourism

The knowledge we get from books is mere theoretical knowledge. It is not sufficient to be ‘ successful in life. To get complete success we require practical knowledge too and it is travelling which takes us from the field of bookish knowledge to the field of practical knowledge. It is not only concerned with pleasure, holidays, travel, and going or arriving somewhere but it makes us know about the habits, manners/and ways of living of other people. We get an opportunity ‘ to learn about others by coming in contact with these things.

Travelling takes us from the world of imagination to the wTorld of reality. It gives us a chance to adjust in the changed circumstances. Books even if they are very good, cannot give us this chance. We come across many difficulties but we successfully overcome them. We never mind minor problems.

A man who has never gone or who avoids to go an excursion develops a narrow outlook. His nature becomes complicated and he feels that his own lifestyle is the best. He fails to understand the effect of environment on the life of man. Through travelling, he can broaden his outlook. When he comes in contact with different people of different cultures, he knows about them and tries to understand them. For a well-travelled man the world is not vast but small. He feels that he is very close to others and the whole world is like a large family.

Thus, from the point of view of national integration, travelling is essential. It establishes x mutual understanding among people of different parts and therefore causes of friction are – softened. It is not necessary that everything should be of our choice. Sometimes, we get things of our choice but most of the times we don’t. Sometimes, we do not find a suitable place for our lodging. At other times, we get food which is not to our taste. On occasions,.language comes in between and creates problems in establishing contacts. When we face such difficulties, we begin to develop our resourcefulness, initiative and tact. And then, we see that there is a solution for every problem. We become more confident and feel spirited.

We say that seeing is believing. In books, we only read about various subjects such as Science, History, Geography, etc. We read that there is the Taj Mahal in Agra and there is the Niagara Falls in the U.S.A. More reading does not affect us to such intensity but when we see them with our eyes, they make an everlasting impression on our minds.

It is, therefore, in May 1992 an ambitious National Action Plan was drawn by the government of India for the growth and development of the Indian Tourism. As a result, the tourism industry has become the third biggest export industry and our country earns large sums of foreign exchange through it.

35. Global Wanning

Global warming means the rise in the mean global temperature to a level which affects the life- forms on the earth’s surface. The factors responsible for this may be both natural and manmade. Warming of the earth due to natural factors is not an unusual phenomenon. The earth’s climate is variable. For example, about 18,000 years ago, the earth was about 5°C cooler than it is today and that was the last glacial period on the earth. Thereafter, the global temperature began to rise.

The earth is kept warm due to what is known as the Greenhouse Effect. Without it the earth would be a frozen wasteland. The short wavelengths or ultraviolet radiation coming from the fun penetrates the atmosphere and is absorbed by the earth. This absorbed energy is also radiated back to space at infrared wavelengths. The earth’s atmosphere contains gases which trap some of the outgoing radiations and thereby, warm the earth. These gases are known as greenhouse gases. Water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, CFCs and halogens are prominent examples that maintain the global energy balances, both the atmosphere and the surface will warm until the outgoing energy equals the incoming energy.

The increase in the quality of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can reinforce the greenhouse effect (increase in temperature of the earth) and lead to global warming. Carbon dioxide is the largest contributor to global warming, as it holds the largest share among the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The reason behind it is the natural disorder as well as man-made activities. Volcanic eruptions and forest fire are some of the natural reasons which cannot be checked but the current global trend i.e., deforestation, along with increased combustion of fossil fuels have a cumulative effect on the net increase in carbon dioxide content. We know forests are the areas where the green leaves efficiently utilize carbon dioxide to make their own food. Deforestation reduces this utilization of carbon dioxide. Consumption of fossil fuels and household fuels gives off considerable amount of carbon dioxide. Hence, reduction in the use of fossil fuels is very necessary. Equally necessary is afforestation. It should be encouraged and we, the people, should realize its importance.

Along with reduction in the use of fossil fuels, the use of the household fuels like wood coal, kerosene should also be reduced by encouraging LPG stove and bio-gas plants. They cause less atmospheric pollution. If these methods are not applied, we will have to face serious consequences such as floods, droughts, storms and extremely warm summer. Not only this, the sea levels may increase due to the rise in global temperature.

We cannot control natural happenings but we can control ourselves. We can reduce the threat of global warming to a great extent by applying the ways which have been mentioned above. We have to think as a whole to get rid of this problem. ‘ . ,

36. Internet: The New Revolution
Uses of Internet

The word ‘Internet’ flashes many images upon the canvas of the human mind. The dominant one may be hundreds or thousands of computers and computer networks connected with each other exchanging information. This is the hardware aspect of internet. Its application aspect is the multitude of different services internet offers, by E-mail and others. Yet another image is that of everyone doing their own thing. Through internet, any type of information can be ‘i exchanged like text, audio-video signals on data, etc. Every country has an information network through which it is connected to internet.

Internet is mostly used for Electronic mail, i.e., E-mail messages can be sent to anyone connected to internet. This also helps in development of software data base, which is the base of internet. With the development of multimedia, the interest of people in internet has increased. Through the use of internet and joining of computer, telephone and electronic techniques and development of optical fibre, it is now easy to store and exchange text, Sounds, and pictures.

So, internet is a network of computers joined by optical fibres, through which it is possible to send messages, sounds, text and pictures with the speed of light. Internet arrived in India on 15th August 1995. For three years from 1995-1998, the government had the monopoly of providing internet services but in 1998, it allowed private companies to provide this service to people. Internet is most beneficiary for businessmen, doctors, teachers, students and scientists.

Internet is very useful for common people. By sitting at home, a person can send letters and cards to the members of the family and to friends. They can chat with the like-minded N people on any particular topic. Students can get information on various subjects on internet for their studies. They can even browse through books on internet. Visiting different websites on . internet is known as surfing. Nowadays, one can do anything and everything on internet. One can do even marketing by sitting at home. There are thousands of cyber-shops and e-commerce portals on internet which sell from flowers to even foods on net. A person can watch movies, television, listen to songs and radio, etc.

Thus, internet is gradually becoming a part of our daily lifestyle. In cybercafes, one can .) pay money and surf the net. Nowadays, internet service providers are also providing internet services through cable lines, which are faster to access. However, it is the businessmen who are using internet the most and making it more popular. The fast and economically reliable way of x accessing internet has given a new direction to international business. All the business j transactions and purchases that are going on the internet is known as e-commerce. The biggest * advantage of doing business on it is that the businessmen do not have to sit for the whole time on the shop. With PM Modi, one more step is taken ahead to make Digital India. It has become a major contributor to GDP growth of India. Recent demonetization helped in making the online transaction more in demand.

The Internet has revolutionized every field. Its surprising growth seems to continue in the years to come because it provides great benefit and convenience to the users.

37. Information Technology

What does the term ‘Information Technology’ really mean? Information technology is that technology by which information is processed, communicated, exhibited and retrieved in a fast, error-free and proper-way. Information technology is a technology in Which both telecommunication and computer technologies work together to provide information. Today the world is of information and telecommunication. Everyday new technologies and inventions are being made in the area of information, processing and travelling. There is * hardly any area which has not been affected by this. Due to all this, the word distance sounds ironical in a present-day context. The whole world has become a small place today. Any information can be exchanged by people in a few seconds and that too in proper and effective way without any loss of data while it is being processed. On one hand, all these different ways of telecommunication and information exchange have highlighted the necessity for multipurpose development and growth of information technology, and on the other, the easy access and use of it has boosted the network of information exchange. All this has been possible through information technology like telephone, fax, telex, computers, internet, e-mail, photocopier, printer, scanner, cellular phones, pagers, videophone, digital camera, multimedia, etc.

These technologies are becoming a part and parcel, of our lives and are transforming lifestyles and habits of people all over the world.

The use of computers has increased by leaps and bounds worldwide. Internet and multimedia have now become playthings for children. The internet has revolutionized every field of the world. The government has allowed private companies to provide internet services to people in order to boost up information technology. The internet has put an unprecedented amount of buying and selling power in the hands of all those within a keystroke distance of a computer. Never in the history of commerce have solitary buyers and sellers been able to engage so effortlessly in commerce on all points whether one is a scrap dealer or a collector with an obsession for antiques, the internet is a solution.

Digital technology is playing a vital role in our day-to-day life. In supermarkets and helps for faster processing of films. In the field of agriculture, a digital moisture meter records the moisture in-the soil and tells when harvesting should start. For people who are suffering from hearing loss, digital technology is of great help. It processes sounds that reduce noise, improves clarity of speech, and controls unwanted loudness.

The government of India is very keen to achieve a great deal in the field of information technology. The Indian Institute of Information Technology is being set up at various places in the country. Now we can hope that India will become an information technology superpower in the near future.

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