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MP Board Class 12th General English Applied Grammar

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स्पष्ट तथा भाव में पूर्ण अर्थ प्रकट करने वाला शब्द – समूह sentence कहलाता है।
(A group of words which makes a complete sense is called a sentence.)

जैसे –

  1. He is my brother. – (वह मेरा भाई है।)
  2. Sita sings a good song. – (सीता एक अच्छा गाना गाती है।)

Kinds of Sentences

वाक्य पाँच प्रकार के होते हैं :

  1. Assertive – (साधारण)
  2. Interrogative – (प्रश्नवाचक)
  3. Imperative – (आज्ञा सूचक)
  4. Exclamatory – (विस्मय सूचक)
  5. Optative – (इच्छा वाचक)

1. Assertive Sentence (साधारण वाक्य) – जो वाक्य किसी कार्य या घटना के होने अथवा न होने की सूचना देता है, Assertive Sentence कहलाता है।

जैसे –

  • Hari reads a book.
  • Mohan does not sing.
  • Kamla is ill.

4. Ram is not present. Assertive Sentence दो प्रकार के होते हैं :
(i) Affirmative Sentence (स्वीकारात्मक वाक्य)—जो वाक्य किसी कार्य या घटना के होने की सूचना देते हैं।

जैसे –

  • Hari reads a book.
  • Kamla is ill.

(ii) Negative Sentence (निषेधात्मक वाक्य) – – जो वाक्य किसी कार्य या घटना के न होने की सूचना देते हैं।

जैसे –

  • Mohan does not sing.
  • Ram is not present.

2. Interrogative Sentence (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य) – जिस वाक्य में कोई प्रश्न पूछा जाता है, वह Interrogative Sentence कहलाता है। इस प्रकार के वाक्यों के अन्त में प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह (?) आता है।

जैसे –

(a)

  1. Is Bimla ill?
  2. Do you go to school?
  3. May I come in?
  4. Can you run?

नोट – ऐसे वाक्यों के प्रारम्भ में सहायक क्रिया (is, am, are, was, were, do, does, can, may आदि) आती हैं।

(b)

  1. What is your name?
  2. Where do you live?
  3. Who is your father?
  4. When do you go to school?

नोट – ऐसे वाक्यों के प्रारम्भ में प्रश्न सूचक शब्द
जैसे – What, Where, When, Who, Why, Which आदि आते हैं। हिन्दी अर्थ करने पर प्रश्न सूचक शब्द वाक्य के बीच में आता है।

3. Imperative Sentence (आज्ञा सूचक वाक्य) – जिस वाक्य से आज्ञा, प्रार्थना या उपदेश का भाव प्रकट होता है, तब Imperative Sentence कहलाता है।

आज्ञा –

  • Go there.
  • Bring water.

प्रार्थना – Please help me.
उपदेश – Obey your elders.
नोट – ऐसे वाक्यों में कर्ता ‘you’ छिपा रहता है।

4. Exclamatory Sentence (विस्मय सूचक वाक्य) – जिस वाक्य से आश्चर्य, भय, दुःख, विस्मय, दया, घृणा, करुणा, हर्ष आदि का भाव प्रकट होता है, वह Exclamatory Sentence कहलाता है।

जैसे –

  1. What a beautiful girl she is ! – (आश्चर्य)
  2. How foolish you are ! – (विस्मय)
  3. How dark the night is ! – (भय)
  4. How dirty he is ! – (घृणा)

नोट—ऐसे वाक्यों के अन्त में विस्मय सूचक चिन्ह (!) लगा होता है।

5. Optative Sentence (इच्छा वाचक वाक्य) – जो वाक्य कोई इच्छा, कामना, आशीर्वाद अथवा अभिशाप आदि प्रकट करता है, वह Optative Sentence कहलाता है।
जैसे –
1. May you live long ! – (आशीर्वाद)
2. May you go to hell ! – (अभिशाप)

नोट – ऐसे वाक्यों के अन्त में भी विस्मय सूचक चिन्ह (!) लगा होता है।

Examples:

  1. Mr. Sharma teaches us English. (Assertive – Affirmative)
  2. She does not play cricket. – (Assertive – Negative)
  3. Who are you? – (Interrogative)
  4. Come here. – (Imperative)
  5. How fast he is walking! – (Exclamatory)
  6. May God help you! – (Optative)

Exercise Study the above examples and tell the kinds of the following sentences :

  1. The sun rises in the East.
  2. Sita is not a good girl.
  3. Why have you come late again?
  4. Do you not wash your clothes daily?
  5. Study regularly.
  6. Please wait till I come.
  7. How grand the Taj is!
  8. May God grant you a long life!
  9. Do not make noise here.
  10. Smoking is not good for health.

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