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MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Chapter 8 What is Culture? (Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru)

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What is Culture Textbook Exercises

What is Culture Vocabulary

I. Why are the words in bold types in the following examples more suitable in the context than those in brackets?
Yet, when I look through (in, at, round) the pages of history or study current (new, modern, contemporary) events, I sometimes find that people who know one another most, quarrel (war, fight, discuss) most. Countries, which are next door to one another in Europe or in Asia, somehow seem to rub on another up the wrong (incorrect, unsuitable, faulty) way, though they know one another very thoroughly, (completely, fully, meticulously).
Answer:
Words have their specific meanings. No word can replace the other word to express its exact and delicate meaning. Synonyms are not exact substitutes for a word. They only convey similar meanings. Keeping these points in view we can say that the words in bold type are more suitable in the context than those in brackets.

II. Use the following expressions in your own sentences, a great deal of, goes on, the last word, on the other hand, trial and error, in spite o(, to deal with, after all, having an open mind, anyhow.
Answer:
A great deal of—She took a great deal of pains to rear to her son.
Goes on—Nobody knows how the time goes on.
The last word—The sayings of some saints can be accepted as the last word.
On the other hand—She is generous. On the other hand, her husband is miserly.
Trial and error—He used the approach of trial and error and solved the sums at last.
In spite of—In spite of his old days, my grandfather works in the fields.
To deal with—A police officer has to deal with criminals.
After all—You should not disobey the old man. After all, he is your grandfather.
Having an open mind—Having an open mind she took the dusty infant in her lap.
Anyhow—The beggar has eaten nothing for a week.’Anyhow, he is alive.

III. When we speak ‘Great, we produce four sounds../g/ /r/ lei/ lit. Now try yourself for the words given below. If necessary, you can consult a dictionary.
mind, even, party, group, found, agree, sense, follow, knocks.
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 8 What is Culture 1

What is Culture Comprehension

A. Answer the following questions in about 25 words.

Question 1.
What does Nehru find when he looks through the pages of history or current studies? (M.P. Board 2011)
Answer:
Nehru quite often looks (goes) through the pages of history or current studies. He sometimes finds that people who know one another most, quarrel most. Even adjoining countries quarrel with one another over trifles.

Question 2.
Why does the author say that knowledge by itself doesn’t lead to greater co-operation or friendship?
Answer:
The author has read or seen adjoining countries rubbing one another illegality. They have thorough understanding of one another. Still they always try to suppress one another. Therefore, he says that knowledge by itself doesn’t lead to greater co-operation or friendship.

Question 3
What makes the author think that the idea of cultural relations is only good in theory?
Answer:
Every country and every individual seem to have their peculiar idea of culture. Those peculiar ideas come into conflict and lead to estrangement. Therefore, the idea of cultural relations is only good in theory, not in practice.

Question 4.
Is there any culture in the world which is absolutely pristine, pure and, unaffected by any other culture? Give reasons.
Answer:
Unmistakable changes and mixtures have occurred in cultures of every country in the course of centuries or millenniums. Therefore, there is no culture which is absolutely pristine, pure and unaffected by any other culture.

Question 5.
How far assimilating the good from other cultures is helpful in enriching one’s own culture?
Answer:
No culture is perfect in itself. Every culture has certain good qualities. Assimilating the good qualities from other cultures will prove very helpful. They will add to the stock of our good qualities. Hence they would enrich our own culture.

Question 6.
What are the things that affected the culture of India in the old days? (M.P. Board 2016)
Answer:
Culture is usually affected by geography, climate and soil. The Himalayas, the forests, the great rivers of India and a host of other things affected the culture of India in the old days. It was also affected by architecture, music and literature.

Question 7.
How does civilization influence culture?
Answer:
Each separate civilization develops its own culture which has its roots in past generations. The impulse that initially starts a civilization is affected by various conceptions. Their action and interaction moulds the culture.

Question 8.
What kind of attitude should a cultured mind develop?
Answer:
A cultured mind is rooted in itself. It should have its doors and windows open. It should be capable of understanding the other people’s viewpoint fully. The question of agreement or disagreement arises after he understands a thing.

Question 9.
When do cultural conflicts occur?
Answer:
Sometimes nationalism goes on spreading in an aggressive way. Then it becomes a danger internationally. Sometimes it breeds conflicts and hatred. The good culture turns into evil culture then.

Question 10.
What are the various domains of culture?
Answer:
There are various domains of culture. Architecture, music and literature are its prominent domains. The happy combination of any two of them amounts to culture.

Question 11.
When does a society become static?
Answer:
Social life is essentially a dynamic, changing and growing thing. If the mind of the society is shut up deliberately or isolated to the influence of others the society becomes static. Then the mind becomes opposed to all ideas of alien cultures or the outside world.

Question 12.
According to Nehru, when is it folly to talk about culture or God? Why?
Answer:
India is full of ahost of problems. Bribery, adultery, adulteration, unemployment, terrorism and exploitation are the major problems. According to Nehru, it is a folly to talk about culture or God so long as human beings starve and die. He refers to the poverty of the Indian masses who fail to get two square meals a day.

B. Answer the following questions in about 50 words.

Question 1.
The evaluation of culture depends on a vast number of factors. Describe a few of them.
Answer:
The following are a few factors on which the evaluation of culture depends:

  1. Whether means of transportation and communication among the societies are quick or not?
  2. Whether it emphasises nationalism or inter-nationalism?
  3. Whether it enshrines power of assimilation or not?
  4. Whether a fundamental cultural unity underlies its diversities or not?
  5. Whether it is organically whole or not?
  6. Whether it is tolerant and observing or not?
  7. Whether it is democratic and assimilating or not?
  8. Whether there is spirit of brotherhood amongst the people or not?
  9. Whether it is integrated or not?
  10. Whether the people meet their basic requirements of food, clothing and shelter or not?

Question 2.
How does the author compare the growth of culture with the growth of a tree? (M.P. Board 2012, 17)
Answer:
According to Nehru, the individual human being, or race or nation must have a certain depth and certain roots somewhere. They have worth because of their roots in the past. It comprises of experience and wisdom. An individual or a group is useless without them. However, one cannot live in roots alone. The roots need the sun and the free air. Then alone can the roots give us sustenance. No branching out or flowering (blossom) is possible without their combination. Only a stout root can sustain leaves, flowers and branches. In the same manner, past experience and wisdom sustain culture.

Question 3.
What is the scientific approach to life’s problems, according to the author?
Answer:
Nehru points out the scientific approach to life’s problems. Scientific approach is the approach of examining everything. It aims at seeking truth by trial and error and by experiment. In scientific approach one never says that this must be so. Rather one should try to understand why it is so. One should accept it only on being convinced of it. One must have the capacity to change one’s views whenever one finds other proof. A man of scientific approach has an open mind to assimilate truth. It can solve all the global problems.

Question 4.
What does culture mean, according to the author? Describe briefly.
Answer:
Pt. Nehru tries to probe into the real meaning of culture. He fails to define the word Culture’ appropriately. Each nation and each civilization develops its own culture. However, we cannot find a pure and unaffected culture. The culture of a country is influenced by its geography, climate and soil. People of every country are proud of their own culture and consider it the best. Culture means inner growth in a man which governs his conduct. A cultured fellow understands others and enables others to understand him.

Question 5.
Summarise the views expressed by the author on Nationalism. (M.P. Board 2012)
Answer:
According to Pt. Nehru, nationalism is a curious phenomenon. Sometimes, it gives life, growth, strength and unity to the country’s history. It restricts a human being’s thinking to the welfare of his own nation. He excludes the thoughts of all others. The concept of growth fades in his mind. When nationalism becomes aggressive, it becomes dangerous for internationalism. It turns the noble culture into a revengeful and hateful culture. It also breeds conflict. National culture should be balanced so that normal essentials of life are provided to all the human beings. One should rise above narrow nationalism and adopt cosmopolitanism as his way of life.

Question 6.
‘Culture is evolved or inherited, not made or acquired.’ Examine this statement in the light of the ideas expressed by Nehru.
Answer:
According to Nehru, culture is evolved and inherited. Each nation and each civilization develops its own culture from past experience or wisdom. It has its roots in generations of hundreds and thousands of years ago. The nations were moulded by such impulse that initially starts a civilization. Other conceptions are
affected by other factors and there is action and interaction between them. Culture in the true sense is not made or acquired overnight. It is not a manufacturing item. Culture shows values of a nation through the ages.

What is Culture Grammar

Subject Verb Agreement
Study the following sentences:

  1. Nations, individuals and groups talk of understanding one another.
  2. Thus, knowledge, by itself, does not lead to greater cooperation or friendship.
  3. There was a big war to spread this ‘Kultur’ and to resist it.
  4. Every country and every individual seem to have their peculiar idea of culture.
  5. What exactly is the culture that people talk so much about?
  6. In the course of hundreds and thousands of years unmistakable changes and mixtures have occurred.
  7. The culture of India in the old days was effected greatly.
  8. I sometimes find that people who know one another most quarrel most.
    In the above sentences we see A Finite verb agrees with its subject in number and person.

Study the following chart:

S.No. Subject Verb Number Person
1. Nations talk Plural Third
2. Knowledge does lead Singular
3. (A big) war was Singular
4. Every country seem Plural
and every individual
5. (a) Culture is Singular
(b) People talk Plural
6. Changes and have Plural
mixture occurred
7. Culture was Singular
8. (a) I (a) find Singular First
(b) People (b) quarrel Plural Third
(c) Who (c) know Plural Third

In each of the following sentences mark the correct form of the verb:

Question 1.
There (is/are) a great deal of confusion in my mind.
Answer:
There is a great deal of confusion in my mind.

Question 2.
All kinds of basic questions (crop/crops) up from what (is/ are) going on.
Answer:
All kinds of basic questions crop up from what is going on.

Question 3.
Even the long pages of history (show/shows) that…
Answer:
Even the long pages of’history show that…

Question 4.
(Has/Have) there been something wrong in individual nations?
Answer:
Has there been something wrong in individual nations

Question 5.
When we (talk/talks) of cultural relations, the question that immediately (arise/arises) in my mind (is/are) what exactly (is/are) the culture that people (talk/talks) so much about?
Answer:
When we talk of cultural relations, the question that immediately arises in my mind is what exactly is the culture that people talk so much about.

Question 6.
I (am/are/is) certainly not competent to give you definition of it because I (have/has) not found one.
Answer:
I am certainly not competent to give you definition of it because I have not found one.

Question 7.
One (see/sees) these nations being intimately moulded by the impulse that initially (start/starts) a civilization going on its long path.
Answer:
One sees these nations being intimately moulded by the impulse that initially starts a civilization going on its long path.

Question 8.
One (see/sees) action and interaction between these varying conceptions.
Answer:
One sees action and interaction between these varying conceptions.

Question 9.
If that kind of thing (go/goes) on peacefully, there (is/are) no harm in it.
Answer:
If that kind of thing goes on peacefully, there is no harm in it.

Question 10.
Then they (draw/draws) themselves into a shell which (isolate/isolates) them and (prevent/prevents) their thoughts and ideas going out.
Answer:
Then they draw themselves into a shell which isolates them and prevents their thoughts and ideas going out.

Question 11.
Almost every country in the world (believe/believes) that it (has/have) some special dispensation from providence that it (is/ are) of the chosen people or race and that others, whether they (is/ are) good or bad, (is/are) somewhat inferior creatures.
Answer:
Almost every country in the world believes that it has some special dispensation from providence that it is of the chosen people or race and that others, whether they are good or bad, are somewhat inferior creatures.

Speaking Skill

Ask your parents how to prepare Rangoli. Collect information about its steps, material required, various patterns and themes. Then discuss your findings in the class. .
Answer:
For self-attempt.

Writing Skill

Question 1.
‘Culture means inner growth in man.’ Comment. (50 words)
Answer:
Culture means inner growth in man. Inner growth stands for noble qualities. A sincere, courteous, courageous, obedient, obliging, useful, utilitarian and truthful person alone has the claim to be called a man with inner growth. Such a man becomes disciplined, generous, helpful and self-sacrificing. Greed and passion do not touch him. He controls anger with his balanced mind. He becomes morally and spiritually sound. Such a man is free from fear.

Question 2.
With the help of the answers of the following questions write a composition on ‘Indian culture’.
1. How can you say that India has a rich cultural heritage?
2. How do the customs make India’s culture unique?
3. What are the different languages spoken in different parts of India?
4. What are the factors that strengthen unity of the country?
Answer:
The old and traditional values are honoured in India. The oldest man in the family manages the household. Marriages are arranged by parents. Women are respected like goddesses. This means India has a rich cultural heritage. Sixteen rites are observed in Indian society. Clothes and money are given to the elderly people. They can spend it at will. Elderly parents are honoured like godly guests. It speaks high of India’s unique culture. There are about twenty languages and five hundred dialects spoken in different parts of India. For example, Hindi, Punjabi, Kannada, Telugu, Oria, etc. (languages); Bhojpuri, Maithili (dialects). Fairs, festivals, rivers and hill stations, vegetarian diet, and nobility of character and the Indian constitution strengthen the unity of the country.

Think It Over

Question 1.
Indian culture is like a rainbow with different colours and several hues with in every colour. Still, it unites people. What are the uniting forces of the culture? Think and name a few.
Answer:
The Indian culture is a fusion of different cultural trends and strands. It is like a rainbow with different colours and several hues within every colour. There are many religions, sects and beliefs here. There are many odds and diversities here. There are many castes, subcastes and communities. There are thousands of languages and dialects and hundreds of regions. There are a number of political, economic, social and scientific systems here. They are opposed to one another. However, the people remain united. A common constitutional stream runs through these diversities. Indian culture is a synthetic culture. A sense of fraternity urges all to remain united. Equal regard is shown to all religions and faiths.

Question 2.
Does every culture have some uniting forces? Give your opinion.
Answer:
All the cultures believe in a single God. Every culture believes in the existence and purity of soul. Every culture is nationalist in its attitude and approach. The people are devoted to their country. Blessing of God is the most uniting force. Equal opportunity for all and no distinction on the basis of caste, creed or colour are adhered to. Being the sons of Mother India, all are like brothers. Love for humanity above community ties the people with the bond of friendship and brotherhood.

Question 3.
Anything that grows within man and the society out of experiences and wisdom of generations is culture. Think and quote one example.
Answer:
Experience is a great teacher. It grants us wisdom. Man gains not only by his own experiences but by the experiences of others in society too. He derives benefit even from the experiences of past generations. Certain values grow in his mind which he was badly lacking. No man is perfectly wise. Spiritual and moral values are not everything. Experience is also important. It tells us that we need advanced technology also besides our spiritual values.’We should be strong and courageous physically. The German people spread their culture, not through preaching but through victory.

Things To Do

Question 1.
Write a short report on a tribal culture of your choice. Describe some special features of it. Arrange your report in the following format:

  1. name and geography of the place.
  2. name of the cultural group and its culture.
  3. kind of traditional houses they live in.
  4. kind of dress they wear.
  5. kind of food they eat (specific dishes).
  6. festivals and rituals.
  7. folksongs and dances.
  8. economic system (if distinct).

Answer:
For self-attempt.

What is Culture Additional Important Questions

A. Read the passages and answer the questions that follow.

Question 1.
I remember reading about German ‘kultur’ and of the attempts of the German people to spread it by conquest and other means. There was’xi big war to spread this ‘kultur’ and to resist it. Every country and every individual seem to have their peculiar idea of culture. When there is a talk about cultural relations—although it is very good in theory— what actually happens is that those peculiar ideas come into conflict and instead of leading to friendship they lead to more estrangement. It is a basic question—What is culture? And I am certainly not competent to give you a definition of it because I have not found one. (Page 65) Questions:
(a) Find the word from the above passage that is similar in meaning to ‘victory’.
(b) Find the word from the above passage that is opposite in meaning to ‘common’.
(c) Give adjective form of ‘friendship’.
(d) How did the Gerjnan people spread their ‘kultur’.
Answers:
(a) conquest
(b) peculiar
(c) friendly
(d) The German people spread their ‘kultur’ by conquest and other means.

Question 2.
We have had great religions and they have had enormous effection humanity. Yet, if I may say so with all respect and without meaning any ill to any person, those very religions, in the measure that they made the mind of man static, dogmatic and bigoted, have had, to my mind, an evil effect. The things they said may be good but when it is claimed that the last word has been said, society becomes static. (Page 66)
Questions:
(a) Find the word from the above passage which means the same as ‘huge’.
(b) Find the word from the above passage which means opposite to ‘wilderness’.
(c) Give adjective form of ‘religion’”.
(d) What have the great religions done?
Answers:
(a) enormous
(b) humanity
(c) religious
(d) The great religions have shown enormous effect on humanity.

I. Match the following:

1. Nehru’s mind is full of (a) German ‘kultur’
2. People who know one another most (b) Some inner growth in the man
3. The Germans attempted to spread (c) Confusion
4. Even roots wither (d) Quarrel most
5. Culture means (e) Unless they come out in the sun and the free air.
Answer:
1. (c), 2. (d), 3. (a), 4. (e), 5. (b)

II. Pick up the correct choice.
(i) ‘What is Culture’ is written by:
(a) Sardar Patel A
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Vinoba Bhave.
Ans.
(c) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

(ii) A. …………… (Wisdom/Knowledge) by itself does not lead to greater co-operation or friendship.
B. Culture, if it has any value must have a certain ……………… (height/depth).
C. Culture means the ……………….. (capability/capacity) to make yourself understand by the other persons.
D. The cultural mind, rooted in itself, should have its door and windows …………….. (open/close).
Ans.
A. Knowledge
B. depth
C. capacity
D. open.

III. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’.
1. According to Pt. Nehru, it is difficult to define the word ’culture1.
2. Culture means outer growth in a man.
3. A cultured man should understand others and make himself understood.
4. It is folly to talk of culture or even of ’God when human beings starve and die.
5. Geography, climate and soil usually affect culture.
Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. True
  4. True
  5. True.

IV. Fill in the following blanks.
1. What exactly is culture that people ………….. so much about?
2. The …………….. element of a particular national culture remains dominant.
3. Life, whether of the …………. group, nation or Society, is essentially a dynamic, changing, growing thing.
4. The ……………… of agreement or disagreement only arises when you understand a thing.
5. A friendly ……………… brings a friendly response.
Answer:

  1. talk
  2. basic
  3. individual
  4. question
  5. approach.

B. Short Answer Type Questions (In about 25 words)

Question 1.
What is the speciality of Indian culture?
Answer:
Indian culture is one of the most ancient cultures of the world. It is both flexible and dynamic. It has great power of assimilation. Therefore, it has survived in spite of many foreign invasions. It represents a fusion of different cultural trends.

Question 2.
Name some diversities in Indian Society.
Answer:
Indian society is heterogeneous. There are remarkable diversities here. The people speak a great number of languages and dialects. There are many sects and religions. The teeming millions of India observe different customs and rites. They profess several faiths and cults.

Question 3.
What has made the Indian culture great?
Answer:
Indian culture is fundamentally tolerant and absorbing. Its assimilating and democratic nature has kept it alive and also made it great. People follow different styles of living but they have a spirit of common brotherhood among themselves.

Question 4.
What is endangering India’s age old integrity?
Answer:
Many parochial and fissiparous forces have surfaced in our country. They are unhinging our political and cultural unity. Certain vested foreign powers are also instigating them. They are endangering our age-old integrity.

Question 5.
Why should we fight the bigots and fanatics?
Answer:
Bigots and fanatics are international elements. They are misguiding our people. They are hell bent to create communal hatred, violence and intolerance in our integrated country. They also encourage separatist tendencies among the peace-loving people. We should fight them collectively.

Question 6.
How do some political parties endanger harmony in India?
Answer:
The followers of different faiths and cults live in harmony in India. But some political parties sometimes endanger this harmony for their selfish ends. They fight elections on the basis of castes, communities and religions. They poison the people’s hearts, divide them and thus endanger national harmony.

Question 7.
How can our government preserve national harmony and integrity?
Answer:
The government should tackle the problem of unemployment at war level. It should provide equal development opportunities to all cadres and sections of society. It should crush parochial forces with an iron hand. In this way, our national harmony and integrity can be preserved and strengthened.

Question 8.
How can we say that Indian culture is human culture?
Answer:
The Indian culture is a cosmopolitan culture. It is universal and eternal. It is ingrained in human aspirations and emotions. It has assimilated in itself the best of all the cultures. It has a charm for all those who love humanity.

C. Long Answer Type Questions (In about 50 words)

Question 1.
Give the salient features of Indian culture.
Answer:
Indian culture respects others’ opinions and views. Our culture is philosophical, not religious. It doesn’t generate fanaticism. It covers a wide range of philosophical concepts. Tolerance is the inherent quality of Indian culture. It is non-aggressive and unsuspecting in nature. The spirituality of Indian culture lies in its being introspective. A moral and spiritual synthesis between the self and the universe is visible in it. Synthesis of foreign cultures for its own growth is the keynote of Indian culture.

Question 2.
Write a brief note on National Integration in India.
Answer:
India is a country with many ethnic groups. There are many languages, religions, sects and beliefs here. There are many diversities and odds here. In spite of great variations, a common stream runs through these diversities. The dynamism and flexibility of Indian culture has enabled it to survive. Our culture is synthetic and cosmopolitan. Our constitution promotes harmony and preserves the spirit of common brotherhood amongst the people all over India. Our culture lays emphasis on spiritualism. The broad outlook of leaders on moral and spiritual values unites the people. The people resolve their differences by peaceful me Awareness of common nationality keeps the nation integrated.

What is Culture Introduction

Pt. Nehru tries to make us aware of the real meaning of culture. He says that the culture of a country is influenced by its geography and climate. The true meaning of culture, according to Pt. Nehru, is related to the inner growth of a man. He must have the ability to understand others and being understood by others as well.
He who lacks these qualities lacks knowledge and wisdom. His mind and culture is narrow.

What is Culture Summary in English

Pt. Nehru’s mind is full of confusion. Nations, individuals and groups often talk of understanding to one another and learning from one another. He finds that people who know one another most, quarrel most. It means, knowledge, by itself does not lead to greater cooperation or friendship. He fails to understand what culture exactly is. The German people spread their ‘Kultur’ through conquests and other means. Every country or individual has a peculiar idea of culture which causes conflict and estrangement.

According to Nehru, each nation and each separate civilization develops its own culture. There is no unique worldly culture which is absolutely pristine, pure and unadulterated. Unmistakable changes and mixtures have been occurring in culture over the ages. In spite of little adulteration, the basic element of a particular national culture remains dominant. It often leads to misunderstanding and conflicts and isolates them. It also causes stagnation. Besides being deep, culture must have a certain dynamic character.

Culture is most often affected by geography, climate and location (natural factors) and soil. Closing the mind to the outside world makes it static. If the growth is stopped,life gets injured and undermined. Some great religions have caused evil effects by making the mind of man static, dogmatic and bigoted. They claim to have said the final word. Individuals, races or nations must have certain depth and certain roots in the past. However one cannot live in roots alone. There should be a healthy balance between roots and branches.

Culture means some inner growth in the man. It also means one’s conduct towards others, ability to understand others and being understood by others. He who lacks these qualities lacks knowledge and wisdom. His mind and culture is narrow. He who shuts his mind towards other’s genuine knowledge (wisdom) and truth can be called uncultured. A cultured fellow is broad-minded. Blind negation of others’ viewpoints without thoroughly understanding them is an uncultured approach.

A scientific mind examines everything before accepting or rejecting it. He tries to imbibe the truth wherever it is found. If we represent scientific culture, most of the internal and global problems would find easy solution. Every country thinks the alien people and races as inferior creatures. The nations of the East are strongly enghrlfed in their own ideas, conviction and superiority complexes. They have got jolts and have been exploited. It brought a sense of realism to them. Though they were not advanced in material and technical things they were proud of their spiritual values. Pt. Nehru pities their lot.

Nationalism only gives limited life, growth, strength and unity since it isolates the people of a’country from the rest of the world. Aggressive nationalism causes international danger. It makes the culture static which causes conflicts. It is a folly to talk of culture or even of God when human beings starve and die. Such problems can be tackled in economic and other ways. If we do not understand one another, we would limit ourselves completely.

We should develop a friendly approach in understanding others with our minds and hearts open. If approach is good, response is surely good and vice versa. We should always be prepared to accept what is good in aliens or with them. It helps us in enriching our own culture. Civilization influences culture the most. Culture is evolved or inherited, not made or acquired. Culture means betterment of human species through purity of mind.

What is Culture Summary in Hindi

पं. नेहरू का मस्तिष्क संदिग्धता से भरा हुआ है। राष्ट्र, व्यक्ति तथा समूह, एक-दूसरे को समझने तथा एक-दूसरे से सीखने के बारे में प्रायः बातें करते रहते हैं। उन्हें पता है कि जो व्यक्ति एक-दूसरे को अधिकतम जानते हैं, वे अधिकतम झगड़ते हैं। इसका अर्थ है कि ज्ञान स्वयं महानता, सहकारिता या मित्रता की ओर अग्रसर नहीं करता है। वह यह समझने में असमर्थ है कि संस्कृति, यथार्थ में क्या है। जर्मनी के लोग विजयों तथा अन्य साधनों के माध्यम से अपने ‘Kultur’ को फैलाते थे। प्रत्येक देश या व्यक्ति का संस्कृति के बारे में अपना विशिष्ट विचार होता है जो टकराव और विच्छिन्नता का कारण बनती है।

नेहरू के अनुसार प्रत्येक राष्ट्र तथा प्रत्येक पृथक सभ्यता अपनी निजी संस्कृति को विकसित करती है। विश्व में कोई इस प्रकार की संस्कृति नहीं है जो समूचे तौर पर स्वच्छ/मौलिक, शुद्ध और अमिश्रित हो। समयांतरों में संस्कृति में सही परिवर्तन और मिश्रण हुए हैं। हल्की-सी मिलावट होने के बावजूद भी किसी विशिष्ट राष्ट्रीय संस्कृति में उसके बुनियादी तत्त्व हावी रहे हैं। यह प्रायः गलतफहमी और झगड़ों को जन्म देते हैं और उन्हें अलग कर देते हैं। ये प्रवाहहीनता को भी जन्म देते हैं। गहरा होने के साथ-साथ संस्कृति में निश्चित प्रवाही होने (गतिशीलता) का गुण होना चाहिए। संस्कृति, अधिकांश भूगोल, जलवायु तथा स्थिति (प्राकृतिक कारणों) और भूमि से प्रभावित होती है। बाहरी संसार से मस्तिष्क को परे हटाने से वह गतिहीन हो जाएगा। यदि बढ़ोतरी रुक गई, तो जीवन आहत और अवमानित होगा। कुछ महान धर्मों ने मनुष्य के मन (दिमाग) को गतिहीन, मतांध और हठधर्मी बनाकर दुष्प्रभाव डाले हैं। उनका दावा है कि उनका वचन अकाट्य है, व्यक्तियों, नस्लों और राष्ट्रों की कुछ गहराई होनी चाहिए और भूतकाल में जड़ें होनी चाहिएं। फिर भी, केवल जड़ों के आधार पर मनुष्य जीवित नहीं रह सकता है। जड़ों और शाखाओं के बीच स्वस्थ संतुलन होना चाहिए।

संस्कृति से अभिप्राय है, मानव की अन्दरूनी बढ़ोतरी। इसके दूसरे अर्थ हैं दूसरों के प्रति मनुष्य का आचरण, दूसरों को समझने की योग्यता तो दूसरों द्वारा समझे जाने की क्षमता। जिसमें इन गुणों का अभाव होता है उसमें ज्ञान और सूझ-बूझ का अभाव होता है। उसका मस्तिष्क तथा उसकी संस्कृति संकीर्ण होती है। वह मनुष्य संस्कृतिहीन कहलाने का अधिकारी है जो इस मौलिक ज्ञान (सूझ-बूझ) और सच्चाई से अपने मस्तिष्क को परे (विमुख) रखता है, सुसंस्कृत व्यक्ति विस्तीर्ण दिमाग वाला होता है। बिना पूर्ण समझ के दूसरों के दृष्टिकोणों को नकारना, संस्कृतिहीन विधि

वैज्ञानिक मस्तिष्क वाला व्यक्ति किसी बात को स्वीकार या अस्वीकार करने से पूर्व उसे परखता है। जहाँ कहीं सच्चाई मिलती है वह उसे ग्रहण करने का प्रयत्न करता है। यदि हम वैज्ञानिक संस्कृति का प्रतिनिधित्व करना प्रारम्भ कर दें तो बहुत-सी आन्तरिक तथा सार्वभौमिक समस्याओं का सरल समाधान ढूँढ़ पाएंगे। प्रत्येक व्यक्ति विदेशी लोगों और जातियों को घटिया प्राणी समझता है। पूर्वी देश अपने निजी विचारों, अवधारणाओं और उच्च भावनाओं में धंसे रहते हैं। उन्हें झटके लगे हैं और उनका शोषण हुआ है। इससे उनमें यथार्थ की भावना जाग्रत हुई है। हालांकि उन्होंने भौतिक और तकनीकी क्षेत्रों में प्रगति नहीं की फिर भी वे अपने आध्यात्मिक मूल्यों पर गर्व करते रहे। पण्डित नेहरू उनके भाग्य पर तरस खाते हैं।

राष्ट्रीयता से केवल सीमित जीवन, विकास, शक्ति और एकता मिलती है क्योंकि यह एक देश के निवासियों को शेष संसार से विलग कर देती है। आक्रामक राष्ट्रीयता, अन्तर्राष्ट्रीयता को खतरा पैदा करते हैं। यह संस्कृति को प्रवाहहीन (गतिहीन) बनाती

What is Culture Word-Meanings

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 8 What is Culture 2
MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 8 What is Culture 3

Some Important Pronunciations

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 8 What is Culture 4

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