MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
Reproductive Health NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
Significance of reproductive health in a society are :
- Control over the transmission of STDs.
- Less death due to reproduction related diseases like-AIDS, cancer of reproductive tract.
- Control in population explosion.
- Not only this reproductive health of men and women affects the health of the next generation.
Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
Special attention need to be given to the following aspect :
- Introduction of sex education in school that to helps in eradicating myths and mis-conceptions regarding sex-related aspects.
- Proper information about reproductive organs, safe and hygienic sexual practices and sexually transmitted diseases.
- Awareness of problems due to uncontrolled population growth, social evils like sex abuse and sex-related crimes etc.
- Strong infrastructural facilities, professional expertise and material support to provide medical assistance and care to people in reproduction related problems.
- Educating people about available birth control options, care of pregnant mothers, post-natal care of mother and child, importance of breast feeding, equal opportunities for the male and female child.
Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Yes, sex education is necessary in schools because :
- It will provide proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence, safe, hygienic sexual practices and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
- It will provide right information to avoid myths and misconceptions about sex related queries.
Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 year’s ? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement
Yes, Reproductive health in our country has improved in the last 50 year’s.
Some areas of improvement are :
- Better awareness about sex-related matters.
- Increased number of medically assisted deliveries and better post-natal care of child and mother leading to decreased maternal and infant mortality rates.
- Increased number of couples with small families.
- Better direction and cure of STDs and overall increased medical facilities for all sex-related problems.
What are the suggested reasons of population explosion?
The situation where population exceeds productive capacity is known as population explosion. In nature, the amount of resources are limited hence, if the population increases in the present rate and increasing beyond the limit, they (Resources) would get exhausted.
Reasons of population explosion : Following are the reasons of population explosion:
- Increasing birth rate.
- Decreasing death rate.
- Higher rate of reproduction.
- Medical services have brought down mortality due to fatal diseases and epidemics.
- Lack of predator in the civilized world today, the only predator of man is man himself.
Is the use of contraceptives justified ? Give reasons.
Yes, use of contraceptive is justified because it helps to control the rapid growth of human population. It will also help in preventing unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Contraceptive also help in controlling the population growth rate.
Removal of gonads can not be considered as a contraceptive option, why?
Removal of gonads not only stops the production of gametes but will also stop the secretions of various important hormones, which are important for bodily functions. This method is irreversible and thus, can not be considered as a contraceptive method.
Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment
Yes, the ban is necessary because amniocentesis is misused for determining the sex of the fetus and then aborting the child of it is a female. This process is illegal it causes harm to the fetus as well as mother it can also disturb the sex ratio.
Suggest some method to assist infertile couples to have children.
If the couples are enable birth the children and corrections are not possible, the couples could be assisted to have children through certain special techniques, commonly known as Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Some methods are given as :
1. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) : In this method, ova from the female and the sperm from the male are collected and induced to form zygote under stimulated conditions in the laboratory. This process is called In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). Some method given as follows :
(i) Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZlFT) : The zygote or early embryo with up to 8 blastomeres is transferred into the fallopian tube.
(ii) Intra Uterine Transfer (IUT) : Embryo with more than 8 blastomeres is transferred into the uterus in females who cannot conceive embryos formed by fusion of gametes in another female are transfered.
(iii) Test tube baby : In this method, ova from the donor (female) and sperm from the donor (male) are collected and are induced to form zygote under stimulated conditions in the laboratory. The zygote could then be transferred into the fallopian tube and embryos transferred into the uterus, to complete its further development. The child born from this method is called test tube baby.
(2) Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT) : It is the transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube 8 another female who cannot produce one, but can provide suitable environment for fertilization and further development of the embryo.
(3) Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) : It is a procedure to form an embryo HI* the laboratory by directly injecting the sperm into an ovum.
(4) Artificial Insemination (AI) : In this method, the semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced into the vegina or into the uterus (Intra Uterine Insemination, IUI). This technique is used in cases where the male is unable to inseminate sperms in the female reproductive tract or due to very low sperm counts in the ejaculation.
(5) Host Mothering : In this process, the embryo is transferred from the biological mother to a surrogate mother. The embryo then develops till it is fully developed or partially developed. It is then transferred to the biological mother or into any other. This technique is useful for females in which embryo forms but is not able to develop.
What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs ?
STDs can be prevented by the following methods :
- Avoid sex with unknown partners/multiple partners.
- Always use condoms during coitus.
- Always contact a qualified doctor for any doubt in early stage of infection and get complete treatment if diagnosed with disease.
State True/False with explanation.
(a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
False, Abortion does not happen under normal conditions. It happens accidently or under the will of Parents.
(b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)
False, Sterility always does not occur due to female sometimes. Males are also responsible for this.
(c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
True, Menstrual cycle does not occur after parturition which can act as natural
contraception but this method is functional for a period of six months from parturition.
(d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of die people. (True/False)
True, this creates better reproductive health among people.
Correct the following statements :
(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
It prevents the transportation of gametes not their formation.
(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
Hepatitis-Band AIDS are not curable.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.
Oral pills are not popular among rural women. They require sex education.
(d) In E.T. techniques, embryos are always transfered into the uterus.
In E.T. techniques 8-called blastomere is transfered into the fallopian tube. While more than 8-celled blastomere is transfered into the uterus.
Reproductive Health Other Important Questions and Answers
Reproductive Health Objective Type Questions
1. Choose the Correct Answer
Removal of Fallopian tube in females are called :
(d) Castration (Gonadectomy).
Main region ofthe population growth are :
(a) Less death rate
(b) Growth of birth rate
(d) Less war.
(a) Less death rate
The causes of popülatîon explosion in large cities is :
(a) Chances of education
(b) Available facilities
(c) Sources of income
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.
Population density is more in :
AIDS disease caused by :
(a) From bacteria
(b) From protozoa
(c) From virus
(d) From fungus.
(c) From virus
Sex transmitted diseases are caused by :
(d) All of these.
Population calculated in India :
(a) In 1891
(b) In 1947
(c) In 1950
(d) In 1961.
(a) In 1891
The technique of the control of birth rate is called :
Alcohol affected organ is :
Population growth rate of world is :
2. Fill in the Blanks :
- Statistical study of population is called ……………….
- According to MALTHUS, Population grows ……………….whereas the means of its subsistences grows ……………….
- The entry and exit of member in any population is called ……………….
- Cutting and ligating ends of segments of vas deferens is called ……………….
- The population density of terrestrial animals, the area is represented by ……………….
- Birth rate and migration ………………. the population density.
- Revised birth fate is always greater than ………………. birthrate.
- Vital index = ………………. /Mortality x 100.
- Population ………………. with time and place.
- From the population point of view, every ………………. person in the world, is an Indian.
- Meter2 (m2)
3. Match the Following :
III. Answer in One Word/Sentence:
- Write two such causes by which unchecked growth takes place. (SSCE 1992)
- Write the full name of IUCD. (SSCE 1992!)
- What we called the study of human population?
- What type of chemical contraceptive is found in Mala-D and N?
- Early marriage, illiteracy
- Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Devices
- Oestrogen and Progesteron hormone.
Reproductive Health Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is the other name of family planning?
The other name of family planning is “Parivar Kalyan”.
Where is Central Drug Research Institute located ?
Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) is located in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
Write one benefit of condom.
Condom provided protection from Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
What is the name of contraceptive pills which is taken only in once in a week ?
Write the full form of IUCD.
Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device.
Write the full form of STDs.
Sexually Transmitted Disease.
What is the legal age for marriage of male and female in India ?
For male 21 Year and for female 18 years.
Write the name of two STDs which are spread through infected blood.
Write the name of two disease which are caused by sexual contact
Write the full form of HIV and AIDS.
HIV : Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
AIDS : Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.
Write the full form of ZIFT.
Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer.
What is the process for surgical sterilization in males called ?
Reproductive Health Short Answer Type Questions
What is test-tube baby ?
In some cases, a woman is unable to have a normal fertilization to bear the child. In such cases, test-tube technique may be successful. In this technique, the unfertilized eggs of such woman is isolated in aseptic condition and fertilized it in test-tube by the sperms of her husband. The fertilized egg or blastocyst can be maintained in vitro till it gets 32 celled stage. It can be implanted in the uterus of the female. The female remains under the supervision of doctor till completion of gestation period of 280 days. The baby produced in such a way is called a test-tube baby.
What is GIFT ? Explain in brief.
GIFT (Gametes Intra Fallopian Transfer): It is a latest technique to produce a child. In this technique, the gametes are kept separately in a catheter and injected directly into the fallopian tube of the woman using laproscopy. Thus, in this case, fertilization occurs inside the body of woman. Prior to injection of gametes, the mother would be given hormones for about a week to stimulate follicle formation. This causes development of several eggs i.e,, super ovulation. The first GIFT in India was done in Mumbai and twins were born in August, 1990.
Explain the following:
- Tubectomy : The surgical removal of a segment of oviduct and then ligating the cut end is called tubectomy. It is applied in females to check the pregnancy.
- Vasectomy : Surgical cutting and ligating ends of segments of vas deferens is called vasectomy.
What is amniocentesis ? Write its ill effects and two advantages.
Amniocentesis : It is prenatal diagnostic technique in which amniotic fluid of uterus is isolated by a surgical needle and foetus cells are cultured on a culture medium and chromosomes are examined. This technique is used to understand the following things or Advantages :
- Chromosomal abnormalities like that of Down’s syndrome, Philadelphia syndrome and Edward’s syndrome.
- Metabolic disorders like that of PKV, Cretinism, Alkaptonuria, etc.
- Sex of the embryo can be examined by this technique.
- Effects of amniocentesis: Due to this type of test, the female embryos are being eradicated. This leads into the
- decrease in number of females which may cause a serious problem.
Explain the social causes of human population growth.
Social causes of human population growth rate are:
- Illiteracy in society.
- Low level of society.
- Various orthodox tradition like son leads to progeny.
- Social barriers.
- Early child marriage presuming that after mid-age marriage reproductive capacity degenerates.
- Social backwardness.
- Social set-up that “Putra Ratan se Moksh milta hai”.