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MP Board Class 10th General English Grammar Non-finite Forms of Verbs

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Infinitives, gerunds, and participles are known as non-finite forms of verbs.

(i) Infinitive

Verb के first form में to लगाने से infinitive बनता है। इसका प्रयोग Noun Adjective या Adverb के समान होता है।

जैसे-

  1. To obey the rules is our duty.
    (Noun subject of is)
  2. Will you like to go with me?
    (Noun object of like)
  3. This is not the matter to laugh at.
    (Adjective qualifies matter)
  4. They are ready to live with me.
    (Adverb modifies ready)
  5. He wept to see my adverse state.
    (Adverb modifies wept)

(ii) Gerund

Gerund Verb के first form में ing जोड़ने से बनता है इसका प्रयोग verb और Noun के सामान होता है।

जैसे-
I like walking
Telling lie is a sin.
Smoking is a bad habit.
She is fond of singing songs.

Note- that some verbs are followed only by gerunds and some by only infinitives.

Verbs followed only by gerunds are-
avoid, mind, afraid of, postpone, consider, enjoy, keep on, put off, delay, finish, insist on, dislike, give up, stop, appreciate, approve of, suggest.

Verbs followed only by infinitives are :
agree, arrange, attempt, decide, demand, desire, deserve, expect, fail, hope, learn, manage, offer, prepare, promise, refuse, seem, try, wish.

(iii) Participle

A participle is that form of the verb which partakes of the nature of both, a verb and an adjective.
Participle क्रिया का वह रूप है जो verb तथा adjective दोनें का कार्यकर्त है Participle तीन प्रकार के होता है :

1. Present Participle-Present Participle भी Gerund की तरह Verb में ing मगनेसे बनता है परन्तु यह Verb और Site Adjective का कार्य करता है जैसे-
Seeing me, he went away.

2. Past Participle यह Verb का III form हि होता है जैसे-
1. The rotten eggs were thrown away.
2. This is a faded flower.

3. Perfect Participle- इसमें having के साथ III form of verb का प्रयोग होता है
Having sold his old car, Ram bought a new one.

Exercise 1.

Fill in the blanks with an infinitive, gerund or a participle :
1. He went to England …………………… English. (to learn/for learning)
2. She likes …………………… idle. (sitting/to sit)
3. …………………… their work, they left the place. (Finishing/Having finished)
4. …………………… is his favorite past time. (Dancing/Dance)
5. …………………… pity of the parrot, the man freed it. (Taking/Took/To take)
Answer:
1. to learn,
2. sitting,
3. Having finished,
4. Dancing,
5. Taking.

Exercise 2

Underline the participles in the following sentences :
1. A burnt child dreads the fire.
2. Deceived by his father, he lost all hope.
3. Having rested, they continued their journey.
4. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded entrance.
5. He kept me waiting.
Answer:
1. burnt,
2. Deceived,
3. Having rested,
4. knocking,
5. waiting.

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