MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Answer:

  • Animal husbandry evolves new techniques and technologies for the management of livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that are useful to humans.
  • These methods can also be applied rearing animals like bees, silkworm, prawns, crabs, fishes birds, pigs, cattle, sheep and camels for their products like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.

Question 2.
If your family owned a diary farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
Answer:
Dairy farm management deals with processes which aim at improving the quality and quantity of milk production. Milk production is primarily dependent on choosing improved cattle breeds, provision of proper feed for cattle, maintaining proper shelter facilities and regular cleaning of cattle. Choosing improved cattle breeds is an important factor of cattle management. Hybrid cattle breeds are produced for improved productivity. Therefore, it is essential that hybrid cattle breeds should have a combination of various desirable genes such, as high milk production and high resistance to diseases, Cattle should also be given healthy and nutritious food consisting of roughage, fibre concentrates and high levels of proteins and other nutrients.

Cattle’s should be housed in proper cattle-houses and should be kept in well ventilated roofs to prevent them from harsh weather conditions such as heat, cold and rain. Regular baths and proper brushing should be ensured to control diseases. Also, time-to-time check-ups by a veterinary doctor for symptoms of various diseases should be undertaken.

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Question 3.
What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objective of animal breeding?
Answer:
Breed refers to the group of animals having same ancestral characters, general appearance, size, etc.

Objectives of animal breeding :

  • To increase the quantity of yield.
  • To improve the desirable qualities of the produce.

Question 4.
Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best ? Why ?
Answer:
The methods employed in animal breeding are :

  • Natural methods: These can be carried out by inbreeding and outbreeding methods.
  • Artificial methods: These are carried out by artificial insemination and multiple Ovulation embryo transfer (MOET).

The artificial method of animal plant breeding is best as it ensures good quality of progeny. It is also economic and time saving process to obtain the desirable progeny.

Question 5.
What is apiculture ? How is it important in our lives?
Answer:
Apiculture is the practice of bee-keeping for the production of various products such as honey-bee’s wax, etc. Honey is a highly nutritous food source and is used as an indigenous system of medicines. Other commercial products obtained from honeybees include bee’s wax and bee pollen. Bee’s wax is used for making cosmetics, polishes and is even used inseveral medicinal preparations. Therefore, to meet the increasing demand of honey, people have started practicing bee-keeping on a large scale. It has become an income generating activity for farmers since it requires a low investment and is labour intensive.

Question 6.
Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.
Answer:
Fishery is an industry which deals with catching, processing and marketing of fishes and other aquatic animals that have a high economic value. Some commercially important aquatic animals are Prawns, Crabs, Oysters, Lobsters and Octopus.

Fisheries play an important role in the Indian economy. This is because a large part of the Indian population is dependent on fishes as a source of food, which is both cheap and high in animal protein. A fishery is an employment generating industry especially for people staying in the coastal areas.

Question 7.
Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
Answer:
The major steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are as follows :

  1. Collection of variability.
  2. Evaluation and selection of parents.
  3. Cross-hybridization among the selected parents.
  4. Selection and testing of superior recombinants. ;
  5. Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars.

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Question 8.
Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Answer:
Biofortification is a process of breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and fat content. This method is employed to improve public health. Breeding of crops with improved nutritional quality is undertaken to improve the content of proteins, oil, vitamins, minerals and micro-nutrients in crops. It is also undertaken to upgrade the quality of oil and proteins. An example of this is a wheat variety known as Atlas 66, which has high protein content in comparison to the existing wheat. In addition, there are several other improved varieties of crop plants such as rice, carrots, spinach etc. which have more nutrious value and more nutrients than the existing varieties.

Question 9.
Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus free plant and why?
Answer:
The terminal bud having apical meristem are the.best suited parts of plant for making virus-free plant because they are not infected by virus.

Question 10.
What is the major advantages of producing plants by micropropagation ?
Answer:
Major advantages of producing plants by micropropagation are :

  • Large number of plants can be grown in short-time.
  • Disease-free plants can be obtained.
  • Plants that have lost the capacity to produce seeds can be grown.
  • The plants where sexual reproduction is absent, may be hybridised by tissue culture.
  • Plants produced are genetically similar to the parent and have all its characteristics.

Question 11.
Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are?
Answer:
The major components of the medium for in-vitro propagation are :

  • Water
  • Agar-agar
  • Surcrose
  • Inorganic salts
  • Vitamins
  • Amino acids
  • Growth hormones like Auxin, Cytokinins.

Question 12.
Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.
Answer:

  • Cauliflower varieties — Pusa shubhra and Pusa snowball K-1
  • Brassica varieties — Pusa swamim (Karan rai)
  • Wheat varieties — Himgiri
  • Rice varieties — Jaya and Ratna
  • Chilli varieties — Pusa Sadabahar.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Other Important Questions and Answers

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Objective Type Questions

1. Choose the Correct Answers:

Question 1.
In cattles anthrax disease is caused by:
(a) Bacteria
(b) Fungi
(c) Virus
(d) Ticks.
Answer:
(a) Bacteria

Question 2.
The causal organism of haemorrhagic septicaemia as:
(a) Brucella avartus
(b) Bacillus sp.
(c) Pasterella boviseptica
(d) Clostridium.
Answer:
(c) Pasterella boviseptica

Question 3.
Foot and Mouth disease of cattles is caused by :
(a) Fungi
(b) Bacteria
(c) Virus
(d) Mycoplasma
Answer:
(c) Virus

Question 4.
The disease caused after rainy season is:
(a) Black fever
(b) Haemorrhagic septicaemia.
(c) Ponkni
(d) Anthrax.
Answer:
(c) Ponkni

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Question 5.
The vaccination for galghontu animal is :
(a) January and February
(b) March – April
(c) May – June
(d) October – November.
Answer:
(c) May – June

Question 6.
The cause of plague disease of animals is :
(a) Fungi
(b) Bacteria
(c) Virus
Answer:
(c) Virus

Question 7.
Example of cereal plant is :
(a) Wheat
(b) Rice
(c) Maize
(d) All the above
Answer:
(d) All the above

Question 8.
Botanical name of common wheat is :
(a) Triticum aestivum
(b) T. vulgare
(c) T. durum
(d) T. monococcum
Answer:
(b) T. vulgare

Question 9.
Wheat and rice belongs to family :
(a) Gramineae
(b) Papillionaceae
(c) Euphorbiaceae
(d) Compositeae.
Answer:
(a) Gramineae

Question 10.
Padma and Jaya are the improved varieties of:
(a) Wheat
(b) Rice
(c) Gram
(d) Groundnut.
Answer:
(b) Rice

Question 11.
Botanical name of Rataiyot is :
(a) Pongamia pirmata
(b) Ricinus communis
(c) Jatropha curcus
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Jatropha curcus

Question 12.
Triticum aestivum wheat is :
(a) Haploid
(b) Diploid
(c) Tetraploid
(d) Hexaploid.
Answer:
(c) Tetraploid

Question 13.
Man-made cereal is :
(a) Potato
(b) Triticale
(c) Triticum
(d) Sugarcane.
Answer:
(b) Triticale

Question 14.
Wheat grain is a:
(a) Fruit
(b) Seed
(c) Embryo
(d) Glume.
Answer:
(b) Seed

Question 15.
Removal of stamens from the flower during hybridization is called:
(a) Cutting
(b) Self-fertilization
(c) Emusculation
(d) Topnin.
Answer:
(c) Emusculation

Question 16.
New crop is :
(a) Triticale
(b) Rye
(c) Winged bean
(d) Wheat.
Answer:
(a) Triticale

Question 17.
Wheat used in bread is:
(a) Triticum aestivum
(b) Triticale
(c) All species of triticum
(d) Secale.
Answer:
(a) Triticum aestivum

Question 18.
Sonera-64 and Lerma roja-64 A are the varieties of:
(a) Wheat
(b) Rice
(c) Pea
(d) Maize.
Answer:
(a) Wheat

Question 19.
Haploid male plants can be produced by the culturing of:
(a) Filament
(b) Pollen grains
(c) Stamens
(d) Androecium.
Answer:
(b) Pollen grains

2. Fill in the Blanks:

  1. The process of separating animals with desired characters for breeding purpose is called ………………………
  2. Breeding between two genetically different animals is called ………………………
  3. Anthrax fever of cattles is caused by bacterium ………………………
  4. Ranikhet disease of fowls was first observed in ……………………… district.
  5. Fowl pox disease is caused by ………………………
  6. Number of chromosomes in Triticum vulgare is ………………………
  7. Ground nut belongs to family ………………………
  8. Botanical name of Karanj is ………………………
  9. ……………………… is the first genetically engineered food.
  10. Undifferentiated and unorganised mass of cells is called ………………………
  11. Removal of anthers or stamens from a diploid flower is called ………………………
  12. In tissue culture selected plants are called ………………………
  13. ……………………… discovered totipotency.
  14. Botanical name of Wheat is ………………………
  15. Regeneration capacity of cells is called ………………………
  16. Callus cells are differenciate to other cells is called ………………………
  17. ……………………… is known as the rice bowl of India.
  18. ……………………… is the process of interbreeding between individuals of different species.
  19. The best biotechnique of disease resistant is ………………………
  20. Harmfull insects of plants are called ………………………

Answer:

  1. Selection
  2. Outbreeding
  3. Bacillus anthraxis
  4. Ranikhet (Kumau)
  5. Virus
  6. 42
  7. Papillionaceae
  8. Pongamia pinnata
  9. Flavr Savr Tomato
  10. Callus
  11. Emasculation
  12. Elite
  13. Steward
  14. Triticum vulgare
  15. Totipotency
  16. Cell differentiation
  17. Chhattisgarh
  18. Hybridization
  19. Disease resistance variety
  20. Pests.

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Question 3.
Match the Following:
I.
MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 1
Answer:

  1. (d)
  2. (e)
  3. (a)
  4. (c)
  5. (b).

II.
MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 2Answer:

  1. (c)
  2. (d)
  3. (e)
  4. (a)
  5. (b).

III.
MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 3
Answer:

  1. (e)
  2. (d)
  3. (a)
  4. (b)
  5. (c).

4. Answer in One Word/Sentence:

  1. When did green revolution start in India ?
  2. Name the type of vegetative propagation in the plants having bulb.
  3. Give two examples of cereal
  4. Write the name of any man-made crop.
  5. Name the product of hybridization of two different species.
  6. What is the name of the method for the removal of anthers from flower before maturity ?
  7. What we called rearing of bees ?
  8. What we called rearing of fishes ?
  9. What we called undifferentiated and unorganized mass of cells ?
  10. What is operation flood ?

Answer:

  1. 1960
  2. Artificial vegetative propagation
  3. Wheat, Rice
  4. Triticale
  5. Hybrid
  6. Emasculation
  7. Apiculture
  8. Fishery
  9. Callus
  10. Milk production.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is hissardale ?
Answer:
Hissardale is a breed of sheep.

Question 2.
Name the species of honeybee is used in apiculture.
Answer:
Apis Indica.

Question 3.
What should be effect on plant when honey camp is put in the center of farm in the time of pollination ?
Answer:
Pollination should be increase in plants.

Question 4.
What is inbreeding ?
Answer:
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating of individuals that are closely related genetically.

Question 5.
What is the benefits of animal reproduction ?
Answer:
Advantages of animal reproduction are good quality animals produce and production level increased it.

Question 6.
Name the pathogens of bird flu.
Answer:
The pathogens is Influenza-A virus.

Question 7.
Name any two plant which are genetical modified.
Answer:

  1. Golden Rice
  2. Flavr Savr.

Question 8.
Name two plant which are produce by artificially.
Answer:

  1. Kalyan Sona
  2. Shining mung.

Question 9.
Name the organism which is used in one of the most potent nutrient (Single cell protein) in industrial production.
Answer:
Spirulina is used as single protein in industries.

Question 10.
Whose management is called dairy management ?
Answer:
Animal management.

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Question 11.
What do you mean by Animal husbandary ?
Answer:
Animal husbandary is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fiber, milk and egg. •

Question 12.
Name the varieties of rice from which semidwarf varieties have been developed.
Answer:
IR-8 and Taichung Native-I

Question 13.
Give an example of somatic hybrid produced.
Answer:
Pomato is a somatic hybrid of potato and tomato.

Question 14.
Name any two diseases which are caused by virus in plants.
Answer:

  1. Tobacco mosaic
  2. Himip mosaic.

Question 15.
Give the full form of SCP.
Answer:
Single Cell Protein is the full form of SCP.

Question 16.
Name any two fishes found in freshwater.
Answer:

  1. Catla,
  2. Rohu.

Question 17.
What is the economic value of Spirulina ?
Answer:
Spirulina can serve as food rich in protein and decrease the pollution.

Question 18.
Name the type of vegetative propagation in the plants having bulb.
Answer:
Scaling.

Question 19.
Name the product of hybridization of two different species.
Answer:
Hybrid.

Question 20.
Name the first man-made crop.
Answer:
Triticale.

Question 21.
Give one example of millet.
Answer:
Rye.

Question 22.
What is called breeding between two closely related animals ?
Answer:
Inbreeding.

Question 23.
Name the causal organism of anthrax disease of cows:
Answer:
Bascillus anthracis.

Question 24.
What is the cause of piro plasmosis or chicbadi jwar in cattles ?
Answer:
Babasia bovis.

Question 25.
Write the name of two diseases of dogs.
Answer:
Rabies and Dermatitis.

Question 26.
Name the causal organism of ranikhet disease of fowls.
Answer:
Through virus.

Question 27.
In which animals ranikhet disease occur ?
Answer:
Fowls.

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Question 28.
What is the cause of bacillary white disease ?
Answer:
Bacteria.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is scaling ? What are its importance ?
Answer:
Scaling: It is a method of vegetative propagation which is applicable for growing plants having bulbs, (e.g., Onion, Garlic). In this method, all the scales of bulb are separated and planted in the field (Soil) having all the necessary conditions for their growth: Here scales develops to produced small bulblets. About 3 to 5 bulblets developing from one scale. This method is applicable for the plants belonging to the family Liliaceae. e.g., Garlic, Onion, Lilium, etc.

Question 2.
What is tissue culture ? What are its objectives ?
Answer:
“Tissue culture is an experimental process through which a mass of cells (callus) is produced from an explant tissue and the callus produced in this way can be used directly either to regenerate plantlets or to extract to some primary and secondary metabolites’v

When appropriate culture conditions were provided, cell masses could then proceed along various developmental pathway, to regenerate shoot and root organs and eventually whole plants.

Aims of Plant Tissue Culture

  • To develop new plants from the plant organ other than seeds.
  • To produce hybrid varieties of plants.
  • To produce disease free plants from diseased plants.
  • To reduce the period of reproductive cycle.
  • Development of haploid plants.
  • To develop stress resistance plants.

Question 3.
What is callus culture ? Give its technique.
Answer:
Callus culture : Callus is the unorganised and undifferentiated mass of tissue. The plant body of higher plants is made of multicellular, well organised differentiated structures like root, stem, leaves etc. Sometimes the cells of these differentiated structures proliferate to form large mass of unorganized and undifferentiated cells which is called as callus and this process is called callus culture. In this method the isolated plant cell, tissue to organs are cultured in nutrient medium in glass culture tubes or in petridishes under aseptic conditions. The cultured part is called as explant. The growth responses depends upon the source of the explant, composition of the nutrient medium and the suitable growth conditions.

Technique of Callus culture: Callus culture involves the following steps:

1. First it is necessary to sterilize the plant organ from which an explant is taken. Sterilizing agents commonly used are mercuric chloride solution (0.1 w/v), sodium hypochloride (1.6 available chlorine) and a solution of bromine in water (1 % w/v).
Explants can be taken from seedlings (cotyledon, hypocotyl or root) or mature organs or from wood stem parts.

2. Wash the explant with distilled water, cut small pieces of it and transfer it on suitable culture medium. Agar-agar is used for making culture medium. The culture media was supplemented with amino acids, vitamins, kinetin or other growth factor. An auxin and usually a cytokinin promote high growth rate of callus.

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Question 4.
Why aeration is essential in the process of Tissue culture ?
Answer:
For any living being, respiration is a must. Through respiration only it can perform various activities. Oxygen is necessary for respiration. Tissue culture also needs oxygen, then only it can grow. Aeration provides oxygen to the plant parts, thus aeration is essential in the process of Tissue culture.

Question 5.
What is inbreeding ? Give its advantages.
Answer:
The mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generation is called inbreeding. It may lead to inbreeding depression i.e„ the loss of fertility, vigour and productivity of the hybrid.

Question 6.
How foot and mouth disease of cattles spreaded ? Write symptoms and control measures of this disease.:
Answer:
Foot and Mouth Disease: This disease is also known to be as paka, khongua, khaira, khura, roda and Athus fever. It is caused by virus A, O and C.

Symptoms:

  • High fever.
  • Blue appearance of mucosa of mouth and tongue.
  • Severe depression.
  • Erosions in mouth, on the lips, tongue, in the nostrils, etc.

Prevention :

  • Diseased cattles should be kept in isolation.
  • Vaccination before rainy season.
  • The legs of cattles should be washed with copper sulphate or red medicine soultion.

Treatment : (i) The mouth of cattles should be washed with alum, potassium permagnet, boric acid or carbonic acid twice or thrice in a day.

Question 7.
List the components which are present in honey. Name the three species of honeybee and write the chemical compositions of honey.
Answer:
There are three species of honeybee :

  1. Apis indica
  2. Trigona species
  3. Malinopa species.

Uses of honey:

  • In the form of medicine.
  • In the form of nutritive food material.

Chemical composition:

Fructose — 41%
Glucose — 35%
Sucrose — 1-9%
Dextrine — 1-5%
Protein — 0-18%
Mineral salts — 3-3%
Water — 17-25%.

Some amount of vitamins B, B6, Coline, Vitamin C and D.

Question 8.
What precautions should be kept in the process of incubation ?
Answer:
Incubatary period is 21 days in fowl precautions of incubation of hens are as follows:

  • The eggs chosen should be of good quality.
  • Egg size should be medium.
  • Colour of egg should be white.
  • Eggs should be washed in water.
  • Eggs should not be shaken.
  • In summers eggs should not be kept more than 30 days.
  • At night, the fowl should be fed before incubation. Incubation of egg should be done by Indian fowl.

Question 9.
Give four significance of poultry farming.
Answer:

  • Poultry provide humans with companionship, food and fiber in the form of eggs, meat and feathers.
  • Poultry rearing and poultry farming is a good source of income.
  • It provides additional income and job opportunities.

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Question 10.
Give the characteristics of meat providing chickens and give two examples of these.
Answer:
Characters of meat providing chickens are as follows :

  • Size is big.
  • They intake large quantity of nutrition.
  • Their feathers are loose.
  • Their growth rate is low.

Question 11.
Write the examples of three freshwater and three marine water fishes and give its significance.
Answer:
Examples of three fresh water fishes :

  1. Rohu,
  2. Catla,
  3. Singhala.

Significance of Freshwater fishes:

  • Rohu (Labio rohita): Its brain is rich in phospho protein which improve eye sight.
  • Catla (Catla-catla): Its brain is rich in phospho protein which improve eye sight.
  • Singhala (Mystus singhala) : It is rich in Iron and Copper which is good for circulatory system.

Examples of three marine water fishes :

  1. Hilsa
  2. Pomfret
  3. Bombayduck.

Significance of Marine water fishes :

  • Hilsa (llishaa species): It is rich in omega-3 fatty acid.
  • Pomfret (Stromatus niger): High in vitamin D
  • Bombayduck (Harpodon): It is the source of calcium.

Question 12.
Fish meat is better than other animals why ?
Answer:

  • Fish meat is better because it is rich in protein.
  • Iodine is found in it which protects goiter disease.
  • It has low fat so, it protect our heart.
  • Fat soluble vitamin A and D are found in much quantity.
  • It is digestive so, it is better for children.

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Question 13.
Name the developed breed of cow and buffalo. Explain why buffalo milk is better than cows milk. .
Answer:
Developed varieties of Cow:

  • Holstein friesian
  • Jersey
  • Ayer Shayer
  • Brown swiss.

Developed varieties of Buffalo :

  • Murra
  • Surti
  • Bhadavari

Nagpuri. Buffalo’s milk is better than Cows milk because :

  • Buffalo gives triple qunatity of milk than cow.
  • Buffalo milk is rich in fat.
  • It has much resistance power.

Question 14.
What is the significance of sheep and goat ? Give the name of three indian species of each.
Answer:
Zoological name of sheep is Ovis ones. It gives wool, meat and leather its species are:

  • Lohi: It gives carpet quality of wool and meat production.
  • Bakharwal.
  • Patanwadi.

Zoological name of goat is Capra aegagrus It gives us both meat and milk. The three species are as follows :

  1. Cashmere goat.
  2. Sirohi.
  3. Jamunapari.

Question 15.
Name the five species of chicks.
Answer:

  1. Rhode Island Red
  2. New Hampshired
  3. Light Sussex
  4. Australorps
  5. White Leghorn.

Question 16.
What is single cell culture ? Explain paper raft technique and its application.
Answer:
Single Cell Culture : The culturing of a single cell on suitable sterilized culture media under controlled and aseptic conditions is called single cell culture. Establishment of a single cell culture provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the properties and potentialities of plant cells. Several workers have successfully isolated single cell division and even raised complete plants from single cell cultures.

Paper raft technique of single cell culture :

  • In this technique, the single cells are isolated with the help of micropipette and transferred on to the upper surface of filter paper resting on nurse callus. These active nurse callus and the culture medium provides growth factors to the single cells.
  • The single cells then divides and as a result of proliferation in them, the colonies develop.
  • Colonies formed in nutrient medium are transferred to the subcultured fresh nutrient media. The callus developing from such single cells are called as single cell clones.
    MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 4

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the name of causal organism, symptoms of disease and control measures of Ranikhet disease of fowls. .
Answer:
Ranikhet Disease: This disease was first discovered from the hills of Ranikhet (Kumau), hence called Ranikhet disease.
Causal organism: Virus.

Symptoms:

  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Head, neck and legs are paralyzed.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Increase in the temperature of the body.
  • Secretion of mucilagenous substance from the mouth and nostrils.
  • The colour of the body become voilet.
  • Laying of egg is inhibited and eggs become ruptured.

Control and Treatment:

  • Isolation.
  • Died individuals should be immediatly burned.
  • Water should be disinfected.
  • Vaccination by ranikhet vaccine:
    (a) F strain vaccine given to 1 to 3 days old chicks.
    (b) Freeze dried chick embryo vaccine is given to 6 to 8 months old chicks.

Question 2.
Write the method and advantages of artificial breeding in cattles.
Or
What is artificial insemination ? Write its importance.
Answer:
Artificial Hybridization : It is a method in which sperms of male are injected into the reproductive tract of female ones. Where they fertilize egg to produce individuals with new characters.
Artificial hybridization involves the following steps : ‘

1. Selection of Parents: It is the first step of natural hybridization in which male and female individuals with desired characters are selected. Usually healthy animals with desired characters are selected.

2. Collection of Semen : It is the second step of artificial hybridization. In this step male individuals are stimulated mechanically or electrically so, that they release semen. This semen is collected in vials.

3. Preservation of Semen : Collected semen is diluted with appropriate diluting liquid and is stored in refrigerators.

4. Introduction of Semen into vagina (= Insemination): In this step, the desired semen is injected into the vagina of female individuals when they are heated. This technique was used for the first time by Spallanzani in 1780 in dogs. In India, this technique was used for the first time by Animal Research Institute, Eta Nagar (U.P.). More than 10-70% species of cattles are developed by this technique.

Precaution taken during insemination :

  • Insemination should be done in appropriate period.
  • Only high quality semen should be used.
  • Correct technique of insemination should be used.
  • The animals should be healthy during insemination.

Advantages of Artificial Insemination:

  • Few semen of healthy males are used for inseminating many female individuals.
  • The transportation of semen in ampules is easier.
  • The problem of availability of suitable males is solved by the development of this technique.
  • Cattles with desired characters should be used.

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Question 3.
How can we provide high living standards for poultry farming ?
Answer:
The steps for providing high living standards are as follows :
(1) Protection, (2) Provide proper places, (3) Necessary facility, (4) Cheap and comfortable, (5) Clean, (6) Facility of water and light, (7) Nearness from market, (8) Protection from parasites and other insects.
While the construction of poultry farms see that they are made of low prices and keep in mind the following things :

  • There is no moisture left in the farm.
  • Farm should be in a place where there is proper sunlight because microorganism can not grow in this situation.
  • There should be proper aeration facility because there are no sweat glands present in fowls as they release moisture by the process of breathing.
  • There should be cleanliness in farm.
  • Fowl is a feable bird who has lots of enemies this is the reason they should be defended.

Question 4.
How can crop varieties be made disease resistant to overcome food crisis in India ? Explain, Name some disease resistance variety in India. Give the method of breeding for disease resistant variety.
Answer:
Crop varieties can be made disease-resistant by conventional breeding methods or by mutation breeding. The germplasm is screened for resistance source or mutations are introduced followed by hybridization of selected parents. The resulting hybrids are evaluted and tested finally, disease resistant varieties are released.

Disease-resistant variety of:

  • Wheat to leaf and stripe rust-Himgiri.
  • Brassica to white rust-Pusa swamim.

Methods to breeding for disease resistance:

  • Hybridization.
  • Selection.

These steps are involved it:

  • Selections of breed from resistant source.
  • Hybridization of selected breed.
  • Selection of Hybrid.
  • Evaluation.
  • Testing of new variety and its production.

By hybridization and selection some fungi, bacteria and viruses can be disease resistant. These varieties given below :
MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 5

Question 5.
How is plant breeding helpful to provide resistance forwards pastes ?
Answer:
Plant breeding for developing resistance to Insect pests :
(1) The host crop plants may be resistant to insect pests due to the morphological,
biochemical or physiological characteristics.
(2) Some characteristics that lead to pest resistance are :

  • Hairy leaves in plant e.g., resistance to Jassids in cotton and cereal leaf beetle in wheat.
  • Solid stem in wheat exhibits non-preference by stem sawfly.
  • In cotton, smooth leaf and absence of nectar repel bollworms.
  • In maize, high aspartic acid, low nitrogen and sugar content protects them from stem borers.

(3) The steps of breeding method is same as for the other agronomic traits.
(4) Some varieties developed by hybridization and selection are as follows :
MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 6

MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions

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