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MP Board Class 12th General English Grammar Clauses

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What is a Clause? (उपवाक्य क्या है?)
Clause (उपवाक्य) शब्दों के उस समूह को कहते हैं, जो एक बड़े वाक्य का भाग हो तथा जिसका अपना एक कर्ता (subject) तथा एक finite verb हो।

जैसे –

  1. I know that Ashok is your friend.
  2. I know that you love Manoj.
  3. He said that the earth is round.
  4. He taught that the sun rises in the east.

इन वाक्यों में I know, He said तथा He taught मुख्य वाक्य (Main clauses) हैं तथा Ashok is your friend; You love Manoj; The earth is round, and The sun rises in the east उपवाक्य (Subordinate clauses) हैं।

वाक्य तीन प्रकार के होते हैं

  1. Simple sentences (साधारण वाक्य) – इसमें one subject + one verb (finite) + one phrase या clause होता है।
  2. Complex sentence (जटिल वाक्य) – इसमें एक मुख्य वाक्य (Main or Principal clause) तथा एक उपवाक्य – आश्रित उपवाक्य (Subordinate clause) होता है।
  3. Compound sentences (संयुक्त वाक्य) – इसमें एक Principal clause तथा एक Co – ordinate clause (समकक्षी) होता है।

Kinds Of Clause

मुख्या रूप से Clause तीन प्रकार के होते है –

  1. Principal clause,
  2. Co – ordinate clause,
  3. Subordinate clause.

MP Board Class 12th General English Grammar Clauses 1

Functions Of Clauses (Clauses के कार्य)
(i) Principal clause या Main clause – किसी वाक्य का स्वतन्त्र पूर्ण अर्थ देने वाला भाग Principal या Main clause कहलाता है। इस clause से पहले कोई conjunction प्रयोग नहीं होता है।

जैसे –

  1. Lata said that she loved Manoj.
  2. Ram said that Sita was beautiful.
  3. He said that it was great pleasure.

(ii) Co – ordinate clause (समकक्षी) यह Principal clause के समान होता है तथा उस पर आश्रित नहीं होता है। यह स्वतन्त्र रूप से अपना अर्थ प्रकट करने में सक्षम होता है। यह Principal clause से किसी conjunction द्वारा बाद में जुड़ा होता है तथा ये Compound sentences बनाता है।

जैसे –

  1. She came and went out.
  2. Ram is poor but he is honest.
  3. He is neither intelligent nor diligent.
  4. He worked very hard and he got good marks.
  5. Soni is not only beautiful but also foolish.

Co – ordinate clause चार प्रकार के होते हैं–

(1) The Co-ordinate Clause of Similar Idea or Cumulative (एक समान विचार) – ये clause, Principal clause से निम्नलिखित connectives के द्वारा जोड़े जाते हैं। जैसे – and, as well as, not only ………………… but also, both….and, no less than. ये connectives समान विचारों को जोड़ते हैं तथा एक Compound sentence बनाते हैं।

जैसे –

  1. He is wise and kind.
    वह योग्य एवं दयालु है।
  2. He is not only wise but also kind.
    वह केवल योग्य ही नहीं बल्कि दयालु भी है।
  3. He is rich as well as kind.
    वह जितना अमीर है उतना ही दयालु है।
  4. Neelam is both intelligent and beautiful.
    नीलम योग्य तथा सुन्दर दोनों है।

(2) Co-ordinate Clause of Opposite or Adversative Idea (विचार) – ये clause निम्नलिखित Connectives से Principal clause से जोड़े जाते हैं एवं विपरीत अर्थ देते हैं।

But, still, yet, nevertheless, however, while, whereas, only, (फिर भी, किन्तु)

  1. He is poor. He is honest.
    He is poor but he is honest.
  2. He is poor. He is honest.
    He is poor still he is honest.
  3. He was tired. He kept on reading.
    He was tired nevertheless he kept on reading.
  4. He came to me. He said nothing.
    He came to me however he said nothing.

(3) Co-ordinate Clause of Alternative Idea (चयनात्मक) ये निम्नलिखित connectives से जोड़े जाते हैं or या, otherwise अन्यथा, else वरना, either …………………. or या यह या और, neither …………………. nor न यह न वह तथा विकल्प या चयनात्मक भाव प्रकट करते हैं।

जैसे –

  1. Work hard, you will fail.
    Work hard or you will fail.
  2. Sit down, go away.
    Either sit down or go away.
  3. You do not read, you do not write.
    You neither read nor write.
  4. Work hard. You will fail.
    Work hard otherwise, you will fail.

(4) The Co-ordinate Clause of Illative or Inference (परिणामात्मक विचार) ये clause परिणाम का बोध कराते हैं तथा निम्नलिखित Connectives द्वारा Principal clause से जोड़े जाते हैं।

Therefore, for, then, so, hence, consequently – अत: इसलिए!

  1. He was guilty. He was punished.
    He was guilty so he was punished.
  2. It was raining. I could not come.
    It was raining, therefore, I could not come.

Exercise
Combine the following sentences into compound sentences :
1. They are coming by bus. They are coming by taxi.
2. You can write in ink. You can write in pencil.
3. He has a small family. He gets a good salary.
4. He wrote the letters. He did not post them.
5. They did not look at him. They did not talk to him.
Answer:
1. They are coming by bus or taxi.
2. You can write in ink or pencil.
3. He has a small family and he gets a good salary.
4. He wrote the letters but he didn’t post them.
5. They did not look at him nor did they talk to him.

(iii) Sub-ordinate clause (आश्रित) – यह अपने अर्थ के लिए Principal – Main clause पर आश्रित होता है। इससे पूर्व Conjunction लगा होता है। ये तीन प्रकार के होते हैं

  1. Noun clause,
  2. Adjective clause,
  3. Adverb clause.

1. The Noun Clause
जब कोई Subordinate clause, Principal clause की मुख्य क्रिया की भाँति कार्य करे, तो वह Noun clause कहलाता है। जैसे
1. The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
2. My mother said that she was ill.
पहचान तथा नियम – Noun clause के सभी conjunctions की हिन्दी करने पर उनके प्रथम अक्षर की ध्वनि ‘क’ से आरम्भ होती है।

जैसे –
1. That – की कथन केलिए
She said that she was ill.
उसने कहा कि वह बीमार थी।

2. What – क्या कथन
You want to know what I do.
तुम जानना चाहते हो कि मैं क्या करता हूँ।

3. Who – कौन – व्यक्ति के लिए – Subject
I asked who that man was.
मैंने पूछा कि वह व्यक्ति कौन था।

4. Whom – किसे – व्यक्ति के लिए Objective case
Please tell me whom you love.
कृपया मुझे बताओ किसे आप प्यार करते हैं।

5. Whose – किसकी/किसका
Ram asked whose pen it was.
राम ने पूछा कि वह कलम किसका था।

6. Which किसे/किसको किसकी निर्जीव, या छोटे प्राणी
The leader asked of which party we were the members.
नेताजी ने पूछा कि हम किस पार्टी के सदस्य थे।

7. When – कब – समय के लिए
He asked when he would return.
उसने पूछा कि वह कब लौटेगा।

8. Where – कहाँ–स्थान के लिए
You asked where we were going.
उसने पूछा कि हम कहाँ जा रहे हैं।

9. Why क्यों – कारण के लिए
The President asked the Secretary why their party was defeated.
अध्यक्ष ने सचिव से पूछा कि उनका दल क्यों हार गया।

10. How – कैसे, कैसी/कैसा
The artist was anxious to know how his paintings were appreciated.
कलाकार यह जानने को उत्सुक था कि उसके चित्रों की कैसी सराहना हुई।

11. If या whether – क्या प्रश्न पूछने केलिए
यदि किसी Subordinate clause का उत्तर Yes या No में हो तो conjunction if या whether प्रयोग होता है

The father asked if/whether I would take my meal at the house in the evening
पिताजी ने पूछा कि क्या मैं शाम को खाना घर पर खाऊँगा।

Functions Of Noun Clause (Noun Clause के कार्य)

(1) Subject of the verb, जैसे –

  • What he said was true.
  • Whom Soni loves dies soon.
  • That he will succeed is certain.
  • What he said was very strange.
  • Why he came here is not clear.
  • When she left the town is a mystery.

Note – यदि कोई clause Principal clause से पहले आता है तो वह subject to the verb का कार्य करता है

(2) Object of the Verb

जैसे –

  • He said that he was a good boy.
  • I know that you will pass.
  • I know why he is absent.
  • Have you heard what has happened?
  • Lata said that she knew the answer.

Note – clause Principal clause at 31161 Bit Principal clause से बाद में ‘क्या’ लगाने पर उत्तर मिलता हो तो वह object to the verb का कार्य करता

(3) Object to the Preposition;

जैसे –

  • You should not rely on what he says.
  • Listen to what the teacher says.
  • I am not impressed by what he did.
  • Please attend to what the child says.

(4) A complement to the Verb

जैसे –

  • It seems that she will come soon.
  • It seems that it will rain.
  • This is what he said.
  • Life is what we make it.
  • The fact is that she has deceived me.

(5) Object to a Gerund

जैसे –

  • He is in the habit of abusing whoever comes before him.
  • He believes in enjoying whatever he can get.
  • He hates of telling a lie..
  • She likes making a fool the young men.

(6) Case in Apposition with Noun or Pronoun or “It’;

जैसे –

  • The news that she died is wrong.
  • It was clear that she was a beauty.
  • It is clear that he is a knave.
  • It is strange that he does not know his own name.

(7) Object to a Participle;

जैसे –

  • The judge made free believing that he was innocent.
  • He went away thinking that it would not rain.
  • He came to me thinking that I would help him.
  • He went out of the room saying that he would come back soon.

(8) Object to an Infinitive;

जैसे –

  • She wants to say that she is honest.
  • I want to know how he failed.
  • The teacher wants to know how far he is right.

Note –

  1. Noun clause सदैव हिन्दी के ‘कि’ शब्द से आरम्भ होता है।
  2. यदि Noun clause Assertive वाक्य है, तो Conjunction ‘that’ लगाते हैं।
  3. यदि Subordinate clause प्रश्नवाचक है, तो Conjunction that’ नहीं आता। प्रश्नसूचक शब्द (what, which, why) आदि से Noun clause को जोड़ते हैं।
  4. Main clause Assertive तथा Noun clause प्रश्नवाचक है, तो वाक्य के अन्त में प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह (?) नहीं लगाते हैं।
  5. यदि Principal तथा Noun clause दोनों ही प्रश्नवाचक हैं, तो प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह (?) वाक्य के अन्त में लगाते हैं।
  6. यदि Principal clause Present Tense में हो, तो Noun clause किसी भी Tense में हो सकता है।
  7. यदि यह पता न चले कि कोई clause Noun clause है या नहीं, तो Noun clause के स्थान पर something रखकर देखते हैं यदि पूरा अर्थ निकले तो clauses निश्चित रूप से Noun clause है। जैसे I knew that Harendra would come. यदि that Harendra would come के स्थान पर something रखो तो वाक्य बनेगा I knew something इसका अर्थ निकलता है, अतः यह Noun clause है।

2. Adjective Clause

  1. Adjective clause एक उपवाक्य है, जो किसी अन्य उपवाक्य की संज्ञा या सर्वनाम के सम्बन्ध में विशेषण का कार्य करता है। यह प्रायः किसी Relative Pronoun या Relative Adverb द्वारा प्रारम्भ किया जाता है। किन्तु इसे Relative Pronoun या Relative Adverb के बिना भी बनाया जा सकता है।
  2. Adjective clause सदैव Noun clause में आए हुए Noun या Pronoun की विशेषता बताता है, अतः इससे पहले Noun या Pronoun का आना अति आवश्यक है।
  3. सामान्यतः यह Clause Relative Pronoun या Relative Adverb (who, whom, why, where, that) से आरम्भ होता है।
  4. जब यह व्यक्ति को qualify करता है या विशेषता बताता है, तो यह Relative Pronoun who, whom तथा whose से आरम्भ होता है।
  5. जब यह किसी thing (वस्तु या छोटे जानवर) को qualify (विशेषता) करता है, तो यह which से आरम्भ होता है।
  6. जब यह व्यक्ति तथा वस्तु (Person as well as thing), सजीव तथा निर्जीव (Living as well as non – living, Person as well as animal), व्यक्ति व जानवर Male and female (स्त्रीलिंग एवं पुल्लिंग) दोनों को साथ – साथ qualify करे, तो Relative pronoun that का प्रयोग करते हैं जैसे –
    • The boy and the girl that you beat are my own children.
    • The boy and his cow, that crossed the field were turned out.
    • The boy and his dog, that had entered the house are yours.
  7. यदि Main clause में Superlative degree, या all, any, same, only, nothing, none, those, आदि शब्द आए हों या Principal clause में Interrogative Pronoun का प्रयोग हुआ हो, तो Adjective clause that से आरम्भ होता है, जैसे –
    • Man is only animal that can talk.
    • This is the best girl that won the prize. (Superlative degree)
    • This is same book that I learned.
    • What was the answer that he gave?
  8. यदि पहले (Main clause) में same या such का प्रयोग हुआ हो तो Adjective clause ‘as’ से शुरू करते हैं।
  9. जब Adjective clause समय प्रकट करे तो when से; स्थान के लिए where से; कारण के लिए why से तथा तरीका (Manner) के लिए how से आरम्भ करते हैं।
  10. जब Adjective clause किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु को Negative sense में qualify करता हो तो इसे But से आरम्भ करते हैं।

Note –
(1) कभी – कभी Relative Pronoun या Relative Adverb जो Adjective clause के आरम्भ में प्रयोग किए जाते हैं, हटाए भी जा सकते हैं,

जैसे –
(a) I am the monarch of all I survey.
(All के बाद that हटाया गया)
(b) Reap the things you sow.
(Things के बाद which हटाया गया)

(2) Adjective clauses के सभी connectives (Relative Pronoun) का हिन्दी प्रथम अक्षर ‘ज’ होता है;

जैसे –
Who – जो, जिसने (व्यक्ति के लिए)
(a) This is the boy who threw a stone at me yesterday.
यह वही लड़का है जिसने कल मुझ पर पत्थर फेंका था।

(b) He who came here is my real brother.
जो यहाँ आया था मेरा सगा भाई था।

(c) I know the man who stole your watch.
मैं उस व्यक्ति को जानता हूँ जिसने तुम्हारी घड़ी चुराई थी।

Whom – जिसे, जिसको (व्यक्ति के लिए)

(a) We lend only to person whom we know very well.
हम जिसे खूब जानते हैं उसे उधार देते हैं।

(b) This is the boy whom I love very much.
यह वही लड़का है जिसे मैं अत्यधिक प्यार करती हूँ।

Whose – जिसकी, जिसका, जिसको (व्यक्ति)
(a) This is the man whose book is lost.
यही वह आदमी है जिसकी किताब खो गई है।

(b) The passenger whose luggage is lying here has gone to drink water.
वह यात्री जिसका सामान यहाँ रखा है पानी पीने गया है।

Which – जिसे, जिसको (वस्तु)

(a) The house which I have bought is worth living.
यह मकान जिसे मैंने खरीदा है रहने योग्य है

(b) We belong to the Brahmin caste the honour of which is important.
हम ब्राह्मण जाति के हैं जिसका सम्मान महत्वपूर्ण है।

That – जो, जिसे
(a) This is the best book that has come in the market.
यह सबसे अच्छी पुस्तक है जो बाजार में आई है।

(b) There is nothing that can not be cured.
ऐसा कुछ भी नहीं जिसका इलाज न किया जा सके।

(c) The boy and his sister that came to me are in class Xth. (10th class)
वह लड़का एवं उसकी बहन जो मेरे पास आए थे, कक्षा दस में हैं।

(d) All that glitters is not gold.
सब जो चमकता है सोना नहीं होता।

As – जो, जैसा

(a) I have not seen such man as you are.
मैंने तुम्हारे जैसा व्यक्ति नहीं देखा।

(b) My pen is the same as your pen.
मेरा पैन तुम्हारे पैन जैसा है।

When – जब (समय)
(a) This is the time when you should read.
यही समय है जब तुमको पढ़ना चाहिए।

(b) I do not know the time when the train will come.
मैं वह समय नहीं जानता जब गाड़ी आती है।

Where – जहाँ (स्थान)

(a) The place where we worship is not meant for drinking.
वह स्थान जहाँ हम पूजा करते हैं शराब पीने के लिए नहीं बना है।

(b) This is the battle field where he was killed.
यह वही युद्धभूमि है जहाँ वह मारा गया था।

Why – जिससे, जिस कारण से

(a) Please tell me the reason why you did not come.
कृपया कारण बताओ जिससे (जिस कारण) आप नहीं आए।

(b) I do not know the reason why he failed.
मैं नहीं जानता जिससे वह फेल हुआ।

How – जिस तरीके से

(a) This is the way how this painting can be made.
यही तरीका है जिससे यह चित्र बन सकता है।

(b) She worked in the manner how you told her.
उसने ऐसे ही काम किया जैसे आपने कहा।

But – जो नहीं

(a) There is no man but weeps at the memorial of Gandhi.
ऐसा कोई आदमी नहीं जो गाँधी जी की समाधि पर नहीं रोता है।

(b) There is no mother but loves her baby.
ऐसी एक भी माँ नहीं जो अपने शिशु को प्यार नहीं करती हो।

Without Connective

Note – कभी – कभी कुछ वाक्य Without Connective भी बनाये जा सकते हैं।

जैसे –
(a) The task you have taken is very difficult.
जो कार्य आपने किया है बड़ा कठिन है।

(b) The girl you love is very charming.
वह लड़की जिसे आप प्यार करते हैं बड़ी आकर्षक है।

(c) The man you saw yesterday is a doctor.
वह आदमी जिसे तुमने कल देखा था डॉक्टर है।

(d) The book you bought yesterday is the best.
यह पुस्तक जिसे आपने कल खरीदा था सबसे अच्छी है।

Solved Exercises

Exercise 1
Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with suitable subordinate conjunctions :

1. The man …………………. is honest is trusted
Answer:
The man who is honest is trusted.

2. The book …………………. you gave me is very interesting.
Answer:
The book which you gave me is very interesting.

3. The table …………………. was broken is now repaired.
Answer:
The table which was broken is repaired.

4. The train …………………. has left just now goes to Lucknow.
Answer:
The train which has left just now goes to Lucknow.

5. The novel …………………. you gave me is very interesting.
Answer:
The novel which you gave me is very interesting.

6. The man …………………. you love is my friend.
Answer:
The man whom you love is my friend.

7. It is …………………. am at the door.
Answer:
It is I who am at the door.

8. The girl …………………. speech was the best was given the first prize.
Answer:
The girl whose speech was the best was given the first prize.

9. He is the same man …………………. came yesterday.
Answer:
He is the same man that/as came yesterday.

10. This is the man …………………. purse is lost.
Answer:
This is the man whose purse is lost.

11. This is the pen …………………. I bought from market.
Answer:
This is the pen which I bought from the market.

12. Tulsidas …………………. wrote the Ramayan is an eminent poet of Hindi.
Answer:
Tulsidas who wrote Ramayan is an eminent poet of Hindi.

13. The Taj Mahal …………………. is a historical monument stands at Agra.
Answer:
The Taj Mahal which is a historical monument stands at Agra.

14. The boy …………………. lost his way spent the night in a village.
Answer:
The boy who lost his way spent the night in a village.

15. The villagers …………………. were kind and hospitable gave him food and bed.
Answer:
The villagers who were kind and hospitable gave him food and bed.

16. I do not know …………………. to swim.
Answer:
I do not know how to swim.

17. I wonder …………………. he means.
Answer:
I wonder what he means.

18. I do not know …………………. I can trust.
Answer:
I do not know how I can trust.

19. I know …………………. to punish him.
Answer:
I know how to punish him.

20. This is Shyam …………………. I teach grammar.
Answer:
This is Shyam whom I teach grammar.

Exercise 2
Combine each of the following sentences using Adjective Clause :

1. This is the pen. I want it.
2. The boy was active. He was rewarded.
3. I am your monitor. I will guide you.
4. We are strangers here. We need your help.
5. You gave me medicine. It did not suit me.
6. Nathu Ram shot Gandhiji dead. He was mad.
7. She is Miss Sheela. She used to teach us English.
8. Someone broke the window. I do not know him.
9. My parents met Miss Abha Sharma. She is our teacher.
10. It is fact. He has spoken the truth.
11. The boy is my brother. He is wearing a red cap.
(Combine the Sentences in relative clause) (2016)
Answer:
1. This is the pen which I want.
2. The boy who was active was rewarded.
3. I who am your monitor will guide you.
4. We who are strangers here need your help.
5. You gave me a medicine which did not suit me.”
6. Nathu Ram who shot Gandhiji dead was mad.
7. She is Miss Sheela who used to teach us English.
8. I do not know the person who broke the window.
9. My parents met Miss Abha Sharma who is our teacher.
10. It is the truth what he has spoken.
11. The boy who is wearing a red cap is my brother.

3. The Adverb Clause

  1. Adverb clause एक ऐसा उपवाक्य है जो Adverb की भाँति कार्य करता है अर्थात् यह अन्य उपवाक्य की क्रिया या विशेषण या क्रिया विशेषण के सम्बन्ध में क्रिया विशेषण का कार्य करता है।
  2. यह Main clause के बारे में अतिरिक्त सूचनाएँ प्रदान करता है, जैसे – समय, स्थान, परिणाम, उद्देश्य, कारण, शर्त, विरोध, तुलना, तरीका।

Kinds Of Adverb Clauses
Adverb clauses नौ प्रकार के होते हैं।

जैसे –

  • Time समय
  • Place स्थान
  • Result परिणाम
  • Purpose उद्देश्य
  • Reason कारण
  • Condition शर्त
  • Contrast विरोध
  • Comparison तुलना
  • Manner तरीका

(1) AdverbClause of Time (समय)—यह समय के विषय में बोध कराता है। इसमें निम्नलिखित Conjunctions का प्रयोग होता हैं, जैसे as जिस समय, when जब, while जिस समय, as soon as ज्योंही, as long as जब तक, since जिस समय से, till जब तक, until जब तक नहीं, after के बाद, before के पहले, whenever जब कभी।

  1. As the sun was set, it grew dark.
    जैसे ही सूरज अस्त हुआ अन्धेरा छा गया।
  2. As soon as she came the children ran away.
    ज्योंही वह आयी बच्चे भाग गए।
  3. When the traveller returned to his house he found his family missing.
    जब यात्री अपने घर लौटा तो अपने परिवार को गायब पाया।
  4. You should not talk while I am reading.
    तुम्हें बातें नहीं करनी चाहिए जबकि मैं पढ़ रहा हूँ।
  5. As long as you are here I have no care.
    जब तक आप यहाँ हैं मुझे चिन्ता नहीं।
  6. My health has grown worse since I went to Bombay.
    जब से मैं बम्बई गया हूँ मेरा स्वास्थ्य खराब हो गया है।
  7. Wait here till I return.
    मेरे आने तक यहाँ प्रतीक्षा करो।
  8. Do not go home until I ask. (Permit)
    जब तक मैं न कहूँ घर मत जाओ।
  9. She had left house before I came.
    मेरे आने से पहले वह घर चली गई थी।

(2) Adverb Clause of Place (स्थान) – यह clause स्थान का बोध कराता है तथा where कहाँ, whence जहाँ से, wherever जहाँ कहीं, आदि से आरम्भ होता है।

जैसे –

  1. You can go wherever you wish.
    तुम जहाँ कहीं चाहे, जा सकते हो।
  2. I want to go with you where no one can meet us.
    मैं तुम्हारे साथ ऐसे स्थान पर जाना चाहता हूँ जहाँ कोई भी हमें न मिले।
  3. Man returns whence he comes.
    मनुष्य जहाँ से आता है वहीं चला जाता है।

(3) Adverb Clause of Result (परिणाम) – यह परिणाम या प्रभाव दिखाता है। यह clause that से आरम्भ होता है तथा इससे पहले वाले clause में so या such का प्रयोग होता है।

  1. He is so poor that he cannot pay his fee.
    वह इतना गरीब है कि अपनी फीस नहीं दे सकता।
  2. He is such dirty that no one sits besides him.
    वह इतना गन्दा है कि कोई उसकी बगल में नहीं बैठ सकता है।
  3. She is such beautiful that her beauty can not be described in words.
    वह इतनी सुन्दर है कि उसकी सुन्दरता शब्दों में व्यक्त नहीं की जा सकती है।

(4) Adverb Clause of Purpose (उद्देश्य) – यह clause किसी उद्देश्य का बोध कराता है। ये अधिकतर so that, that, lest से आरम्भ होते हैं।

  1. He works hard that he may become rich.
    वह कठिन कार्य करता है ताकि धनवान हो सके।
  2. I gave him money so that he might buy books.
    मैंने उसे पैसा दिया ताकि वह पुस्तकें खरीद सके।
  3. Read carefully lest you should fail.
    सावधानी से पढ़ो कहीं ऐसा न हो कि फेल हो जाओ।
  4. Ram went to college in order to learn some new things from the teacher.
    राम कॉलेज गया ताकि अध्यापक से कुछ नई बातें सीख सके।

(5) Adverb Clause of Reason (कारण) – ये clause कारण बताते हैं तथा अधिकतर because, since, as, that, आदि से आरम्भ होते हैं।

  1. She can not come because she is ill.
    वह नहीं आ सकती है क्योंकि वह बीमार है।
  2. As she is angry she will not come to me.
    चूँकि वह नाराज है वह मेरे पास नहीं आयेगी।
  3. That it is raining I will not go out.
    चूँकि वर्षा हो रही है मैं बाहर नहीं जाऊँगा।

(6) Adverb Clause of Condition (शत) – ये clause किसी शर्त का बोध कराते हैं तथा ये if, whether, unless, provided, in case से आरम्भ होते हैं।

  1. If you come, I shall help you.
    यदि तुम आओगे, मैं तुम्हारी सहायता करूँगा।
  2. In case you come, I shall help you.
    यदि तुम आओगे, मैं तुम्हारी सहायता करूँगा।
  3. Unless you work hard, you will fail.
    जब तक तुम कठिन परिश्रम नहीं करोगे, तुम फेल हो जाओगे।
  4. Whether you come.or not I shall go there.
    चाहे तुम आओ या न आओ मैं वहाँ जाऊँगा।
  5. Provided that she comes to me, I shall give her this book.
    मैं उसे यह किताब दूंगा शर्त यह है कि वह मेरे पास आए।

Note – Unless का Negative भाव होता है अतः if के स्थान पर unless प्रयोग करते समय दूसरे clause को Negative बना देना चाहिए।

जैसे –

  1. If you come to me, I shall go with you.
    यदि तुम मेरे पास आते हो, तो मैं तुम्हारे साथ चलूँगा।
  2. Unless you come to me, I shall not go with you.
    यदि तुम मेरे पास नहीं आते हो, तो मैं तुम्हारे साथ नहीं जाऊँगा।
  3. If you do not work hard, you will fail.
    यदि तुम कठिन परिश्रम नहीं करोगे, तुम फेल हो जाओगे।
  4. Unless you work hard, you will fail.
    यदि तुम कठिन परिश्रम नहीं करोगे, तुम फेल हो जाओगे।

(7) Adverb Clause of Contrast (विरोध) – इसे Clause of Supposition या concession कल्पना भी कहते हैं। ये विरोधाभास प्रकट करते हैं तथा अधिकतर though यद्यपि, although यद्यपि, as यद्यपि, even if यद्यपि, all the same, however फिर भी आदि से आरम्भ होते हैं।

  1. Though he is poor, he is honest.
    यद्यपि वह गरीब है, किन्तु ईमानदार है। (वह गरीब होते हुए भी ईमानदार है)
  2. Although Ravi worked hard, he failed.
    यद्यपि रवि ने कठिन परिश्रम किया फिर भी फेल हो गया।
  3. As he is rich, he is a miser.
    यद्यपि वह अमीर है फिर भी कंजूस है।
  4. Even if it is raining I shall go.
    यद्यपि वर्षा हो रही है, मैं जाऊँगा।
  5. However poor he is, he is honest.
    वह गरीब है फिर भी ईमानदार है।

(8) AdverbClause of Comparison (तुलना) – इस clause से तुलना प्रकट होती है। ये सामान्यतः than की अपेक्षा, as…..as जितना/उतना, no less than, as much as, आदि से आरम्भ होते हैं।

  1. She is taller than Ram.
    वह राम से लम्बी है।
  2. I love you no less than her.
    मैं तुम्हें उससे कम प्यार नहीं करता हूँ।
  3. I like summer season as much as spring.
    मैं गर्मी को उतना ही पसन्द करता हूँ जितना बसन्त ऋतु को।
  4. Neelam is as wise as Lata.
    नीलम उतनी ही योग्य है जितनी लता।

(9) AdverbClause of Manner (तरीका) – ये clause किसी ढंग या तरीके को दर्शाते हैं, तथा सामान्यतः as जैसा, as if मानो कि, as though मानो कि, से आरम्भ होते हैं।

  1. She did as she was asked.
    उसने जैसे कहा गया था वैसे ही किया।
  2. You may do as you please.
    तुम जैसे चाहो कर सकते हो।
  3. He behaved as if he were a king.
    उसने ऐसा व्यवहार किया जैसे वह कोई राजा हो।
  4. He seems as though he were very rich.
    वह ऐसा लगता है मानो कि वह बहुत अमीर हो।

Solved Exercise

Complete each of the following sentences by adding Adverbial clause beginning with when, where, until, if, that, as, because, though, although, as long as, then, as soon as, while, after, since, so that etc.

1. I reached the station ………………….
Answer:
I reached the station when the train had left.

2. He waited for me ………………….
Answer:
He waited for me until I returned.

3. You can get good marks ………………….
Answer:
You can get good marks if you work hard.

4. The old man was so weak ………………….
Answer:
The old man was so weak that he could not walk.

5. I found my books ………………….
Answer:
I found my books where I had put them.

6. I shall not go out ………………….
Answer:
I shall not go out if it rains.

7. I am going to bed ………………….
Answer:
I am going to bed as I am tired.

8. He loves his dog better ………………….
Answer:
He loves his dog better than his cat.

9. It was so cold ………………….
Answer:
It was so cold that I could not go out.

10. …………………. he finished his work.
Answer:
I had left the room before he finished the work.

11. The train had left the platform ………………….
Answer:
The train had left the platform before we reached.

12. You may work here ………………….
Answer:
You may work here as long as you wish.

13. …………………. he ran away.
Answer:
As soon as he saw me he ran away.

14. …………………. I could not attend the function.
Answer:
As I was ill, I could not attend the function.

15. Do not run on the road ………………….
Answer:
Do not run on the road while traffic is rushing. (running)

16. She is not so clever ………………….
Answer:
She is not so clever as her friend.

17. I missed the train though ………………….
Answer:
I missed the train though I tried my best.

18. He started as soon as ………………….
Answer:
He started as soon as he could. (possible)

19. As long as …………………. there is hope.
Answer:
As long as you are here there is hope. (As soon as he resumes breathing there is hope.)

20. He jumps …………………. a frog does. (as/as if) (2017)
Answer:
He jumps as if a frog does.

21. He gets salary. He starts spending it. (Combine using “No sooner…than’) (2016)
Answer:
No sooner does he get salary than he starts spending it.

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