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MP Board Class 12th English A Voyage Workbook Solutions Unit 3 Grammar
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3.1 More About Prepositions
See Workbook Pages 41-46
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions
(over, above, across, through, below and under.)
My friend lives ………….. the street, we go for a walk every morning. There is a play-ground at the end of the street. We walk ………. it and reach the river bank. There are a lot of trees on the river bank. We do some physical exercises ………. the trees. There is a bridge the river. We cross the bridge. Then there is a thicket of overgrown babul trees. We walk the thicket very carefully. The river is not very deep at this point. At times we wade knee-deep water and reach the other side and don’t use the bridge. There is a hillock on that side. There is a house on it and the house, there is a temple at the top. We go to the temple on Tuesdays and Saturdays ………. the temple on the other side of the hillock is a ground palace.
across, through, under, or over, across, through, above, across.
I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions choosing from those given against each sentence.
1. We can’t call Ramesh a teenager. He is ………. twenty. (below/above/under)
2. She swam ………. the river and reached the other bank. (across/through/into)
3. There was no bridge in the ………… river. (on/above/over)
4. During winter we have to drive ………. thick fog in the morning to reach the office.
5. What are you doing here ………. this hour? (on/at/in)
6. Don’t put any pictures ………. the wall. Let it be plain. (in /over/on)
7. He lost his way ………. the forest. (in/ through/into)
8. They will arrive here ……… Monday evening. (in/on/at)
9. It rains ………… winter here. (at/on/in)
10. He jumped ………….. the lake to save himself from the bear, (in/into/through)
II. Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary. There are expressions where prepositions
are not required. Mark (X) where prepositions are not required.
1. I am leaving for Delhi next week.
2. Cut this apple two.
3. Children twelve are not eligible to take part in this race.
4. We expect him midnight flight.
5. He slipped the letter the carpet to avoid detection.
6. She entered the room suddenly without knocking the door.
7. You can hire a car at the airport.
8. Ajay is a fast runner. He can run 100 meters 12 seconds.
9. I am busy this moment but I’ll be with you five minutes.
10. I’ll see you next Friday.
- at, within
I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositional phrases choosing from those given below: (with the help of; in honour of; in search of; in charge of; in front of; in the mood for; in time for; at the end of; at war with; on behalf of)
1. Mr. Sharma is the person who is ………. this factory.
2. We are having a big party………. the visiting guest.
3. The two countries are ………. each other.
4. Don’t worry. I’ll be ………. the dinner.
5. There is a neem tree ………. my house.
6. His assistant can sign the papers ………. Mr. Patel.
7. People go to America these days ………. better jobs.
8. The boy lifted the heavy table ………. his friends.
9. They proposed a vote of thanks ………. the meeting.
10. I think I’ll go out for a walk because I’m not ………. studying.
- in charge of
- in honour of
- at war with
- in time for
- in front of
- on behalf of
- in search of
- with the help of
- at the end of
- in the mood for.
II. Use the following prepositional phrases in your own sentences:
in the country; by heart; by all me
at time; on duty; at least; out of order; in any case; in comparison with; all the time.
- In the country: I am proud of living in the country of the great saints.
- By heart: I love him by heart.
- By all answer By all me answer he could manage five lakhs for his daughters marriage.
- At times: He comes to see me at times of need.
- On duty: be strict on duty.
- At least: At least you should convey it to him.
- Out of order: My car is out of order.
- In any case: In any case I can’t allow him to go now.
- In comparison with: Our country is great in comparison with the other countries.
- All the time: All the time I find him sad.
See Work Pages 48-50
I. Fill in the blanks with the suitable articles where necessary:
1. There is man in room.
2. Let us go to market.
3 sun rises in the East.
4 European came to our school yesterday.
5. He is honest man.
6. Man has reached moon.
7. He bought pencil yesterday.
8 books on the shelf are history books.
9. Let us meet . principal.
10. There was Indian with them,
11. I saw bus on road that was damaged.
12. It’s an easy option.
13 friend in need is friend indeed.
14 honesty is the best policy.
15 knife is made of steel.
- a, the
- a, the
- A, a
- x, the
- a, x.
II. Use the proper determiner:
1 people came into the room. (some, any)
2. Would you like sugar? (some, any)
3. 1 want tea. (some, any)
4. Take the book you like. (some, any)
5. Are there . letters for me? (some, any)
6. Give me book you do not want. (all, the)
7 person can cast a vote. (each, every)
8. India has a chance of winning but they lost. (each, every)
9. He showed us his photographs. (each, every)
10. My technique improved with lesson. (each, every)
11 the windows should be opened. (all, each)
12. They got in manners of trouble. (all, each)
13 the apples are ripe. (all, every)
14. They argued with seriousness. (all, each)
15. 1 have reason to be angry (all, every)
16. This is book I had bought myself. (a, an, the)
17. That is house they lived for almost a decade. (a, an, the)
18 is your book? (which, what)
19 book is that? (whose, what)
20. 1 saw cousin running after a bus. (his, whose)
III. Fill in the blanks with the suitable articles where necessary.
Nourish your Emotions
A person without emotions is like. ………1……. wood without any juice. You need to make your life interesting to make ……… 2 ……. people be with you. This will happen when you nurture yourself with ………3……. music, ………4……. prayer and ………5…….service……….6……. way to expand from individual to universal consciousness is to share other’s sorrow and joy. As you grow your consciousness should also grow. When you expand in knowledge with………7…….time, then………8…… depression is not possible. ………9……way to overcome personal misery is to share universal miser ………10……. way to expand personal joy is to share universal joy. Instead of thinking “what about me?” and “what can I gain from this world?”, think “what can I do for 11 world?” ………12……. silence heals and rejuvenates. Silence gives you………13…….depth and stability and brings………14……. creativity Service leads to ………15…….dynamic experience of heart. It creates ………16……. sense of belongingness. Lack of service can land ………17……. person to depression. The pain is inevitable. ………19……. suffering is optional. Pain is physical. Suffering is mental. If you are not sensitive to others’ pain, then you are not………20……. human being. That is why you need to serve. Service alone can bring ………21…….contentment in life, but service without silence tires you. Since without ………22…….spiritualitv will be shallow, and cannot be sustained form ………23 ……. long period ………24……. deeper ………25……. silence, ………26……. more dynamic. ………27……. outer activity Both are essential in life. When you bring some relief or freedom to someone through seva, good vibrations and blessings come to you. Seva brings merit; allows you to go deep in ………28……. meditation. Meditation brings back your smile. When you sing and pray from your heart, your emotions are nourished and you become “lively”.
1. a 2. z 3. x 4. x 5. z 6. The 7. z 8. z 9. The 10. The 11. the 12. x 13. x 14. z 15. a 16. a 17. a 18. z 19. x 20. a 21. z 22. x 23. a 24. The 25. the 26. the 27. the 28. z
Workbook Pages 52-541
I. Fill in the blank.. with correct form of the modals.
The verbs in brackets are to be used in correct tense firm. The number, in the blank show the numbers of words you hare to fill including the verb, adverb LIT negative expression.
An elderly gentleman (senior citizen) is travelling on a train. The ticket-checker (T.C.J tomes a routine round.
- T.C. : Gentleman, would you show me your ticket, please?
- S.C. : (Shows his ticket to him)
- T.C. : (Examining the ticket). Dadaji! it is not for the class you are travelling in. You ………1……. (not, travel) in sleeper class compartment with an ordinary class ticket. You are a senior citizen and responsible old man. You ………2……. (not, break) the rules in this was You ………3…….(have) a civic moral sense.
- S.C. : Youngman. I feel ashamed, but see how infirm I am!………4…….(not walk steadily); ………5……. (not, stand) in the long queues at the booking windows. With much difficulty ………6……. (buy) only this one; otherwise, I ………7……. (go) back home.
- TC : But why didn’t you go to a general compartment? You ………8……. go) there.
- S.C. : Sir! Did you ever go near it? You and your government ………9…….(make) a survey of the wretched passengers, plight in that ‘torture chamber’. Do you think I would ever have come out alive f I had entered one?
- T.C. : Sir! Perhaps you don’t know that at each station, there is a separate window for the senior citizens. You……….10…….(buy) your ticket at that one.
- S.C. : Sorry. I don’t know; otherwise, be sure, I ………11……. (not, commit) this mistake. It was for this that I ………12…….board this way.
- T.C. : But now 1………13……. (not, help) you; you………14…….(pay) the penalty and difference infare,
- S.C. : Look at my condition ………..15……..you (not, let) me get away with the difference only?
- T.C. : Sir, I wish I……….16…….(do) so, but the rules do not permit me. (He calculates and says) You ………17……. (pay) ‘ 450.
- S.C. : (pays the amount) Is that all?
- T.C. : Thank you. (turns to go)
Another passenger: (catches hold of the T.C) Dear sir, You ………18…….(not go) this way without giving a valid receipt for the charge. You……….19…….(not get away) without issuing a valid receipt. You are a government servant; you……….20……..(know) your duty.
- T.C. : (cuts a sorry figure) Please, pardon me. The devil in me prevailed over my conscience. I ………21……. (never, do) this sin again. (gives him a valid receipt and goes.). The passenger (to the senior citizen): Now you ………22……. (worry). If I had not accosted him, he would have pocketed all the money and possibly you ………23……. (catch) at the next checking.
- S.C.: Thanks a lot. You have done me a great service………24…….you please (come) close to me so that I………25…….see) you? The passenger: Welcome Sir. Now I ………26……. (go). My destination is nearing. I ………27……. (get down) at the next station. Be-God with you.
- can’t travel
- should not break
- should have
- can’t walk steadily
- can’t stand
- could buy
- would have gone
- can go
- should make
- can buy
- would not have committed
- can’t help
- have to pay
- could you not let
- could do
- have to pay
- can’t go
- shouLd not getaway
- must know
- would never do
- needn’t worry
- might be caught
- have to go
- have to get.
II. Rewrite the sentences using hie modal given in brackets:
12th English Workbook Answers MP Board Question 1.
You are allowed to enter through this gate. (may)
You may enter through this gate.
Class 12 English Workbook Solutions Question 2.
You are allowed to buy tickets beforehand. (can)
You can buy tickets beforehand,
Class 12 English Workbook Solutions Mp Board Question 3.
The guard has the right to ask for your ID card. (may)
The guard may ask you for your ID card.
12th English Workbook Answers Pdf MP Board Question 4.
Do you think he is planning a picnic? (could)
He could plan a picnic.
Class 12 Workbook Solutions MP Board Question 5.
Perhaps he is not planning anything of that sort at all. (might)
He might not be planning anything of that sort at all.
Class 12th English Workbook Solutions MP Board Question 6.
I gave her permission to submit the work tomorrow. (may)
I gave her permission that she may submit the work tomorrow.
English Workbook Class 12 Solutions MP Board Question 7.
Perhaps it is Jatin who leaked out the secret. (might)
Jatin might have leaked out the secret.
Mp Board Class 12 English Workbook Solutions Question 8.
Is it possible that they have made an unthinkable blunder? (could)
They could have made an unthinkable blunder.
Mp Board Class 12th English Workbook Solutions Question 9.
Perhaps she is still trying to get a job. (could)
She could have still trying to get a job.
Mp Board 12th English Workbook Question 10.
Perhaps they will be delayed by traffic jam. (might)
They might be delayed by traffic jam.
Class 12 General English Workbook Solutions Mp Board Question 11.
Do you think she is still cooking? (could)
She could be still cooking.
English Class 12 Workbook Solutions MP Board Question 12.
Perhaps it is not going to happen. (might)
It might not happen.
English Workbook Class 12 Pdf MP Board Question 13.
You are permitted to use the pass. (can)
You can use the pass.
12th English Workbook Pdf MP Board Question 14.
I gave him permission to come by car. (may)
He may come by car.
12th General English Workbook Answers MP Board Question 15.
Perhaps the state of this library will improve. (might)
The state of this library might improve.
III. Fill appropriate modals and verb forms in the blank spaces, choosing from the following modals as given in the example:
can, could, could be, could not be, could not, may, might, might have, will, will not, shall, shall not, should, should not, should have, would, would be, would have, must have, must have been, ought to have been, needn’t, used to.
e.g.: You ought to have spoken politely
She needn’t have gone so early.
Mother : Dear Rani, I suppose by now you have completed your English lessons.
Rani : No, mother, I am sorry, but …….1……….
Mother : What! You mean to say you have flot. You see, it is December end. By now you …….2……. (started) revision.
Rani : Mummy. listen to me. I am not at fault. My English teacher this year remained on long leave and so the lessons…….3……… complete)
Mother : The school …….4……. (engage) another teacher for that.
Rani : Mummy, try to understand. Our Principal did her best to find a good teacher but she …….5……… (find) one who….6….(teach) English well.
Mother : Then you…….7……… (tell me. I …….8……… (engage) a tutor for you. He…….9………(complete your lessons on time.
Rani : For that I am sorry but really I was afraid you…….10………(withdraw) me from the school and …….11……… (send me to another one.
Mother : My dear, it is bad. A daughter…….12………(hide) her problems from her mother. You know how deeply a mother loves her daughter. Then when …….13………you (be) afraid of me? Now promise that in future you…….14………(hide) any of your problems from me of whatsoever nature they…….15……… (be).
Rani : Now it is my promise …….16………(commit) such a blunder. I …….17……… (keep) you informed of all my problems.
Mother : Anyhow, you …….18……… (worry). Tomorrow I …….19……… (go) to Mr. Sharma, He is good at English. I am sure he…….20………(solve) your problem. In the past, whenever I needed a good teacher for your brother, …….21……… go) to him and he was always willing to help.
Rani : Then we …….22………(make) haste.
Mother : You …….23……… (be) so impatient. I promise …….24………(go) tomorrow.
Rani : (clinging to her mother) Oh mother! How nice you are! Now all my problems 25 (solve). (She dances with joy)
- should, have, started
- couldn’t complete
- should engage
- couldn’t find
- can teach
- could have told
- could have engaged
- might have completed
- would withdraw
- send may
- shouldn’t hide
- won’t hide
- won’t commit
- will keep
- needn’t worn
- will go
- would solve
- had gone
- must make
- needn’t be
- will go
- would be solved.
IV. Which of the words (it in the sentences:
can, could, cannot, couldn’t, must
1. I’reeti play badminton really well when she wants to.
2. I’m afraid I come to school today
3. Yesterday I lost my book, J looked for it everywhere but I find it.
4. Rohit has been travelling all day He be very tired.
5. When I was in class five, I remember the meaning of a lot of words.
6. Anu drive hut she doesn’t have a car.
7. The stranger asked her something hut she reply because she speak French.
8. Congratulations! You got first position in the Board Examination. You be happy
9. My uncle had a sharp memory in his childhood. He remember the names of all students in his class.
10. ‘You look tired’. ‘Yes’, I was working till late hours. So, I sleep last night.
- could not
- could not, cannot
- could riot
V. Rewrite the sentences using the correct form of just, wed, should or hate to without changing the meaning.
Class 12th English Workbook MP Board Question 1.
It is essential that my teacher does not find out that I have not done my homework.
My teacher must know that I have not done my homework.
My mother made more saniosas than needed.
My mother need not have made more sarnosas.
It is compulsory to wear a helmet when you ride a scooter.
You must wear a helmet when you ride a scooter.
My sister forces me to wear woollen clothes when I go out.
I have to wear woollen clothes when I go out.
It’s not necessary to stay here for the whole day.
We need not stay here for the whole day
It is not good of you lo speak to my friend like that.
‘You should not speak to my friend like that.
It was not necessary for me to go by bus as my friend offered me a lift.
I need not have gone by bus as my friend offered me a lift.
The boy promised his mother to be back before evening. It is 2 pm now.
The boy should have been back before evening.
3.4 The English Tenses
I. Use the Present Simple or Present Continuous Tense of the verbs provided in bracket as required:
Anu (go) to school every day.
Anu goes to school every day
She usually (walk) to school.
She usually walks to school.
She usually (reach) there in time.
She usually reaches there in time.
Today she (go) to school on scooter.
Today she is going to school on scooter.
Site (feel) well today.
She is feeling well today
She (learn) English every day.
She learns English every day
Today she (learn) French.
Today she is learning French.
She (love) dancing.
She loves dancing.
She (learning) Bharatnatyam now
She is learning Bharatnatvam now.
She always (sleep) early.
She always sleeps early
II. Use Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous Tense form of the verbs given in brackets:
1. Riya……… (learn) English for six months now, but she still not ………….. (learn) it well.
2. …… (read) the Ramaya? I- (read) it for two years now but lam still midway the work.
3. MY grandparents ……….. (visit) America several times, but they have never (see) the National Stadium.
4. It ………… (rain) since Monday morning.
5. Ajay ………..(return) from Mumbai recently
6. I ……… (be) to Canada.
7. I ……… never (be) to Sri Lanka.
8. Bhawna ……… (not write) the article yet. She (write) since Monday.
9. Children ……… (play) cricket in the ground for two hours now.
10 you ever ……… (read) any novels by Prem Chand?
- has been learning, has not learnt
- Have you read, have been reading
- have visited, seen
- has been raining
- has returned
- have been
- have never been
- hasn’t written, has been writing
- have been playing
- Have, read
III. Change the following sentences lo indicate that the action occurred in the past:
Vani takes a bath every morning.
Vani took a bath yesterday morning.
She does not always feel happy after taking a bath.
She did not feel happy after taking a bath.
She has breakfast at eight o’clock.
She had breakfast at eight o’clock.
She takes a walk in the evening.
She took a walk in the evening.
She hurries to the class.
She hurried to the class.
She is never late.
She was never late.
She loves to study mathematics.
She loved to study mathematics.
She reads in the class when it is her turn.
She read in the class when it was her turn.
Her teacher writes the homework on the blackboard.
Her teacher wrote the homework on the blackboard.
Vani writes her homework on her answer-book.
Vani wrote her homework on her answer-book.
IV. Combine the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using a time clause beginning
with ‘while or ‘when’.
Anjali and Prachi were walking home from school. It began to rain.
While Anjali and Prachi were walking home from the school, it began to rain.
Hina was sleeping. Her sister came.
When Hina was sleeping her sister came.
Someone called Dithi on the telephone. She was doing her homework.
When Dithi was doing her homework someone called her on the telephone.
Prachi’s friend arrived. Prachi was waiting for her.
When Prachi was waiting for her friend she arrived.
Her mother was cooking meals. She burned herself.
While cooking meals her mother burned herself.
Fatima was reading a magazine. She fell asleep.
When Fatima was reading a magazine, she fell asleep.
Manu was trying to finish his examination. The final bell tang.
When the final bell rang Manu was trying to finish his examination.
Isha was reading a book. She noticed a torn page.
While reading a book Isha noticed a tom page.
Aman slipped and fell. He was playing football.
While playing football, Aman slipped and fell.
Madhu was watching TV. Her mother entered the room.
When her mother entered the room Madhu was watching TV
V. Change She following sentences using one of the verbs in the Past Perfect Tense:
Rita finished her homework. Then she wrote a poem.
After she had finished her homework, Rita wrote a poem.
She wrote to her parents. She went to sleep.
She had written to her parents before she had gone to sleep.
Saira read a part of the book. Then she returned it to the librarian.
Saira had read a part of the book before she returned it to the librarian.
Aditi had a cup of coffee. Aditi then went to sleep.
Having a cup of coffee Aditi went to sleep.
Prachi came here in 2001. She was in England for a year before that.
Before coming here in 2001, Prachi had been in England for a year.
She knew me for a long time. One day she told me about her hometown.
As she had known me for a long time she told me about her hometown.
He was in India for three months. Then I met him.
I met him when he had been in India for three months.
Mili did her homework before going to bed. Therefore she was able to sleep well.
Mili was able to sleep well as she had done her homework.
Rohan took a tablet. He felt well.
Rohan felt well as he had taken a tablet.
Paula said she was too tired. But she agreed to play with her younger sister for some time.
Paula had been too tired but she agreed to play with her younger sister for some time.
VI. Richa is going from India to America tomorrow. Look at her schedule and say what she will be doing at these times
- 2 am to 12noon – flying to London
- 12.00 to 02.30 pm – wait for the next connected flight
- 3 pm to 12 midnight – flying to Chicago
- 1.30 am to 6 am – rest in a hotel
- 6 am to 12 noon – meet her client and discuss the project
- 6 pm – fly back to India
- 3 pin – reach Delhi
- 6 pm – board a train to Bhopal
- 8 am – reach Bhopal
- 9 am – reach home
3.5 Non-Finite Verbs
See Workbook Pages 67-72
I. Complete the following sentences using a suitable verb:
1. Tenzing Norkay was the first ……….. the top of Mount Everest.
2. It is too good ………..
3. I don’t know how ……….. it.
4. When ……….. the new venture is yet another problem.
5. Don’t forget ……….. the letter I gave you.
6. He joined a driving school ……….. to drive a car.
7. He has no wish ………..
8. Please show me where ……….. the car.
9. They spoke softly so as not……….. the baby.
10. Sir Roger did not like anyone ……….. when the sermon was going on.
- to climb
- to bear
- to crack
- to start
- to drop
- to learn
- to make
- to park
- to disturb
- to talk.
II. Combine the following pairs of sentences by using a gerund.
She insisted. She must see the dying man.
She insisted on seeing the dying man.
He accepted. He had stolen the money.
He accepted for stealing the money.
It is no good. You are arguing against the law.
Arguing against the law is no good.
Ravi regretted. He had written such a book.
Ravi regretted for writing such a book.
Forgive me. I had to wake you up so early.
Forgive me for waking you up so early.
III. Rewrite the following sentences, using the second sentence as an infinitive phrase:
He refused it. He would not accept your proposal.
He refused to accept your proposal.
I don’t like it. I should to decide things by myself.
I don’t like to decide things by myself.
She hates it. She should do her homework.
She hates to do her homework.
Are you prepared? you should do it?
Are you prepared to do it?
They decided it. They should go.
They decided to go.
IV. Rewrite the following sentences by using anticipatory ‘it’:
To err is human.
It is human to err.
To pardon is divine.
It is divine to pardon.
To read your writing is difficult.
It is difficult to read your writing.
To understand why she was annoyed is easy.
It is easy to understand why she was annoyed.
To see you is a real pleasure.
It is a real pleasure to see you.
3.6 Passive Voice
See Workbook Page 74
I. Go through the following conversation between two school-boys regarding the school annual function and italic the passive verb-forms used therein. For example, one has been done for you.
Aman : Our school function will be held tomorrow.
Amit : The Governor of the State has been invited as the chief guest.
Aman : There is a surprise for us. Our parents are also expected to attend.
Amit : The school campus is being decorated tastefully.
Aman : We all have been assigned important work. I am going for the rehearsal.
Amit : I was told to prepare a welcome song.
Aman :My classmate Mary has been chosen to compare the finale.
Amit : That is challenging. I could have been given a chance to perform that task.
Aman : Well, it’s not over. You can try next year. I’ll be very happy if you are choosen.
Amit : Look, our friends are waiting. We are supposed to be on time. Let us disperse.
- has been invited
- are also expected
- is being decorated
- have been assigned
- was told
- has been chosen
- could have been given
- are chosen
- are supposed.
II. Make meaningful sentences in passive voice from the Presentation table given below, using proper forms of the verbs in Column B:
III. One day some of your friends visited you. Since your mother was not at home, you yourself had to prepare tea. You went to the kitchen and
- lighted a stove
- a measured quantity of water
- poured it into the kettle
- put the kettle on the stove
- added sugar when water started boiling
- put a good quantity of tea leaves
- boiled it for some time to make it strong
- filtered it with the help of a strainer
- mixed milk
- served in tea-cups to your friends.
Now rewrite this procedure of preparing tea in the passive. It should start this.
A stove was lighted. A measured quantity of water was poured into the kettle and it was put on the stove. Sugar was added to it when water started boiling. Then a good quantity of tea leaves was put in it. It was boiled for some time to make it strong. It was filtered after some time with the help of a strainer. Milk was mixed later and then the tea was served in tea-cups to my friends.
IV. Complete the following write-up about Nepal, a neighbouring country, using the appropriate active or passive form of the verbs given in brackets.
Until a few years ago, you ……1…….. (enter) Nepal except on foot. There……2……. (be) no roads into Nepal and no airfields Anyone who……3……..(want) to visit the country ……4……..(walk) across the mountains, or ……5…….. (‘carry’) by porters. All goods, too. ……6…….. (take) into the country in the same way, along narrow and difficult mountain paths. Sometimes they are lost on the way. People and goods ……7…….. (carry) into and out of Nepal in this way for hundreds of years, the aeroplane ……8…….. (arrive). An airfield ……9……..(build) near Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, where small planes ……10……. (land) when the weather ……11……. (allow) it. Passengers and important goods ……12……. (begin) to ……13……. (takeHnto and out of Nepal by air. Today, there ……14……. (be ) a regular air service between Nepal and India. Now, a road ……15…….. (build) from India to Nepal. It ……16…… (finish) a few years ago. It ……17…….(use) by trucks or cars, but jeeps ……18……. (drive) along it if they ……19…….(go) carefully. Of course, this road ……20…….. (run) through very beautiful country, a lot of which ……21…….. (cover’) with thick forests. Great mountains and rushing rivers ……22…….. (‘cross’! as the road ……23…….. (wind) its way up on to the ‘Roof of the World’ as it ……24…….. (call).
- could enter
- had to walk
- were carried
- were taken
- were carried
- has been built
- be taken
- has been built
- was finished
- is used
- can be driven
- is covered
- is called.
V. You happened to attend an election meeting where the candidate was claiming the achievements of the last term, enumerating the ongoing schemes and making promises for the coming term. Visualise yourself as a candidate and write sentences for a short speech on these outlines.
Poverty has been alleviated.
Employment is being provided to lakhs of people every year
A hospital will be provided in the coming five years.
- Roads will be repaired.
- Some new roads shall be built for better connectivity
- Five primary schools, two high schools and two colleges will be opened.
- Electricity will be unproved.
- A big community centre shall be built.
- A new college for women shall be established.
- All-round development of this region will be done.
VI. The locality you settled in was having a lot of problems, viz, sanitation, water supply, security, transport and so on. Same as these have been solved, some are in the process of being solved and some of them need to be solved. Prepare a summary for the local newspaper on these outlines in about fifteen sentences, highlighting the process of developing a colony.
1. Electrification was done by the private agency
2. Water supply is being ensured by the Municipal Corporation.
Do it yourself.
3.7 Narration (Reported Speech)
See Workbook Pages 79-81
I. Read the Direct Speech and then fill in the spaces in the Indirect Speech.
1. 1 said to the teacher, “1 am working hard.”
I the teacher I working hard.
2. He said to me. “You are wasting my time.”
He me that wasting time.
3. Prem said to Pran, “Were you present at my birthday party?”
Prem Pran he present at birthday party.
4. John said to Mary “Why did you not tell me that truth earlier?”
John Mary she not her that truth earlier.
5. The captain said, “Hurrah! we have won.”
The captain that they won.
6. Amit said, “How foolish you have acted!”
Amit that acted foolishly.
7. Rita said to Raj. “Please come to the station with me.
Rita Raj …. to the station with
8. The teacher said to the boys, “DO not waste your time.”
The teacher the boys waste time.
9. Priti said to Shashank, “Will you come to help if I am in trouble?”
Priti Shashank he come to help if in trouble.
10. Yash said to ishita, “Why donUt you obey your parents?”
Yash ishita she obey parents.
- told, that, was.
- told, I was, his.
- asked, if, had been, his.
- asked, why, had, told.
- praised, had.
- regretted, he had.
- requested, to come, her
- forbade, to, their.
- asked, if would, she was.
- asked, why, didn’t, her.
II. Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech.
He says, “He spoke the truth.”
He says that he spoke the truth.
The geography teacher said, “The Sun rises in the east every morning and sets in the west every evening.”
the west every evening.”
The geography teacher said that the Sun rises in the Eat every morning and sets in the west every evening.
He said to her; “I’ll go to, Delhi tomorrow.”
He told her that he would go to Delhi the.next day.
She said, “I am working in a restaurant and don’t. care much for ”
She told that she was working. a restaurant and didn’t care much for it.
He said to me, “You can never get his help.”
He told me that could never get his help.
Peter said to her, “I am sorry for not having a tie on. I didn’t know it was going to be a formal party
Peter told her that was sorry for not having a tie on and added that he hadn’t known It was going to be a formal party.
Shashank said to Priti. “Why did you not tell me the truth earlier?”
Shashank asked Priti why she had not told him the truth before
The moneylender said to her, “When will you pay my money back?”
The moneylender asked her when she would pay his money back.
The guide said to me, “Do you want to see the Cathedral?”
The guide asked me if I wanted to see the Cathedral.
His mother said, “Don’t put sticky things In your pockets.”
His mother prohibited him to put sticky things in his pockets.
Nikita said, “How foolish you have acted”
Nikita regretted that she had acted very foolishly.
Yash said, “Hurrah! My mOther has won first prize.”
Yash aimed with joy that his mother had won the first prize.
“Read the questions twice,” said the teacher, “and don’t write in the margin.”
The teacher advised us to read the question twice and not to write in the margin.
Ishlta said to David, “Why don’t you open an account in my bank?”
Ishita asked David why he didn’t open an account in ‘her bank.
He said to me, “You played very well yesterday.”
He told me that I had played very well the previous day
III. Read the conversation between a salesman and a Customer
- Salesman : May I help you, sir? ‘
- Customer Do you have an English dictionary?
- Salesman : Yes, will this one Suit you?
- Customer No, it is too bulky.
- Salesman : Please look at this. It’s a smaller one.
- Customer : Don’t ‘you have a still smaller one? ‘
- Salesman : You mean a pocket dictionary?
- Customer : ‘That’s It. It is convenient to carry.
- Salesman : Here it is
- Customer : How much is it?
- Salesman : Fifty rupees.
- Customer: This will do for me. Here is a fifty rupee note.
- Salesman : Thank you, sir, please come again.
Now, rewrite the whole conversation In indirect Speech Start like this:
The salesman asked the customer if he might help him. The customer asked if he had an English dictionary. The salesman replied in affirmative and asked if that one suited him. The customer replied in negative and said that it was too bulky. The salesman requested him to look at that and said it was a smaller one. The customer asked him if he didn’t have a still smaller one. The salesman asked if he did mean a pocket dictionary. The customer said that it was that and said it was convenient to carry. The salesman said that there it was. The customer asked how much was it. The salesman told that it was fifty rupees. The customer offered him fifty rupees and told him that he would do for him. The salesman thanked him and requested to come again.
IV. Read the following conversation carefully then report it to one of your friends.
The visitor asked the receptionist if he could see Mr. Paul. The receptionist replied that she was afraid and said that Mr. Paul was in a meeting right then and she had instructions not to disturb him. The visitor told that he had an appointment with him for that day. Then the receptionist asked him to wait for a minute and to let her see him on the phone and inquire about him (the visitor).
V. Last Monday you read the following comic strip in a newspaper. It is a conversation between body and his boss. Now report the whole conversation to your friend.
See workbook page 84.
Start like this:
The boss told Blondy that he was really tired of having to listen to all his excuses and that there was a new deal. Then he instructed him to work up his excuses from them and to drop them in that pail and to deliver the pail to him at the end of the day. Blondy replied that he meant that he had only got one pail.
VI. You went to a doctor’s clinic with your friend Asif as he was not feeling well. The doctor and Asif talked like this:
Now you report everything to Asif’s father. Begin like this:
Yesterday I took my friend Asif to a doctor as he was not feeling well. The doctor asked him what his trouble was. Asif replied that he hadn’t been feeling well lately When the doctor asked what exactly the problem was Asif replied that he often felt quite sick. Then the doctor asked what his appetite was. At this, Asif replied that he didn’t feel like eating anything. When the doctor asked him to show him his tongue, Mil asked him if there was anything serious. The doctor said in negative and said that he was prescribed two kinds of tablets and asked him to take them in time. Mil thanked him.
3.8 Sentence Structure — Clauses
(See Workbook Page 86 )
Mark the subject and two predicate in the following Sentences:
1. Three hundred men were killed.
2. They helped us.
3. Ram and Mohan have gone.
4. She spoke Hindi fluently
5. Who saw her last?
6. Where are the books?
7. Have you been to Agra?
8. Does your mother cook food?
9. Will walking in the morning do him good?
10. Most of the food was eaten.
Subject – Predicate
- Three hundred men – were killed.
- They – helped us.
- Ram and Mohan – have gone.
- She – spoke Hindi fluently.
- Who – saw her last?
- where – are the books?
- you – Have been to Agra?
- your mother -Does cook food?
- walking – Will in the morning do him good?
- Most of the food – was eaten
I. Mark the main clauses in the following sentences.
1. I know what you want.
2. This is the place where he was born.
3. What you say is not true.
4. If you are absent you will lose the job.
5. Though they tried hard, they could not succeed.
6. This is the man who stole the necklace.
7. When he came in I was reading a book
8. You can play whenever you like.
9. The flowers you put in the vase have faded.
10. The book you are reading belongs to me.
- I know
- This is the place
- is not true
- you will lose the job
- they could not succeed
- This is the man,
- I was reading a book
- You can play
- The flowers, have faded,
- The book belongs to me.
II. You have marked the main clauses in the sentences. The remaining clauses in each sentence are a subordinate clause. You must have marked that the subordinate clauses in the above sentences are not alike. They, perform different functions. They perform the functions of nouns, adjectives and adverbs. We call them noun clauses, adjective clauses and adverb clauses. Now sort them out in the table below:
3.9 Noun Clauses
See Workbook Pages 87-88
I. Complete the following sentences adding noun clauses.
- He knows that his father is serious.
- That I will get this award is certain.
- The difficulty is that I can’t understand Math.
- The news that the flood had devastated the whole state was true.
- Don’t pay any attention to what Ramesh says to you.
- He is doubtful about what he heard from Mohan.
- It is possible that the school shall be closed tomorrow.
- It was informed that there will be a visit of PM.
- The earth moves around the Sun is known to all.
- She expects that she will top the list.
II. Read the information given below and then complete the sentences:
The signboard on the highway warns that ……….
There is hairpin bend so drive slow.
The hostel warden wants that…
Students must not go for swimming at the seaside.
There is a message from the Principal that the …
Parent-teacher meet shall be held on Monday 15-12-20xx between 8 to 11 am.
It is popularly said that …
An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
The problem is …
That who will bell the cat.
The news that …
Mr. Sharma is taking over as new chairman is true
3.10 Adjective Clauses/Relative Clauses
See Workbook Pages 89-90
I. Combine the following pairs of sentences by using relative clauses. Omit the relative pronouns wherever it is possible:
He is speaking to the people in Hindi. The people do not know Hindi.
He is speaking in Hindi to the people who do not know Hindi.
The man was sitting at the desk. I had come to see this man.
I had come to see the man who was sitting at the desk.
I sit on the chair. It has a wooden seat.
I sit on the chair which has a wooden seat.
People were given temporary sheds to live. Their houses are to be demolished.
People whose houses are to be demolished were given temporary sheds to live.
I want to interview the mail. His name is Gopal.
I want to interview the man whose name is Gopal.
He introduced me to the guests. Most of them were above fifty.
He introduced me to the guests who were above fifty.
The man was driving a car. The car had no lights.
The man was driving a car which had no lights.
She is riding a bicycle. The paddle of the bicycle is broken.
She is riding a bicycle which has a broken pedal.
I was given your address by a man. I met this man oft a train.
I was given your address by a man who met me on a train.
A girl answered the telephone. She said Amit was away.
A girl who answered the telephone said Amit was away.
II. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
(See Workbook Page 91 )
Answer the questions and combine, the pairs of sentences using relative clauses; The first question has been Answered as an example:
Who were Guddu and Raju?
Guddu and Raju were casual labourers who were engaged to whitewash Mr. Gupta’s house.
Who was Bhola?
Bhola was a burglar who saw the ladder and the lock on the door.
Who was Mr. Kapoor?
Mr. Kapoor, who was a tenant of Mr. Gupta, was also on duty.
Who was Mr. Sharma?
Mr. Sharma, who gave a party, was Mr. Gupta’s neighbour.
Who was Mr. Gupta?
Mr. Gupta was the house-owner whose house was burgled.
What did Bhola steal? (jewellery and cash which……..)
Bhola stole jewellery and cash which were in Mr. Gupta’s almirah.
How did Bhola reach the first floor? (Ladder which………)
Bhola reached the first floor through the ladder which was left-leaning by the labourers.
Who reported the theft to the police? (It was who……)
It was Mr. Kapoor who reported the theft to the police on phone.
3.11 Non-Defining Relative Clauses
See Workbook Pages 92-93
I. Combine the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using a non-defining relative clause:
Mrs. Sharma has been working all day. She is tired and wants some rest.
Mrs. Sharma who has been working all day is tired and wants some rest.
I went to Delhi. I had always wanted to visit Delhi.
I went to Delhi which I had always wanted to visit.
I met Ashok. He asked me to give you this book.
I met Ashok who asked me to give you this book.
Mr. Raj didn’t get a seat on the train. This put him in a bad temper.
Mr. Raj didn’t get a seat on the train which put him in a bad temper.
He gave orders to his assistants. The assistants passed on to their assistants.
He gave orders to his assistants who passed them on to their assistants.
She swam across the English Channel. This had never been done before.
She swam across the English Channel which had never been done before.
In prison, they gave us dry bread. Most of it was mouldy.
In prison, they gave us dry bread most of which was mouldy.
Bobby went on a journey with his brother. Bobby was anxious to impress his brother.
Bobby who went on a journey with his brother was anxious to impress his brother.
He said that the men were robbers. This turned out to be true.
He said that the men were robbers which turned out to be true.
He asked his servant to wash his clothes. Most of them had not been washed for weeks.
He asked his servant to wash his clothes most of which had not been washed for ‘ weeks.
II. Fill in the blanks with relative pronouns where necessary. Put a ‘x’ where relative pronouns can be omitted and are not required.
1. The toy …….. you gave to the child is broken.
2. Those …….. are late will be punished.
3. The boys …….. names have been deleted from the list can see me in the afternoon.
4. Make a list of things …….. you want me to buy for you.
5. The chair …….. you are sitting on has three legs.
6. My neighbour,……..son is in your class, wants to see you.
7. People …….. work hard always succeed.
8. I have listed the questions’ answers …….. I do not know.
9. The girl, ……..won the first prize, is my daughter.
10. The boy …….. I gave the money has disappeared.
3.12 Adverb Clauses
(See Workbook Pages 94-.%7
I. Combine the following pairs of sentences using the conjunctions given
He will come at any moment. I’ll wait for till then. (till)
I will wait till he comes.
The tea is very hot. We can’t drink it. so that)
The tea is so hot that we can’t drink it.
They worked hard. They succeeded. (as)
As they worked hard they succeeded.
He is poor. He worked hard and completed his studies. (though)
Though he is poor he worked hard and completed his studies
You will pay the bill. You will not get the books. (unless)
Unless you pay the bill you will not get the books.
He looks young. He is not so young. (than)
He looks younger than his age.
She worked hard. She could earn more money. (so that)
She worked hard so that she could earn more money.
You came. I was having a bath then. (when)
When you came, I was having a bath.
We reached the station. They had already left. (after)
We reached the station after they had left.
The toys are very expensive. We can’t afford to buy them. (so ……. that)
The toys are so expensive that we can’t afford to buy them.
II. Complete the following sentences adding adverb clauses:
1. She was welcomed with garlands wherever ……………
2. Keep this medal safely lest ……………
3. The play was stopped as……………
4. You complete your homework before ……………
5. She will not gel any food unless ……………
6. Mr. Sharnia borrowed money from the bank so that
7. Molian speaks better than ……………
S. Mr. Das is saving money in order to
9. Though …………… they spend a lot of money on books.
10. He is standing where ……………
- she went
- it should be lost
- the rain started
- the teacher leaves
- she finishes this task
- he can buy a new car
- he looks
- go abroad
- they are miser
- the accident occurred
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